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Virtual%20Reality%20and%20the%20Clash%20Consciousness

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Title: Virtual%20Reality%20and%20the%20Clash%20Consciousness


1
Virtual Reality and the Clash Consciousness
Jim Blascovich UCSB
2

Andy Beall
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Jack Loomis

1995
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Reaction
  • Surprisingly to me, while in this immersive
    virtual environment, I found reasoned suppression
    of my (intrusively accessible) fear response
    difficult if not impossible.
  • Perhaps this was a rivalry or fame in the brain
    competition between processes stemming from my
    being simultaneously in a physical world and a
    virtual world.

7
Another Reaction
  • Imagine what I could do with this technology as a
    social psychologist.

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www.recveb.ucsb.edu
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VR Research Foci
  • Visual perception
  • Spatial cognition
  • Learning and training
  • Social interaction

10
VR Research Foci
  • Visual perception
  • Spatial cognition
  • Learning and training
  • Social interaction

Consciousness?
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Can VR help us experimentally study the interplay
among behavioral processes that are
  • Conscious
  • Unconscious
  • Metaconscious

?
12
Overview
  • Virtual Environments Nature, history,
    technology.
  • Research Context Challenge and Threat Motivation
  • Prototype Study

13
Virtual Environments Nature, History,
and Technology
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What is a virtual environment?
  • refers to the generation and organization of
    sensory information that can lead to perceptions
    of a so-called synthetic (artificial)
    environment as non-synthetic (natural)

15
  • The nature of virtual environments should not be
    confounded with any particular technology for
    generating and organizing the sensory
    information.
  • All such technologies interact with qualities of
    the person (e.g., the mind or piñata) to
    produce virtual experiences.

16
  • Historically, humans have developed technologies
    to aid the mind in doing so for a long, long
    time.

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The differences among these technologies are
  • Perhaps more quantitative than qualitative.
  • Obviated in the power they have to immerse
    individuals within virtual environments (i.e.,
    how fast immersion can happen).

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  • However, humans are neurobiologically capable of
    creating and inhabiting virtual environments,
    even quite immersive ones, without any
    extra-corporeal technology at all.

27
Dreams
28
Daydreams
29
What are virtual environments?
A state of mind.
30
Where are virtual environments?
An interesting proposition about virtual reality
is that all perceived reality may really be
virtual.
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  • Perhaps there is a sort of psychological
    environmental relativity.
  • Grounded environments form the base comparison
    for all others.

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Immersive Virtual Environment Technology
HMD-based
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As a bonus virtual environment tracking
technology facilitates
  • Behavioral measures
  • Spatial
  • Temporal
  • Spatial-termporal

35
Proximity and fatality/hostility of gun shots.
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Research Context Challenge and Threat Motivation
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Key Motivational States
  • Challenge--when resources roughly equal or
    outweigh demands
  • indexed by Dienstbiers (1989) cardiovascular
    pattern of physiological toughness
  • Threat--when demands outweigh resources.
  • indexed by Dienstbiers (1989) pattern of
    physiological weakness

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Cardiovascular Markers
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The Biopsychosocial Model of Challenge and Threat
(Blascovich et al., 1996 2000 in press)
42
Erving Goffman, 1963
  • Individuals are threatened by members of
    stigmatized groups.

43
Stigma-Threat Paradigm
  • Stigma Manipulations
  • Experimental
  • Quasi-Experimental
  • Real Interaction (Perceivers and Bearers)
  • Meet
  • Dyadic Performance Situation (cooperative task)
  • Outcome Measures
  • Subjective
  • Behavioral
  • Physiological

44
No Stigma
Stigma
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Cardiac Output (L/m)
Pre-ejection Period (sec-1)
Total Peripheral Resistance (Resistance Units)
Experiment 1- Word Finding Task Blascovich et al.
(2001)
46
Stigma
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Prototype Study
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  • What would happen if we experimentally crossed
    physical stigma with virtual stigma?

49
Stigma-Threat Paradigm
  • Stigma Manipulations
  • Physical Birthmark vs. No Birthmark
  • Real Interaction (Perceivers and Confederate
    Bearers)
  • Meet in an immersive virtual environment
  • Dyadic Performance Situation (cooperative task)
    Outcome Measures
  • Measures
  • Subjective
  • Behavioral
  • Physiological

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Predictions?
  • A. Main effect for physical stigma
  • B. Main effect for virtual stigma
  • C. Additive Main Effects?
  • D. Interaction
  • E. Uncertain

54
Preliminary Results
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Cardiovascular Markers of Challenge/Threat
Ventricular Contractility
Total Peripheral Resistance
Cardiac Output
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Moderators
  • Time
  • Gaze of participant
  • of time looking at the virtual face of the
    confederates avatar.

57
Eye Gaze and Cardiovascular Markers of
Challenge/Threat
Physical Birthmark
No Physical Birthmark
TPR r .189 CO r -.192 TPR r .679 CO r -.859
TPR r -.713 CO r .741 TPR r -.465 CO r .058
Virtual Birthmark
(become threatened)
(stay threatened)
No Virtual Birthmark
(become challenged)
(stay challenged)
58
Tentative Conclusions
  • The clash of consciousness appears to be a
    function of memory, time, and attention.
  • VR may provide a useful technology for its
    empirical investigation.
  • What next?

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Crossing Danger Physically and Virtually
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Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Realism
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
63
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Social Verification
Realism
(Social Presence)
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
64
Social Verification
  • Social verification - the extent to which
    participants in virtual groups experience
    interactions with virtual others in ways that
    verify that they are engaging in social
    interaction

65
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Social Verification
Realism
(Social Presence)
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
66
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Threshold of Social Influence
Realism
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
67
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Realism
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
68
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Threshold of Social Influence
Realism
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
69
Social Interaction
70
Real Virtual Humans
71
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Social Verification
Realism
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
72
Mass Media Effects
73
Persky Blascovich (under review)
Social Verification
.28
.44
Immersion
Aggression
.06
.31
74
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
High
Threshold of Social Influence
Realism
Low
Agent
Avatar
Human Agency
75
Model of Social Influence within Virtual
Environments
  • Self-Relevance

76
High Self-Relevance
77
Moderate Self-Relevance
78
Lower Self-Relevance
79
Thank you!
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