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Animal Feeding Operations AFO: Air Quality Issues

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Animal Feeding Operations (AFO): Air Quality Issues. Regional Science Workshop on ... Fallout likely for either inaction or heavy-handed control ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Feeding Operations AFO: Air Quality Issues


1
Animal Feeding Operations (AFO) Air Quality
Issues
  • Regional Science Workshop on Animal Feeding
    Operations
  • December 7, 2004

2
Landscape
  • Animals being concentrated
  • Public air quality complaints abundant
  • Lawsuits increasing against farms
  • CAA applicability confusing
  • Fallout likely for either inaction or
    heavy-handed control

3
Air Quality and Environmental Concerns
  • Pollutants
  • Criteria Pollutants (e.g., PM, VOC)
  • HAP Pollutants (e.g., H2S petition)
  • Other (e.g., NH3)
  • Health, Welfare, and Ecological
  • Combined AFO Emissions

4
Goals
  • Settle issues of CAA requirements
  • Source definition
  • Applicability cutoff (i.e., size cutoff)
  • Fugitive/non-fugitive
  • Emission estimation (e.g., emission factors,
    potential to emit)
  • Control technology effectiveness
  • Monitoring, reporting and recordkeeping
  • Find an Ag-appropriate approach to Title V and
    PSD/NSR

5
Goals (cont.)
  • Resolve ambient air quality issues affecting
    communities
  • Provide catalyst for best management practices
    (BMP) implementation
  • Maintain consistency with water rule

6
Principles
  • Maximize flexibility of solutions
  • Maximize USDA involvement as non-regulatory
    entity
  • Minimize farmers regulatory burden
  • Minimize farmers liability
  • Balance financial impact with air quality gains
  • Promote new technologies
  • Process-based modeling per NAS

7
Issues
  • Monitoring by farm not feasible
  • BMP vary across the country
  • Complaints usually based on nuisance, odor and
    illness
  • Ammonia is not a regulated pollutant
  • Pollutant mix is highly variable PM, NH3, H2S,
    gt200 VOC
  • Permitting may be burdensome for smaller farms
    and result in limited environmental benefits

8
Possible Approach?
  • How should we address AFO emissions?
  • Should we focus on a single pollutant or a group
    of pollutants?
  • Should we require nutrient management plans (NMP)
    with air quality planning component?
  • NMP already required under water rule
  • USDA could develop, States could review
  • Include BMP appropriate to individual farm
  • How can we require BMP implementation?
  • Based on USDA national technical standards
  • Utilize farm bill programs to help pay for
    installation of technologies as approved by USDA
  • Would promote new BMP and technologies as allowed
    by USDA
  • Would not require emission measurements at farms
    but work practices and confirmation of
    implementation of technology

9
(No Transcript)
10
Process-Based Simulation Models Should Replace
Emission Factors
  • Accounts for site-specific design and management
    practices as variables and reflects interactions
    between emission sources
  • Reflects to mass balance constraints
  • Scale specific (e.g., individual AFOs or
    regional/national scale)

Feed
Import/Export
Emissions
Crop
Export
Herd/Flock
Product
Emissions
Emissions
Manure
Soil
Import/Export
Fertilizer
Emissions
Emissions
11
Research Needs Are Significant
  • Health and environmental impacts
  • ...to understand which emissions are most harmful
  • Standard measurement protocols
  • ...so that research results can be directly
    compared
  • Process-based emission simulation models
  • ...to replace emission factors
  • Transport and fate of emissions
  • ...to better understand significance on local,
    regional, and national scales
  • Best management practices to reduce emissions
  • ...to understand the applicability, cost, and
    performance of emission control practices
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