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Comments at Wye River Meeting


Plan A: Rosetta Resources Saline Formation & Gas Reservoir CO2 Storage Pilots ... by Rosetta Resources, Inc. Commitment to WESTCARB transferred to Rosetta ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Comments at Wye River Meeting

Comments at Wye River Meeting
  • Or there must be some way outta here - R.
    Zimmerman, J. Hendrix
  • Terry Surles
  • Hawaii Natural Energy Institute
  • March 17, 2009

World Electricity Consumption
Natural Gas 25
Natural Gas 18
Coal 37
Nuclear 16
Renewables 20
Oil 7
Coal 38
Oil 8
61 Growth
2001 161 Quads
2025 259 Quads
Worldwide electricity consumption is projected to
grow at an average annual rate of 2.3 between
2001 - 2025
Source IEO2004, Table 16
U.S. Electricity Consumption
Natural Gas 16
Renewables 9
Coal 55
Natural Gas 14
Coal 53
Nuclear 21
33 Growth
Oil 2
Oil 3
Source AEO2006, Table 8
Security Concern Global Oil Consumption
Growth 1/year
Source BP World Energy Review, 2007
Proven Oil Reserves (2006)
BP World Energy Review, 2007
Carbon Management No Silver Bullet, Need to
Track Life Cycles
Carbon Management
Decarbonization CO2 Btu
CO2 atm CO2 emitted
  • Regional Partnerships
  • Capture/storage
  • End-use Technologies
  • Demand response
  • Nuclear
  • Renewables

Regional Partnerships Address Some Key Challenges
to CCS
  • Storage capacity
  • Cost - primarily capture
  • Health, safety and environmental risk short and
    long term
  • Impacts of leakage of CO2
  • Brine migration and pressure
  • Seismicity
  • Financial uncertainty
  • Liability
  • Regulatory uncertainty
  • Public acceptance
  • Infrastructure

The Best News Advances in Key Geoscience
Research Areas
  • Reservoir processes behavior of plume and
    reservoir pressure during operation and long term
  • Monitoring surface and subsurface increased
    quantification, improved and new approaches,
    integration of techniques
  • Risk assessment development of techniques
  • Seismicity and geomechanical stability
  • Storage capacity assessment
  • Mitigation methodologies
  • Well construction particularly cement
  • Site characterization

Field Tests Provide Regional Knowledge Base
Essential for Commercial Implementation
  • Demonstrate best sequestration options,
    technologies and approaches in region
  • Tests involve site-specificity for
  • Testing technologies
  • Defining costs
  • Assessing risks
  • Gauging public acceptance
  • Exercising regulatory requirements
  • Validating monitoring methods

Photos from Frio saline formation CO2 injection
Multiple Field Tests at Multiple Scales are
Needed - Otherwise We End Up with Yucca-lite
  • Geologic variability
  • Depositional environments
  • Structural history
  • Lithology
  • Regulatory and legal variability
  • Small pilots
  • Inexpensive
  • Seal and reservoir data
  • Exercise regulations
  • Large volume injections
  • Testing of geophysical methods
  • Multi-well interactions
  • Effects of heterogeneity

Modeling Helps Understand Relation Between Pore
Geometry and Properties
  • Synchrotron-based microtomography at LBNLs ALS
    was used to produce high-resolution images of
    rock pore space and fluids
  • MIS method (maximally inscribed spheres) used to
    generate pore model

Comparison of imaged pore space (left) and
MIS-calculations (right) of CO2 (black) and brine
(green) phases in the pore space

Availability of Ideal Structural Traps
  • Structural, stratigraphic, and fault traps form
    hydrocarbon reservoirs and ideal CO2 reservoirs

Typical geological structures ideal for trapping
CO2 (Source W Gunter, ARC)
Mineralization Enhances Long Term Storage
Above Porosity change due to mineralization at
edge of plume Left CO2 mineralization over time
(T Xu, LBNL)
Simulations Show Plume Extent and Immobilization
Over Time - Central Valley
Source C. Doughty, LBNL
Seismic Methods Should Be Augmented
  • Pressure
  • Microseismic monitoring
  • Electrical
  • Gravity
  • Processing/joint inversion

Sleipner time-lapse seismic results (Chadwick,
Integration of Ground Surface Deformationfor
Monitoring Injection Response at In Salah
Ground surface displacements derived from
satellite-based Interferometric Synthetic Radar
(InSAR) measurements
The Region Partnership Program as a Learning
Exercise Its not just about Science and
  • Lessons learned addressing institutional,
    regulatory, and outreach issues - WESTCARB Phase
  • Complexities of land access agreements
  • Mergers and acquisitions
  • Impact of media attention on outreach programs
  • Regulation working with multiple permitting
  • Phase III - new infrastructure issues

WESTCARB Due Diligence for a Commercial Project
(Courtesy of Schlumberger)
Plan A Rosetta Resources Saline Formation Gas
Reservoir CO2 Storage Pilots
  • Target was Thornton Gas Field, a depleted
    reservoir consisting of a well-defined dome
    small field not unitized
  • Drill and complete injection and observation
    wells 120 feet apart truck CO2 to site
  • Inject 1000 tonnes CO2 into saline formation
    below gas/water contact (3450 ft below surface)
  • Inject 500 tonnes CO2 into depleted small
    depleted gas reservoir (3050 ft below surface)
    narrow confined zone minimizes risk of any
    contamination of residual gas resources
  • Framing the Debate and Meeting California Goals
    - but with data-less legislation

Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta gas fields
shown in purple
Geologic cross-section at Rosetta pilots site
Numerous factors can screw up land access
agreements and permit flow
  • With split estates (separate surface and
    mineral owners), there are more parties to any
    agreement, adding time and cost
  • Surface owner (and possibly a tenant)
  • Mineral rights owner
  • Mineral extraction leaseholder
  • When owner is a family trust, all participants
    have to reach agreement
  • Public agencies (and corporations) multiple
    tiers of responsibility and changes in personnel
    can delay decision-making

Initial site for the WESTCARB Northern California
pilot test family trust surface owners, tenant,
corporate mineral rights owner, gas production
Multiple regulatory agencies with jurisdiction
add complexity and time to permitting
  • In some states (e.g., Arizona) state and federal
    agencies can both have jurisdiction over CO2
    injection permits
  • State and federal agencies can have different
  • Coordination/communication between agencies needs
    to be facilitated
  • As a potential benefit, one agency may be helpful
    in persuading another on a permit issue

Site for the WESTCARB Arizona Utilities CO2
Storage Pilot
Lessons from the Real WorldRegulatory One well
two permitting agencies
  • California is a shared primacy state

Gas ZoneCA DOGGR (Injectivity Test)
Saline ZoneU.S. EPA Region 9 (UIC Class V)
Rosetta Resources PilotNext Steps circa 2006
  • Permitting redux CA DWR site access approval
    held up, since more environmental analysis was
  • Rosetta was ready to build access road and pad
  • Driller lined up and ready to go
  • CO2 injection scheduled for Fall 2007

Rosetta Pilot Summary In 2007
  • The WESTCARB project has
  • Completed the NEPA and CEQA environmental studies
  • Prepared a draft UIC permit application for USEPA
  • Retained a qualified site test manager
  • Purchased CO2 test equipment
  • is
  • Negotiating site access and CO2 liability
  • Reaching out to the community through public

Methodical public outreach programs can be
interrupted by media attention
  • Logically sequenced outreach strategy well
  • Limited initial outreach
  • Ramp up after site access agreement reached
  • Had to fast-track meetings with local safety
    officials, business leaders, and the community to
    stay ahead of rumors spawned by reporter

Stakeholder Consultation
The wild card of mergers and acquisitions -
what happened next
  • WESTCARB entered into original agreement with
  • Calpines natural gas assets were purchased by
    Rosetta Resources, Inc.
  • Commitment to WESTCARB transferred to Rosetta
  • Unresolved legal issues between Calpine and
    Rosetta continued to plague the project as well
    as state agency concerns about the ecosystem
    leading to no go

Natural gas production and storage are prevalent
in the Sacramento Basin
WESTCARB Plan B Northern California CO2 Storage
  • Lead industrial partner Shell
  • Assess sequestration potential of western
    Sacramento Valley
  • Two well test one injection and one monitoring
  • Truck in about 2000 tons CO2 and inject
  • Monitor CO2 in the subsurface

Source Shell
Unfolding Dilemma for WESTCARB
  • Where so we get the carbon dioxide
  • How do we get the gas from source to sink
  • Who owns the carbon dioxide through all
  • Who pays for a lot of supporting infrastructure
  • Timing for any of these answers
  • One big reason for existing program and new
    stimulus funding for industrial sequestration

Unresolved Issues Opinions Are Diverse on
Policy Issues
  • Liability
  • Oil and gas companies have different perspectives
    from utilities unfamiliar with subsurface
  • Need to examine true cost of dealing with
    logistics of storage
  • Public acceptance
  • Some groups supportive (NRDC, Environmental
    Defense), others ant-CCS (Environmental Justice,
  • Public education is critical
  • Financial/regulatory issues for owners/investors
  • Who will own and manage pore space
  • Long term monitoring costs
  • Nature of final regulations

True Cost of Cap and Trade (A. Diamant, EPRI)
Price of 1 Tonne of CO2
  • 3.50
  • 10.00
  • 1.50
  • 17.50
  • All of the above !
  • Price of CO2 volatile and varies widely across
    different markets, depending on
  • - market-specific conditions,
  • - the rules of the game,
  • - country-market risks
  • - the degree of fungibility between markets.

(Phase 1 EU-ETS)
(Phase 2 EU-ETS)
EU CO2 Allowance Prices (01/05 2/07) Too Many
EUAs Issued (or too many grandfathers)
Feb. 16 2007 Phase 1 EUA Price was 1.15/tCO2
1.50//tCO2 Phase 2 EUA Price was
13.65/tCO2 17.50//tCO2
Regulations Are Being ProposedUncertainty
  • Federal EPA has asserted jurisdiction over
    injection of CO2 through its UIC program
  • New class (VI) of injection well proposed for
  • Proposed Class VI rules under review
  • Current approach by Region IX EPA is to treat as
    Class V
  • Many differences at state level
  • Various states (eg. Kansas, Washington) have
    proposed their own geologic storage regulations
  • Arizona protects all groundwater regardless of
    quality, making permitting of geologic storage
    very difficult

Access to the Subsurface for CO2 Storage Remains
  • Ownership of subsurface mineral rights and pore
    space adds significant complications
  • Saline pore fluids not considered to be a
  • Current approach develop agreements for access
    on a case-by-case basis
  • Outright land purchase
  • Lease
  • Easements
  • Uncertainty over definition of subsurface
  • Can we use regional partnerships for broader
    lessons learned?

Implications for Longer-Term Who Has Liability
and Who Pays for Monitoring?
  • 1000 year period
  • Repeat seismic surveys every 10 years
  • 10 increase in cost over and above other CCS
  • Non-financial issues
  • Responsibility for monitoring
  • Oversight and record keeping
  • Responsibility for remediation

I Knew You Wanted to Hear about Hawaii Heavily
Dependent on Oil for Energy Use
Well-to-Wheels Analysis Biofuel System
Big Islands Energy Challenges
Utility Concerns Growing use of wind power is
affecting grid stability overall efficiency
(spinning reserve)
Transmission Congestion Hilo side 60 of load
Kona side 75 of generation
PPAs High cost of renewable energy (PURPA) -
avoided cost plus cost of spinning reserve
Economic Insecurity 3B/yr leaves State economy
each year to purchase fuel
Energy Insecurity 90 State dependence on
imported petroleum
High Energy Costs 145/bbl oil 49/ kWh
electricity in August 2008
Loss of Four MW in about 15 SecondsOne-hour
Validation on April 3, 2007
Time (seconds)
Wind Farm Output Power (disturbance)
Time (seconds)
Following slide
The Joys of Working with StakeholdersWhat we may
expect What we hope to get
While there were clear areas of disagreement, we
can get an amount of consensus on objectives,
concerns, and desire for cooperation.
Higher Wind PenetrationChallenges of increasing
wind penetration in Hawaii
Small, incremental expansions of a wind farm
impact HELCO system frequency
Increasing wind penetration to 40 increases the
inter-hour variability of thermal units. This
reduces efficiency on some units, thereby
increasing fuel consumption.
Increasing wind penetration, increases min-to-min
variability of power system and requires
additional flexibility (fast-starting generation,
load/wind curtailment, storage).
Additionally, contractual arrangements with IPPs
can impact the cost of electricity.
5MW of energy storage or other fast resources
reduces frequency excursions due to wind power
At 40 wind penetration, system frequency is
severely affected
Incremental additions of fast energy storage
increasingly stabilizes system frequency
  • 5MW of energy storage provided similar frequency
    performance as the baseline scenario.
  • Less than 10min of energy was needed for the
    one-hour window.

5MW of energy storage or other fast
resourcesincreases min-to-hour operational
  • Operational Flexibility
  • Anticipating the wind power production is
    critical to ensuring adequate energy production
    is available.
  • Consider the number of hours per year in which
    generation committed at the beginning of the hour
    was insufficient to meet the increase in load
    and/or decrease in wind power (i.e., insufficient
    up reserve) by the end of the hour.
  • In this situation, additional generation (likely
    diesels) would be committed and dispatched.
  • In this simulation, the addition of 5MW (2MWh) of
    energy storage provided similar operational
    stress as the baseline scenario.

Total number of hours per year
Higher Wind Penetration
  • One potential solution includes
  • 5MW of fast energy storage to address
    challenging inter-hour wind fluctuations
  • Results in similar frequency performance as
    baseline scenario.
  • 5MW of additional dispatchable energy storage,
    20min of energy storage.
  • Reduces the hours in which additional generation
    was needed from 358 to 164 hour/yr.
  • IPP owned South Point Hawi, HELCO owned
  • Costs to consumer are only reduced about 3

Comparing Higher Wind Penetration to Baseline
Substantial Reduction in Fuel Use and CO2
Strategic SummaryStakeholder Metrics
  • In the Baseline scenario, 27 of electricity is
    generated from renewable energy.
  • Energy efficiency, load control PHEVs reduced
    variable cost and reduced wind curtailment.
    Enhanced Energy Mgmt results are additive,
    albeit not linearly, to the renewable energy
  • Smarter grid technologies are needed to
    accommodate a substantial penetration of
    as-available generation. These grid technologies
    should reduce variable cost and yield
    environmental benefits.
  • New technologies (controls, energy storage,
    coordinating thermal generation, etc) will be
    needed to enable substantial increases in the
    penetration of wind power.
  • It is not clear how to pay for these
    technologies. What is the business case and
    regulatory support that is needed?
  • Initial analyses have identified some
    technology-related projects that could achieve
    the stakeholder metrics. The team will be
    investigating these in the next phase of the

Power Quality and Reliability A Necessity in a
Digital Society
From Imre Gyuk, DOE, 2007
Fossil-Fired Systems Are Important for Reducing
Stress on Grid Created by As-Available Renewables
  • Systems RDD Required
  • Technical Standards and Testing
  • Power Conversion and Conditioning
  • Protection and Load Control
  • Communications
  • Metering
  • Training and Education
  • Modeling and Simulation

Bulk Power
Distribution System
Transmission System
Load Management
Communication RDD Information Flow, Data
Management, Monitor/Control
Combined Heat Power
Distributed Generation
Can We Use Better Thermal Generation Management
to Support Grid?
Evidence That Short-Timescale Variability May Be
Smoothed with Coordination of Existing Thermal
HECOs Dilemma - one of many
  • How do we prepare our existing steam unit fleet
    to be more reactive to mitigate a high
    penetration of intermittent generation
  •     a)  Increase existing ramp rates by tuning
    the controls
  •     b)  Exploring areas where there may be "ramp
    bursts" (higher ramp rate but across the min and
    max of a unit)
  •     c)  Can our existing units designed for
    baseload operation be cycled (including what is
    needed to start a unit as fast as possible) or
    "turned down" to minimum levels that are lower
    than current minimum levels.

Integration of RDDD Initiatives Need to
Connect Basic, Development, Applied Activities
with Public Policies
Basic and Applied Research
Fundamental Understanding
Technical Needs
Pilot and Demonstration Projects
Fundamental Understanding
Industrial Scale Projects
HNEI Linking RD and Public Policy to
Commercialization Process
Institutional Issues Regulations Incentives