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Nutrition Activities for a Nation in an Unfit State from Positively AgingM'O'R'E' Curriculum Project

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Title: Nutrition Activities for a Nation in an Unfit State from Positively AgingM'O'R'E' Curriculum Project


1
Nutrition Activities for a Nation in an Unfit
State from Positively Aging/M.O.R.E.
Curriculum Projects
  • Linda Pruski
  • MaryAnne Toepperwein
  • Cheryl Blalock
  • Yan Liu
  • Olivia Lemelle
  • Society for Advancement of Chicanos and Native
    Americans in Science
  • October 23, 2004

2
National Institutes of Health
  • National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial
    Research
  • National Institute on Aging
  • National Center for Research Resources
  • National Heart Lung and Blood Institute

3
Positively Aging /M.O.R.E. Goals
  • To help teachers . . .
  • prepare and implement research-based curricular
    materials that explore interdisciplinary
    opportunities in gerontology, physiology and
    health
  • prepare students to make critical health
    decisions for extending and enhancing their lives

4
Positively Aging /M.O.R.E. Goals
  • To help teachers . . .
  • develop sensitivity to the needs and concerns of
    the aging population
  • foster an enduring interest in scientific
    research and medical careers

5
(No Transcript)
6
Positively Aging TEKS Alignment Unit 7, Lesson
5A, Grade 8 Building My Own Food Pyramid
7
Were fat ….
  • Source of immediate and stored energy
    (9 calories/gram)
  • Protect internal organs and bones against
    mechanical shock

8
Were fat ….
  • Insulate body reduce heat loss, increase warmth
  • Architecture of cell membranes, myelin sheaths,
    and skin

9
Were fat ….
  • Synthesize vitamin D, steroids, and sex hormones
  • Helps to absorb vitamins A, D, E, K

10
Were fat …. How do you know if youre
overweight?
  • Scales???

11
Were fat …. How do you know if youre
overweight?
  • Body Mass Index (Adults)
  • BMI Weight (lbs) x 703
  • Height (in) x Height (in)
  • (703 conversion factor to metrics)

12
Were fat …. How do you know if youre
overweight?
  • Nomograms

13
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14
Were Fat when…
  • BMI Nomograms
  • Women Healthy BMI 22
  • Men Healthy BMI 18

15
BMI ranges kg/m2
  • Underweight lt 18.5
  • Normal weight 18.5-24.9
  • Overweight lt 25-29.9
  • Obesity (Class 1) 30-34.9
  • Obesity (Class 2) 35-39.9
  • Extreme Obesity ? 40 (Class 3)

16
Fat Distribution
  • Apple shape fattest
    in the abdomen area greater risk of coronary
    artery disease, stroke, high bp, and
    diabetes than those with pear
    shape distribution of fat
  • Pear shape
    fattest in hips, buttocks,
    and thighs

17
Were Fat when…
  • Waist Circumference
  • Women Norm lt 35 inches (88 cm)
  • Men Norm lt 40 inches (102 cm)

18
Measuring waist circumference...
19
Were fat …. How do you know if youre
overweight?
  • Waist-to-Hip Ratio
  • Measure waist at the navel, then hips at the
    greatest circumference around buttocks
  • Divide waist measurement by the hip size. This is
    W/H ratio.
  • W/H ratio gt 1.0 (men) 0.8 (women)

20
Were Fat when…
  • Skin Fold Calibrations
  • Tricep
  • Illium
  • Abdominal
  • Chest
  • Axillary
  • Thigh

21
Skinfold location for women
  • Triceps - One half the distance between the
    shoulder and elbow, use the dominant side
  • Iliac Crest - Diagonally on the natural line of
    the skin on the iliac crest
  • Thigh To the inside side of thigh and just
    above the knee
  • Abdominal - One inch to the right of the navel

http//btc.montana.edu/olympics/physiology/pb03.ht
ml
22
Skinfold locations for men
  • Thigh - See above
  • Chest - Above and to the right of the right
    nipple - may be done diagonally
  • Abdominal - One inch to the right of the navel

http//btc.montana.edu/olympics/physiology/pb03.ht
ml
23
Calculating Fatness from the Skinfold
  • Sum the three skinfolds
  • Use the skinfold sum and your age to determine
    your percent fat in the body composition chart.

http//btc.montana.edu/olympics/physiology/pb03.ht
ml
24
Were fat …. How do you know if youre
overweight?
  • Bioelectric Impedance Analysis (BIA)
  • Simple method for determining the lean body mass
  • Uses a special scale with footpads. A harmless
    amount of electrical current is sent through the
    body, and then the percentage of body fat is
    calculated.
  • Electrodes placed on a wrist and an ankle and on
    the back of the right hand and on the top of the
    foot. The change in voltage between electrodes is
    measured.

25
Were fat …. How do you know if youre
overweight?
  • Hydrodensitometry
  • The person is weighed using a specialized scale
    while completely submerged under water.
  • The principle behind the technique is that fat
    floats and nonfat components sink.

26
Our Nation in an Unfit State
  • The problem is bigger than me!

27
Were fat!
  • 54.3 US adults
  • are overweight
  • Source National Center for Health Statistics

28
Were fat!
  • 62.3 of U.S. men
  • are overweight
  • Source National Center for Health Statistics

29
Were fat!
  • 46.6 of U.S. women
  • are overweight
  • Source National Center for Health Statistics

30
Were fat!
  • Greater prevalence among ….
  • …women of poverty or lower economic class
  • Source Healthy People 2010

31
Were fat!
  • Greater prevalence among ….
  • …Hispanic, African American, and White
  • Source Healthy People 2010

32
Were fat!
  • Greater prevalence among ….
  • …Hispanic males than non-Hispanic males
  • Source Healthy People 2010

33
Were fat!
  • Less prevalence
  • among ….
  • …persons with higher education BA, BS, MA, etc.
  • Source National Center for Health Statistics

34
Were fat!
  • 1 in 5 U.S. adults
  • are obese
  • Source National Center for Health Statistics

35
Were fat!
  • Greatest prevalence among …
  • …Fat Cities!!
  • S.A. ranks as nation's fattest city on federal
    list
  • Highest percentage of obese (BMI of 30) adults
    31.1.
  • Source San Antonio Express-News, March 4, 2003

36
Source Physical Activity and Older Americans
37
Were fat!
  • 13 of U.S.
  • children (6-11 yrs.)
  • overweight or obese
  • Source Healthy People 2010

38
Were fat!
  • 14 of U.S. adolescents
    (12-19 yrs.) overweight or obese
  • Source Healthy People 2010

39
Were fat!
  • 41.5 of U.S. young adults (18-24 yrs.)
    overweight or obese
  • Source National Center for Health Statistics

40
Were Fat!
  • So what are the risks?

41
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Breathing Problems

Source Healthy People 2010 and NIH
42
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Hypertension

Source Healthy People 2010
43
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • High Cholesterol

Source Healthy People 2010
44
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Heart Disease

Source Healthy People 2010
45
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Stroke

Source Healthy People 2010
46
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Osteoarthritis

Source Healthy People 2010
47
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Gall Bladder Disease

Source Healthy People 2010
48
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Some Cancers

Source Healthy People 2010
49
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Type 2 Diabetes

Source Healthy People 2010
50
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Depression

Source Healthy People 2010
51
Were fat!
  • Overweight and obesity are risk factors for
  • Death

Source Healthy People 2010 and NIH
52
Were fat!
  • Whats the monetary cost?
  • About 117 billion to the US in
    2000
  • Source Healthy People 2010

53
Why are we Fat?
54
Were fat!
  • Food

55
Were Fat!
  • A calorie is a unit of energy. We tend to
    associate calories with food, but they apply to
    anything containing energy.
  • For example, a gallon of gasoline contains about
    31,000,000 calories.

56
Were Fat!
  • The energy stored in food is measured in terms of
    Calories."
  • Technically, one calorie is the amount of energy
    required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of
    water 1 degree Centigrade (from 14.5 to 15.5).

57
Were Fat!
  • Since calories are a measure of energy, there
    cannot be, as some diet books claim, different
    types of calories. A fat calorie has the same
    amount of energy as a protein calorie by
    definition.
  • A person's caloric need is determined using a
    variety of mathematical equations. Age, height,
    current weight, desired weight, and height are
    taken into account.

58
How Stuff Works Website
59
Were Fat!
  • The number of calories in a food is a measure of
    how much potential energy that food possesses.
  • 1 gram of carbohydrate has 4 Calories
  • 1 gram of protein has 4 Calories
  • 1 gram of fat has 9 Calories.

60
Portion Distortion
Source Wall Street Journal, May 20, 2003
61
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62
Meat, Poultry, Fish

63
Dairy
64
Veggies
65
Fruit
66
Grains
67
Julias Food Journal One Day
68
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69
(No Transcript)
70
Julias Food Pyramid
71
(No Transcript)
72
Vitamins Minerals
73
Aging Pyramid
74
Activity Pyramid
75
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76
Were Fat!
  • Weight gained during certain critical periods of
    your life more commonly lead to an increased
    number (as opposed to increased size) of fat
    cells and make obesity more difficult to treat.
    These time periods are
  • Between 12 and 18 months of age.
  • Between 12 and 16 years of age.
  • Adulthood when a person gains in excess of 60 of
    their ideal body weight.
  • Pregnancy.

http//www.healthinformatics.com/
77
Were Fat!
  • Once a fat cell is formed, you generally cannot
    get rid of it.
  • However, recent studies imply that
  • certain medications can destroy fat cells
  • maintaining lower body weight for a prolonged
    period can decrease the number of fat cells

http//www.healthinformatics.com/
78
Food Purchase Habits Reported by Children and
Parents Perceptions
American Dietetic Association
79
Were fat!
  • Poverty
  • Medications
  • Medical Treatments

80
Were fat!
  • Disorders
  • Heredity
  • Inactivity

81
Were fat!
82
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
  • The amount of energy the body requires per unit
    of time to perform essential activities at rest
  • Several factors can affect BMR
  • Exercising skeletal muscles greatly increase BMR

83
Factors Affecting Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Gender
Age
Surface Area
84
Factors Affecting Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
Emotions
Infection
Thyroxine
85
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86
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87
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88
Basal Metabolism Calories
  • Age M F
  • 23 39.0 35.2
  • 24 38.7 35.1
  • 25 38.4 35.1
  • 26 38.2 35.0
  • 27 38.0 35.0
  • 28 37.8 25.0
  • 29 37.7 35.0
  • 30 37.6 35.0
  • 31 37.4 35.0
  • 32 37.2 34.9
  • 33 37.1 34.9
  • 34 37.0 34.9
  • Age M F
  • 35 36.9 34.8
  • 36 36.8 34.7
  • 37 36.7 34.6
  • 38 36.7 34.5
  • 39 36.6 34.4
  • 40-44 36.4 34.4
  • 45-49 36.2 33.8
  • 50-54 35.8 33.1
  • 55-59 35.1 32.8
  • 60-64 34.5 32.0
  • 65-69 33.5 31.6
  • 70-74 32.7 31.1
  • 75 31.8 31.1

89
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90
Classification of Activities
91
Calories for Physical Activity
  • For sedentary individuals
  • calories for X 20
    calories for
  • basal metabolism
    physical activity
  • For light activity individuals
  • calories for X 30
    calories for
  • basal metabolism
    physical activity
  • For moderate activity individuals
  • calories for X 40
    calories for
  • basal metabolism
    physical activity
  • For very active individuals
  • calories for X 50
    calories for
  • basal metabolism
    physical activity

92
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93
Penn State Activity Pyramid
http//pubs.cas.psu.edu/freepubs/pdfs/uk076.pdf
94
Balance ….
Energy expenditure
Calorie intake
95
Basal Metabolism Calories vs. Age
96
Were fat!
  • No More Excuses!

97
Target Weight
  • Target wt corresponding your ideal BMI
  • Target Wt BMI X height (inches)2
  • 725

98
Were not gonna be fat anymore!
  • Individual and corporate responsibility
  • Resources and support

99
Free Exercise Guide
  • Exercise A Guide from the National Institute on
    Aging (Pub. NIH 98-4258)
  • Mail request to N.I.A. Information Center
  • P.O. Box 8057
  • Gaithersburg, MD
    20898-8057
  • Phone request to 800-222-2225
  • E-mail request to niaic_at_jbs1.com
  • Preview at http//www.nia.nih.gov/exercisebook/

100
Monthly Fitness Challenge
101
Positively Aging - M.O.R.E. Website http//teach
healthk-12.uthscsa.edu The University of Texas
Health Science Center at San Antonio
102
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103
Unit Seven You Are What You Eat Middle School
  • Use the food pyramid and food labels to create
    food plans and examine differences in nutritional
    needs

104
Unit Eight Nutrition and Aging High School
  • Examine the role good eating habits play in
    healthy aging and how body image affects dietary
    choices

105
Unit Nine Watch Your Mouth
  • Using slides, experiments, and observations,
    discover that good oral health practices are
    essential to good overall health throughout life

106
Unit Ten Diabetes and Aging
  • Learn symptoms, signs, complications, and family
    incidence of diabetes through role play, lab
    investigations, and diagnostic statistics

107
Unit Twelve Give Your Bones A Break
  • Examine bone development and bone health across
    the life span through laboratory experiences and
    games

108
Inflamm - O Wars (Coming Soon!)
  • Investigate the progression and regression of
    vascular disease through lab experiences and
    educational games

109
Corpulosity (Coming Soon!)
  • Examine the problem of obesity and acquire the
    knowledge to make healthy choices though an
    interdisciplinary approach

110
Mo-Bility Movement by the Numbers (Coming Soon!)
  • Students will explore the physics of movement in
    this unit and will don a fat apron to
    investigate how weight distribution affects their
    mobility

111
Zzzzz World (Coming Soon!)
  • Students will explore the world of sleep,
    including how sleep can be affected by disease
    and poor nutrition

112
Pulmonary Unit (Coming Soon!)
  • During a unique study of the pulmonary system,
    students will investigate the effect of
    nutrition, exercise and disease on lung capacity

113
  • Positively Aging Choices and Changes
  • Aging Research Education Center
  • University of Texas Health Science Center
  • San Antonio
  • 210-567-4398
  • http//positivelyaging.uthscsa.edu
  • Michael Lichtenstein
  • Carolyn Marshall
  • Linda Pruski
  • MaryAnne Toepperwein
  • Cheryl Blalock
  • Yan Liu
  • Olivia Lemelle
  • Cookie Boehme
  • Steve Owen
  • Kacy Vandewalle

114
Lifestyle Personality Quiz
  • To reveal your inner tendencies and your best
    approach to lifestyle changes, Cindy Moore, R.D.
    has developed this simple quiz.

115
Tortoise of Hare?
  • Are you patient and process-oriented, like the
    fabled tortoise? Or does instant gratification
    sound better?
  • Tortoises are comfortable losing weight the
    prudent way.
  • You make one or two diet changes at a time. For
    example, you will eat two servings of fruit every
    day for two weeks instead of other snacks.
  • Then you'll add another goal -- to get two
    servings of low-fat dairy every day. "It's a
    gradual, long-term focus on changing habits, not
    a quick fix," explains Moore.

116
Tortoise of Hare?
  • Hares crave instant gratification and this is
    what sells diet plan books.
  • If your goal is to lose weight quickly, you'll
    try any high-protein, low-carb, or very
    low-calorie diet fad diet
  • The hitch Any fad diet will let you lose weight,
    but those diet plans don't let you maintain
    weight loss. You need be mindful that, unless you
    go to a transition diet plan, you will regain the
    weight.

117
Scheduler or Spontaneous?
  • Schedulers are planners.
  • You prefer a more structured approach to meals --
    even snacks -- as well as physical activity.
  • Every week, map out the foods, meals, and workout
    schedule that work best for you.
  • Make a grocery list at the same time.

118
Scheduler or Spontaneous?
  • Spontaneous people must deal with their impulses.
  • They need discipline
  • They need to make a healthful decision
    spontaneously.
  • They must be judicious at every turn. They can
    have a small piece cake, but have it less
    frequently.

119
Adventurer or Tried and True?
  • The adventurer loves to try new foods, new diet
    plans, new ways of eating
  • They need to select foods with fewer calories. It
    means eating more fruits, vegetables, whole
    grains, low-fat protein.
  • It can also mean eating foods they didn't grow up
    with, like bulgur wheat, couscous, barley,
    sushi. It can mean adding more legumes and beans.
  • Adventurous types also like trying new physical
    activities, new sports. If you normally take an
    aerobics or spinning class, try something else --
    rebounding or Pilates or yoga -- or lift weights
    - it will keep you from getting bored.

120
Adventurer or Tried and True?
  • Tried and True Familiarity lovers don't need to
    change their food choices. . .
  • just eat less of them. On the downside, you're
    going be hungrier because you're reducing volume.
    But at least you won't have to change the foods
    you eat.
  • the familiar walking or running routines should
    get bumped up a notch. Aim for longer or more
    frequent workouts. The downside overuse of
    joints. Doing step classes or running seven days
    a week is hard on your knees.
  • Diversity is more healthful. Do at least two
    different physical activities, one aerobic and
    the other a form of strength training.

121
Social Animal or Lone Wolf?
  • Social Animal Social support keeps you
    motivated, so seek out a buddy or group.
  • You may even need a weight loss consultant or
    family "cheerleader" backing you up
  • Make sure your family is supportive and won't
    undermine your efforts by buying foods not in the
    plan or discouraging you from exercising
  • Some groups and plans provide social support,
    meetings, and cheering.
  • Weight management classes let you learn with a
    group, so you don't have to think of all the
    questions yourself.
  • Or maybe you just want to meet with a weight
    management professional once or twice, to learn
    what you need to do.

122
Social Animal or Lone Wolf?
  • Lone Wolf For independent types, the Internet
    can provide a wealth of nutrition information.
    The only danger is, you must make sure you can
    determine what's bogus and what's science-based
  • "Nutrition Navigator" on the Tufts University web
    site provides an evaluation of various diet web
    sites. Also, the American Dietetic Association,
    American Heart Association, and the U.S.
    Department of Agriculture are good resources for
    recommended diet plan information. WebMD has an
    independent review of the latest diets.
  • For independent people, exercise classes may be a
    total turn-off. They may prefer running in their
    neighborhood, step machines, or even weight
    resistance training -- things they can do on
    their own. These people are good at tracking
    their progress. That can be a great self
    motivator.

123
Long-Term or Sort-Term Goal Setter?
  • If you prefer the long-term approach to good
    health, look to the American Dietetic
    Association, the American Health Association, and
    the American Association for Cancer Research web
    sites. They provide nutritional guidance aimed at
    preventing chronic diseases by eating a balanced,
    healthy diet.

124
Long-Term or Sort-Term Goal Setter?
  • Short-termers will naturally try all the new
    diets and the bestselling diet books. Just be
    careful that the diet plan is not harmful.
  • For example, if you have a family history of
    kidney problems, or if you have hypertension,
    eating a high-protein, low-carb diet makes
    kidneys work harder.

125
Controller or Follower?
  • Controller Don't call them control freaks. They
    just like to control their own lifestyle and diet
    programs.
  • They need to use good decision-making tools.
  • Read the nutrition information panels on
    products.
  • Check the USDA's food guide pyramid.
  • Research fiber, soy, whole grains, and
    antioxidants.

126
Controller or Follower?
  • Followers would rather have a step-by-step plan
    and weekly menus handed to them.
  • They should see a nutritionist.
  • They should also see an exercise physiologist or
    personal trainer to get a workout plan that works.

127
Creative or Crave Routine?
  • Creative people will try new recipes, new cooking
    techniques, and new restaurants. They may be more
    receptive to trying new sports.
  • tap into those creative urges
  • try a new cookbook or vegetarian food just
    because it tastes good and is something different

128
Creative or Crave Routine?
  • People who crave routine can
  • stick to familiar foods, but should cut back on
    portions
  • for physical activity, they should identify one
    thing and stay with it
  • for example, resolve to walk several days a week
    -- whether it's around the neighborhood, at the
    gym, or on a treadmill at home

129
Self-Motivated or Pressure Sensitive?
  • Self-motivated types have greater flexibility
    with diet plans and exercise.
  • They may not eat breakfast or work out at the
    same time every day, but they will fit it in.

130
Self-Motivated or Pressure Sensitive?
  • Pressure-sensitive people respond better to
    schedules. That's how they put pressure on
    themselves.
  • Put meals and exercise on your calendar, so you
    will do it. Otherwise, it will slip by you.
    Enroll in a class to force exercise onto your
    schedule -- otherwise you won't do it.

131
  • What we eat today walks and talks tomorrow.
  • Lynne Alpern Esther Bloomenfield, Oh Lord, I
    Sound Just Like Mama, 1986
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