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This is the transcript of the ACTUAL radio conversation of a US naval ship with Canadian authorities

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Canadians: Please divert your course 15 degrees South to avoid a collision. ... PALEONTOLOGY. OCEANOGRAPHY. GEOLOGY. ASTRONOMY. Extra Credit:The Farmer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: This is the transcript of the ACTUAL radio conversation of a US naval ship with Canadian authorities


1
  • This is the transcript of the ACTUAL radio
    conversation of a US naval ship with Canadian
    authorities off the coast of Newfoundland.
  •  
  • Canadians Please divert your course 15 degrees
    South to avoid a collision.

2
  • Americans This is the captain of a US Navy ship.
    I say again, divert YOUR Course.
  •  
  • Canadians No. I say again, you divert Your
    course.
  •  

3
  •  
  • Americans Recommend you divert your course 15
    degrees to the North to avoid a collision.
  •  
  • Canadians Negative. You will have to divert
    your course 15 degrees to the South to avoid
    collision.
  •  

4
  • Americans THIS IS THE AIRCRAFT CARRIER USS
    LINCOLN, THE SECOND LARGEST SHIP IN THE UNITED
    STATES ATLANTIC FLEET. WE ARE ACCOMPANIED BY
    THREE DESTROYERS, THREE CRUISERS AND NUMEROUS
    SUPPORT VESSELS. I DEMAND THAT YOU CHANGE YOUR
    COURSE 15 DEGREES NORTH, I SAY AGAIN, THATS ONE
    FIVE DEGREES NORTH, OR COUNTER-MEASURES WILL BE
    UNDERTAKEN TO ENSURE THE SAFETY OF THIS SHIP. 

5
  • Canadians This is a lighthouse. Your call.

6
I am not here to pass or fail you, but to
provide the opportunity tosucceed. It is your
responsibilityto pass.
7
Earth Science
  • An
  • Introduction

8
I. What is Science?
A branch of knowledge requiring systematic study
and method.
ASTRONOMY
GEOLOGY
MINERALOGY
PALEONTOLOGY
OCEANOGRAPHY
9
Extra CreditThe Farmer
  • There is a farmer headed to the market. He has
    a bag of grain, a chicken, and a fox. He must
    cross a river by way of canoe to get to the
    market. The canoe can only hold him and one
    other item at a time. How can he safely get
    everything across the river without having the
    chicken eat the grain or having the fox eat the
    chicken?

10
Answer
  •  
  •  
  • First take the chicken to the other side.
  • Next take the grain to the other side and bring
    the chicken back to the original side.
  • Then take the fox to the other side.
  • Finally, take the chicken to the other side.

11
What is Earth Science?
A. Earth Science is the study of the Earth and
the Universe.
12
  • B. Earth Science is based on the belief that the
    cause of all natural events, past, present and
    future, can be understood and predicted through
    careful observations, study and experimentation.

13
C. Percent Deviation
Even though accuracy is desired when measuring,
mistakes happen . . . why? 1. Personal
error 2. Equipment error 3. Changing
weather
14
  • 4. Changing environment
  • 5. Poor test samples
  • Percent deviation is used to determine how far
    from the norm.

15
What method do scientists use to solve the
question they discover?
D. Scientific method
--Which is what?
  • It is a series of events that lead to a believed
    understanding of the situation.

16
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17
1. A question is asked as the result of an
Observation (from using your senses) 2.
Information is gathered. -Measurement is one
of the main methods.
18
3. A hypothesis is proposed. A hypothesis is a
possible explanation or solution to the
question.
19
  • This interpretation is called an inference. It
    is based on observations and one's own experience
    and knowledge.

20
Inferences can be different even if they are
based on the same observation.
  • The Pig Personality Profile Activity
  •  
  • On a blank piece of paper draw a pig. Do not
    look at anyone else's rendition and dont show
    your work to others.

21
If you drew the pig .
  •   Toward the top of the page .. You are
    positive and optimistic
  • Toward the middle of the page . You are a
    realist
  • Toward the bottom of the page . You are a
    pessimist and tend to behave negatively

22
If you drew the pig .
  • Facing left (the pig is oriented toward the
    left) .. You believe in tradition, are friendly
    and remember dates and birthdays.
  •  
  • Facing forward (looking toward you) .. you are
    direct, enjoy playing the devils advocate, and
    neither fear nor avoid discussion.
  •  
  • Facing right .. you are innovative and active,
    but dont have a strong sense of family nor do
    you remember dates.

23
If you drew the pig .
  •  
  • With many details you are analytical, cautious
    and mistrustful.
  •  
  • With few details .. you are emotional, naïve
    and you care little for detail or taking risks.

24
If you drew the pig .
  • With four legs showing .. you are secure,
    stubborn and stick to your ideals.
  •  
  • With less than four legs showing .. you are
    insecure and/or living through a period of major
    change

25
If you drew the pig .
  • The size of the pigs ears indicates how good a
    listener the artist is ( The larger the better)

26
4. The next step is to test the hypothesis. It
is tested by experimentation.
5. A conclusion about the hypothesis is reached
after many experiments and observations are
completed.
Depending on how well the hypothesis fits the
facts, it may be accepted, altered slightly, or
discarded.
27
II. Properties of matter
A. Density mass/volume - ratio of the mass
of a substance to its volume - it is usually
expressed as g/cm3
Is density always the same?
NO!
28
B. Density changes with temp. and pressure
temp. increase --
density decrease
temp. decrease --
density increase
pressure increase --
density increase
pressure decrease --
density decrease
For homework, graph these four relationships. Disc
uss phases and typical characteristics, water is
the exception, 4C it has the highest density, No
life on Earth if ice did not float, why?
29
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30
C. What is the shape of the Earth?
oblate spheroid
1. Equatorial Diameter - 12756 km 2. Polar
Diameter - 12714 km
3. Evidence of Earth's Shape
a. Space Photos b. Ships disappeared from
the bottom up, this could only happen if the
Earth's surface was curved
31
c. Observed the Earth's shadow during an
eclipse of the Moon - a round shadow
d. Altitude of Polaris (North Star) - Polaris
remains in a fixed position almost over the North
Pole. It was observed that the altitude of
Polaris changed as a person moved North or South.
32
  • e. Gravity Measurements - people weigh more at
    the poles because they are closer to the center
    of the earth.

f. Measurements from space
33
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34
III. Earth's Structure A. Crust - 10 km beneath
the ocean - 65 km beneath the continents B.
Mantle - 2850 km thick C. Outer Core - 2100 km
thick D. Inner Core - 1400 km radius
35
CRUST
Asthenosphere
36
E. Lithosphere - the crust and the top part of
the mantle that forms the solid shell around the
Earth - a rigid layer 65km to 100km
thick
37
  • F. Hydrosphere - the layer of water resting on
    top of the lithosphere
  • - covers 71 of Earth's surface
  • - 97 of the Earth's water is salt water

38
G. Atmosphere - thin shell of gases held to the
Earth by gravity - 78 nitrogen, 21 oxygen,
the remaining 1 is mostly argon, carbon dioxide,
helium, water vapor
39
  • H. Asthenosphere - because of enormous heat and
    pressure the solid rock can flow (plasticity)

40
IV. Determining Positions on the Earth
A. Latitude - distance, in degrees, north or
south of the equator 1. the equator has
latitude of 0 degrees 2. the poles have a
latitude of 90 degrees
41
Magnetic North
42
B. Longitude- distance, in degrees, east or
west 1. the prime meridian has longitude of 0
degrees 2. the international date line has a
longitude of 180 degrees
What is another method of measuring global
locations? And how does it work? UTM
43
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44
3. because the earth is 360 degrees around and
the earth rotates once every 24 hours, in one
hour the earth rotates 15 degrees.
45
4. 1 Time Zone 15 degrees Long.
46
V. Maps A. Isolines - lines connecting points
of equal value on a map B. Iso-surface - models
representing field characteristics - every
point on the surface has the same value
47
ISOLINES
48
C. Gradient - (slope) - rate of change of field
quantity between two places Gradient
change in value/change in distance ex. a stream
drops 200m over 5km gradient 200m/5km 40m/km
49
Benchmark - an indicator on the ground showing
elevation and position
50
D. Topographic Maps 1. Topographic maps or
Contour maps - a two-dimensional model, which
represents the elevation of various points. They
refer to the physical features of the land.
What does your topographic area look like?
51
E. Contour lines - isolines that connect points
of equal elevation 1. contour lines that are
close together show a fast change over a short
distance 2. contour lines that are far apart
show a slow change over a greater distance
52
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53
3. Contour interval - difference in value
between two contour lines 4. Depressions are
sometimes shown by hachured lines - the
"little" lines always face into the depression.
54
5. Direction (NSEW) on the map should always be
shown 6. A scale is usually always
included. ex. 1"1km
55
F. Profile - a side view of an area - they
tend to give a better visualization of areas
56
G. When contour lines cross a river they bend to
where the river is coming from.
57
THE END
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