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Lippershey, Galileo and the Starry Messenger: Observations on the Role of GIS in Geography and Tools in Science

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Geography 'that part of the exact sciences which studies the earth and its parts ... Born in geography and cartography, GIS is powerful enough a concept to have ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lippershey, Galileo and the Starry Messenger: Observations on the Role of GIS in Geography and Tools in Science


1
Lippershey, Galileo and the Starry Messenger
Observations on the Role of GIS in Geography and
Tools in Science
  • Keith C. Clarke
  • Professor and Chair
  • Department of Geography
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • Santa Barbara, CA, USA

2
The scene
  • 17th Century European astronomy
  • Ptolemaic earth-centered universe challenged by
    Copernicus 100 years prior
  • Direct observation not yet a major input to
    natural philosophy
  • Dogma and science interlinked
  • Glasses around since early 14th Century
  • Galileo Galilei (1564-1642), mathematician of
    Padua

3
Galileos Telescope
4
The Starry Messenger (Sidereus Nuncius)
  • Published in March 1610
  • 24 page pamphlet
  • Hundreds of new observations on the moon, stars,
    made possible by a new device, the telescope
  • Four new planets (moons of Jupiter)
  • Each of his simple observations shook another
    pillar of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic Universe.
    (Boorstin 1983)

5
Galileos Journal with observations on the moons
of Jupiter
6
Science, technology and discovery
We are certain, the first inventor of the
telescope was a simple spectacle-maker, who,
handling by chance different forms of glasses,
looked, also by chance, through two of them, one
convex and the other concave, held at different
distances from the eye saw and noted the
unexpected result and thus found the
instrument. Galileo Galilei (1623)
7
Galileo and Lippershey
8
Enter Hans Lippershey
  • Worked in Middelberg, Netherlands around 1600
  • Two children in his shop put the lenses together
    to look at a weathervane
  • illiterate mechanick
  • Petitioned the States General for a 30 year
    monopoly October 2, 1608

9
Lippersheys formal patent application for the
telescope
10
The traditional model Progress in science
  • Brilliant scientist, working alone in isolation
    makes theoretical breakthrough
  • Idea openly distributed through scientific
    literature
  • Theory suggests experiment, experiment reveals
    discovery
  • Discovery commercialized for public benefit

11
Shifting paradigms in astronomy and science
  • Technical innovation then
  • Commercial development then
  • Knowledge discovery then
  • Theoretical change
  • Invention is the mother of necessity

12
Tools in science
  • Which comes first, tool or discovery? (Both!)
  • What are the roles of the organizations involved?
    Encourage or discourage synthesis.
  • Why distinguish science and technology?
  • Standard tools have a value Divide by a common
    base
  • A scientist doesnt need to build a tool to do
    science, only to change it

13
What about tools in geography?
  • Is there a common tool base?
  • Geography that part of the exact sciences which
    studies the earth and its parts in terms of their
    measurable characterisics Varenius (1650)
  • General theory (Spatial analysis)
  • Specific description (Regional, Cultural)
  • Spatial analysis (theory) led to quantitative
    revolution
  • Is GIS a tool or a science?

14
Unified Geographic theory
  • Holy Grail of the 60s generation of geographers
    (Big science, String theory)
  • Led to use of techniques from other disciplines
    (computer science, mathematics, physics,
    statistics, mechanics, etc.) (Physics envy)
  • Much theory had to wait until tools were
    developed that could solve the problems e.g.
    location/allocation modeling
  • Led to geographic information systems (tool first)

15
First, the new tool (Lippershey)
  • Origins of GIS in map overlay and planning work
    going back to about 1900
  • Post-war planning (e.g. Tyrwhitt) formalized
    casual overlay methods
  • Ian McHarg popularized the method in Design with
    Nature
  • Along came the computer (Tobler 1959)
  • Then CGIS, ODYSSEY etc. (Foresman, 1998)

16
Institutional roles
  • Military Intelligence (1945-72)
  • Geodesy
  • Remote sensing CORONA
  • photogrammetry
  • Army -gt DMA -gt NIMA
  • Civil Applications Committee and MEDEA
  • Commercial cooperation, e.g. Intergraph,
    Autometrics, Ikonos
  • Academia, NSF

17
GIS as a TOOL (Toolbox definition)
"a powerful set of tools for storing and
retrieving at will, transforming and displaying
spatial data from the real world for a
particular set of purposes"
(Burrough, 1986, p. 6). "automated systems for
the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and
display of spatial data." (Clarke, 1995, p. 13).
18
City of Oakland Dynamic Maps
19
Oakland Integration of Hi-Res Imagery
20
Words of caution about tools
  • Hammers and nails
  • System limitations
  • System ontology vs. geography
  • Just because it could be done
  • Push-button geographers
  • Unbelievably faithful reproductions of erroneous
    maps

21
GIS challenges theory
  • Inadequate formalisms (ontology)
  • Post-modern critique of positivism (GIS2)
  • Simple models often inadequate (e.g. gravity
    model) or too static
  • Space-time dichotomy
  • Process vs. form
  • Data at the point of measurement, beyond the map
    model

22
Geography challenges GIS
  • Forms of representation e.g. points, lines,
    areas, raster, vector, field, feature
  • Crisp vs. fuzzy
  • Geoid vs. Ellipsoid vs. Sphere (Accuracy)
  • Software and human society
  • Models and tools
  • Interoperability

23
Geography transformed by GIS
  • Solutions to many geographic problems are not
    entirely technical, how much of a role can GIS
    play?
  • Research challenges encompass whole discipline
    (e.g. impact of scale, human settlements), GIS
    can play role
  • Interdisciplinary, Multidisciplinary and
    Transdisciplinary problems
  • Geographic analysis vs. GIS analysis

24
"the generic issues that surround the use of GIS
technology, impede its successful implementation,
or emerge from an understanding of its potential
capabilities." (Goodchild, 1992)
Geographic Information Science
25
Multiple Convergent Tools
  • World Wide Web/Internet
  • Global Positioning System
  • High mobility computing
  • Remote sensing
  • Visualization
  • OOGIS and Open GIS Consortium
  • Integration of GIS and analysis/modeling

26
GIS meets the internet New tools
  • Data depository and distribution system
  • Map server systems e.g. IMS web-enable existing
    GISs
  • New display and query mechanisms e.g. GeoVRML,
    GML (XML)
  • Highly distributed databases
  • Alexandria and ADEPT, Digital Earth, Global Map

27
Web-enabled thematic mapping
28
Spatially-aware web searching
29
GPS
  • Since SA removal, 4-10m RMSE positioning in 2D
  • Very inexpensive technology
  • Black Box functionality
  • Fully integrated into mapping systems

30
(No Transcript)
31
UCSB Prototype Wearable Computer (Project
Battuta) PC-104 based System with
Microoptical Display, Garmin GPS, and Twiddler 2.
32
Visualization
33
(No Transcript)
34
A New General Geography?
  • Problem orientation
  • GIS data provide solution context
  • Analytical tools provide approach
  • Models allow scenario development, consequence
    prediction and planning
  • GIS can help in the final, decision-making
    process (PPGIS)
  • GIS can help explore solutions (visualization)

35
More than telescopes, many revolutions at once
GISs are simultaneously the telescope, the
microscope, the computer, and the Xerox machine
of regional analysis and synthesis of spatial
data. (Ron Abler, 1988)
36
The bottom line
  • Science vs. Technology a worthless division
  • Geography needs both Galileos AND Lippersheys
  • Geography has always been interdisciplinary
  • Transdisciplinary problems are now approachable
  • Born in geography and cartography, GIS is
    powerful enough a concept to have transcended
    geography
  • GISystems has become GIScience
  • GIS can lead geography to a problem-solving
    orientation
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