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Title: ENUM and related issues Austrian Nortel Networks User Association 24 June 2004


1
ENUM and related issues Austrian Nortel Networks
User Association 24 June 2004
  • Richard Stastny, ÖFEG Austrian ENUM Platform

The opinions expressed here may or may not be
that of my company
2
What is ENUM?
  • Electronic or E.164 NUMber mapping defined by the
    Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in RFC3761
  • mapping of Telephone Numbers to Uniform
    Resource Identifiers (URIs) using the Domain Name
    System (DNS)
  • URIs are used to identify resources on the
    Internet (e.g. http//enum.nic.at )

3
ENUM in a nutshell
43 1 7972840 32
  • take an E.164 phone number
  • turn it into a FQDN

2.3.0.4.8.2.7.9.7.1.3.4.e164.arpa.
  • query the DNS
  • returns list of URIs

siprichard.stastny_at_iphone.at
To understand ENUM you must understand the DNS
4
It is even worse
  • To understand ENUM you must not only understand
    the DNS and URIs
  • You also must understand
  • E.164 numbers
  • VoIP (Voice over IP) IP Telephony, Internet
    Telephony, VoB, VON, IP Communications, …
  • IP terminals, clients, servers and applications
  • The global end-to-end philosophy of the Internet
  • Broadband Access

5
Content
  • Some facts on Broadband Access
  • Types of IP Communications
  • How does VoIP work? (e.g. SIP)
  • What is ENUM adding?
  • How does ENUM work?
  • ENUM in Austria

Note IP Communications is not only IP Telephony
it is IP based services and applications
ONE of these applications is VoIP - and others
like Directory, Mobility, Instant Messaging,
Presence, Video, Chat, SMS, and, and, …
will become more and more important
6
Some facts on Broadband Access
  • Broadband is an important enabler for real-time
    IP Communications
  • to be able to use IP Communications including
    Video one needs to have Broadband Access
  • the definition of Broadband varies from
  • gtISDN (Bonsai Broadband) Europe, US
  • gt1MB Broadband - Asia
  • gt10 MB Big Broadband (FTTC, FTTH)

7
Leading broadband economies
Korea 80 of households
Source ITU World Telecommunication Indicators
Database
8
Broadbands fast growth
Broadband access has quietly grown faster than
mobile phones in their early stages
Source ITU World Telecommunication Indicators
Database
9
Broadband networks
While most current broadband networks are based
on copper lines, fiber optic and wireless
technologies are the broadband of the future
  • Phone lines (DSL)
  • Coaxial cables
  • Fibre optic cables (FTTC, FTTH)
  • Wireless (WiFi, WiMAX)

Source ITU World Telecommunication Indicators
Database
10
Broadband prices
Overall subscription charges are important
But factoring in the speed of the connection and
income is the more telling story
Source ITU research
11
Nothing less than the demolition of Japans
telecom industry Wired Magazine, August 2003
Example Japan YahooBB
Introduction
Now 4 Mio VoIP subscribers 35/mo 24 MB/s
Source http//bbpromo.yahoo.co.jp
12
Huh?
  • Are Telcos/service providers doomed?
  • What are the Business Models?
  • What is a service and what is a product?
  • Where is the beef?
  • Some solutions

13
Types of IP Communications
5 business models
  • Self-provided DIY Skype, Peerio, …
  • Voice service independent of ISP Vonage, …
  • Voice service sold by ISP Yahoo!BB, …
  • Corporate internal use IP PBX, …
  • Carrier internal use NGN, …

Source Analysis
14
To explain this an example
What is a PBX?
Media Network
Trunk Cards
Station Cards
TDM PBX
1010
Software
A proprietory box
So what is new with an IP PBX?
Source Citel
15
What is an IP PBX?
Media Network
Trunk Cards
Station Cards
TDM PBX
1010
Software
Media Network
Break it down! Specialize! Set the software free!
Handset Gateway (Terminal Adaptor)
Source Citel
16
Adding Features to TDM PBX
Admin Server
Admin Link
PSTN
Circuit Trunks
TDM PBX
1010
IP Trunk Adaptor
CTI Adaptor
Remote Access
IP
WAN or VPN
IP T. A.
  • Whats wrong with
  • this picture??
  • Do you think this will work?
  • What will it cost to maintain?

RAA
Branch PBX / KTS
Source Citel
17
Adding Features in IP
PSTN
Trunks
Trunk Gateway
1010
1010
1010
LAN
WAN or VPN
LAN
1010
IP PBX Plus Applications
Add. benefit Global Access
1010
1010
  • Software can be spread across many devices. One
    company doesnt have to make all the elements.
    Different elements can be placed anywhere.
  • PC Softphone from Microsoft, Handset Gateway
    from Citel, phones from new IP PBX vendor plus
    your old phones.
  • A Handset Gateway (TA) converts your existing
    PBX telephones into IP phones without doing a LAN
    upgrade or buying new phones.
  • The IP PBX may interwork easily with other
    applications on the server and the clients

Source Citel
18
Integration of IP Communications with MS Office
2003
Mail folders
E-mail
Mail Calendar Contacts
Phone call
IM, voice, video and data call
Office Phone Conference
19
Siemens Openscape
20
SIP Phones 2004
21
Rent vs. Buy
  • An IP PBX is a software application on a server.
  • You can buy and operate the service yourself…

PSTN
Trunks
Trunk Gateway
IP PBX
LAN
IP PBX Software Applications
1010
Source Citel
22
Rent vs. Buy
  • An IP PBX is a software application on a server.
  • You can buy and operate the service yourself…
  • or you can rent the service from a service
    provider.

Service Provider (RBOC / CLEC / ISP)
Customer
PSTN
PSTN Gateway
IP WAN
Hosted
LAN
IP PBX
IP PBX Software Applications
1010
IP Centrex
Source Citel
23
The Tokyo Gas Shock!
  • Tokyo Gas incumbent utility provider for Tokyo
    prefecture
  • In December 2002 became Fusions largest IP
    Centrex customer
  • 30,000 subscribers over 100 sites
  • Previously implemented PBXs
  • IP Centrex and VoIP reduces network cost by 500
    million/year
  • NTT Data resold Fusion service to Tokyo Gas
  • Uniden SIP Phone used on the desktop
  • First enterprise quality IP telephone with
    retail price less than US100

24
IP Centrex vs. Virtual Operators
  • Virtual Operators are in principle offering a
    hosted IP PBX for a user community
  • So most business models of Analysis are
    implemented with the same SW
  • Self-provided DIY Skype, Peerio, …
  • Voice service independent of ISP Vonage, …
  • Voice service sold by ISP Yahoo!BB, …
  • Corporate internal use IP PBX, …
  • Carrier internal use NGN, …
  • What about DYI and Carrier internal use?
  • Also the distinction between public and private
    networks is blurring on the Internet

25
In January 1994, Analysys asked How long will it
be before you can download a PBX from the
Internet?
Introduction
Do it yourself?
Source Analysys
Source VoiSpeed, 2004
26
or BYO Gateway
  • e.g. the Sipura SPA-3000
  • One FXS/one FXO port
  • Supports outbound call routing through multiple
    SIP providers
  • Supports PSTN-to-SIP and SIP-to-PSTN bridging
  • Supports routing of incoming calls based on
    caller-ID or pin entry
  • Single and dual stage dialing
  • Failover to PSTN on power outage
  • Supports automatic routing of 911 calls over the
    PSTN line
  • Supports music-on-hold server
  • Supports encrypted SIP calls.

130
27
or the Intertex IX66
Analogue Terminal Adapter with xDSL Modem FXO
Port FXS Ports LAN Port WLAN Access Point
PSTN
FXO
FXS
xDSL
WAN
(W) LAN
  • May be used as product DYI
  • or as service by a provider
  • preconfigured (even SIM-locked)
  • external access (Administration)
  • external/automatic SW-update

28
Carrier internal use?
  • What was said before about IP PBX is also valid
    for the CO
  • and it will also use internally the same SW
  • and some additional (bottleneck) devices, e.g.
    Session Border Controller
  • Walled garden (private networks?) approach by
  • Cable operators
  • Mobile operators (3GPP)
  • Fixed operators?
  • Problem
  • access by mobile and nomadic users
  • Mobile operators have roaming agreements,
  • but also their users want access in WiFi hotspots
  • may use general purpose terminals with VoIP
    clients via UMTS
  • Dual Mode devices coming out soon

29
Mobile fixed convergence
Source Longboard
30
Now the telcos are vertical
Regulatory boundaries
Services
T E L C O
T E L C O
T E L C O
T E L C O
Transport
Access
NGN
NGN
31
Horizontal layering
Regulatory boundaries?
...
Services
SIP
MAIL
IM
WEB
Internet
Transport
...
PSTN ISDN
GSM UMTS
Access
xDSL
W-LAN
32
The Future of the Telcos?
FUTURE
TODAY
33
Being a Wireline Telco
  • How to survive the collapse of the PSTN?

34
So what can a Telco/ISP provide?
  • The broadband access to the Internet
  • Part of the backbone
  • The gateway to the PSTN
  • Routing of the E.164 number to this gateway
  • ENUM Registrar and ENUM Tier 2 NS Provider
  • SIP Server hosting (residential and IP centrex)
  • Domain Name Hosting
  • Circle of Trust for Accounting and Billing
  • Intelligent Packaging for Joe Doe Users

35
Where is the beef?
  • VoIP and Video Users need Broadband
  • Boosts DSL Rollout - /month
  • SIP Server hosting - /month
  • ENUM hosting - /month
  • Gateway operation
  • Incoming calls - /call on PSTN
  • Outgoing calls - /call on Internet (via
    assertion)
  • Participation in Trust Circle
  • on each transaction
  • Certificates /month
  • Sell books, info, sex and flowers (transfer
    premium rate services to assertions)

36
So there is life after death!
  • It is not as much as now
  • But not "yet" the Apocalypse Now
  • The bad news is
  • Everbody can do this
  • The good news is
  • Everbody can do this
  • also the Incumbent!
  • So this is "only" The Perfect Storm

37
VoIP
  • Why is this change in business models and
    structure?
  • because VoIP (SIP) just works like e-mail
  • VoIP is just another application on the Internet

38
How does VoIP work?
Location Server
DNS Server
REGISTER jiri_at_195.37.78.173.
DNS QUERY SRV iptel.org
DNS
details next slide
SIP
Inbound Proxy Server
Outbound Proxy Server
SIP Trapezoid
INVITE jiri_at_iptel.org
SIP
SIP
SIP
caller_at_sip.com
jiri_at_iptel.org
Media (RTP)
User Agent A
User Agent B
39
Basic SIP Call-Flow (Proxy Mode)
Location Database
Proxy
sipjiri_at_195.37.78.173
Caller_at_sip.com
40
So what is ENUM adding?
  • Enabling the interworking between PSTN and
    IP-networks
  • Terminals on the PSTN may dial only numbers and
    not URIs
  • Linking to together VoIP islands on the Internet
  • IP PBX
  • Hosted IP PBX (IP Centrex)
  • Carrier islands

41
Global Enterprise VoIP Dial Plan
  • ENUM could unite global private VoIP dialing
    plans across existing VPN and Intranet Links on
    diverse vendor Platforms
  • ENUM unites them through common administration
    and access plan

ENUM Public or Internal
42
MSO Market Optimal Service Routing
MSO - Multiple System Operators
  • MSOs could optimize VoIP call termination
    strategies by routing calls directly from one
    operator to another
  • Essentially Friends and Family dialing plans
    among MSOs

ENUM e164mso.net
43
NGN Japanese DSL VOIP Operators
  • The story of the year is Japans explosive
    VoIP-DSL market
  • Greenfield SPs could optimize VoIP call
    termination strategies by routing calls directly
    from one operator to another

Operator ENUM voip.co.jp
44
Why E.164 Numbers ?
  • Addressing is the most important asset in ANY
    network service!
  • People know how to use Telephone Numbers
  • Telephone numbering system (E.164 is stable
    global and reliable)
  • Billions of devices only use numeric key pads,
    especially wireless
  • In the case of Local Number Portability (FCC
    First Order and Report), MCI has stated that,
    based on a nationwide Gallup survey, 83 percent
    of business customers and 80 percent of
    residential customers would be unlikely to change
    service providers if they had to change their
    telephone numbers.
  • ENUM is perhaps the ultimate in number
    portability
  • VoIP and new IP Services (Instant Messaging,
    Video) can use Real Telephone Numbers!
  • URIs like sipuser_at_domain have advantages and
    disadvantages
  • Biggest problem they cannot be dialed on the PSTN
  • In fact they cannot be dialed at all …
  • URIs and telephone numbers will co-exist for the
    indefinite future

45
Structure of ITU-T E.164 Numbers
  • Structure very suitable for delegation in DNS

CC
NDC
SN
1-3 digits
N digits
Max (15-N) digits
National (significant) number
International public telecommunication Number for
geographical areas
CC Country Code NDC National Destination
Code SN Subscriber Number
46
How does ENUM work ?
Telephone Number (TN) 43 1 979 33 21 translates
to
1.2.3.3.9.7.9.1.3.4.e164.arpa
Tier 1 resolution to NS of authority ( pointer
only)
1.2.3.3.9.7.9.1.3.4.e164.arpa. IN NS ns1.iphone.at
Tier 2 resolution to NAPTR record and SIP URL
controlled at the end office
IN NAPTR 10 10 "u" E2Usip !.!SIPrichard_at_ip
hone.at! .
set up call
47
Name Space .arpa
root
com
org
info
net
de
int gov mil edu
at
se
uk
gTLDs
ccTLDs
Tier 0
co
oefeg
stastny
microsoft
Tier 1
xxx.stastny.com
oefeg
atc
yyy_at_stastny.com
oefeg.co.at
Tier 2
0.8.7.9.7.1.3.4.e164.arpa
48
The ENUM "Tiers"
Registry
Tier-0
International-RIPE-NCC and ITU-TSB
National
CC 43
CC 1
Directs the DNS query to the customers Tier-2
providers. An NS record is provided for each
subscribers telephone number
Registry
Registry
Tier-1
Tier-1
Stores a list of service specific internet
addresses in the form of URIs in a DNS resource
record called NAPTR for each subscriber. Returns
the full list of Internet addresses associated
with the E.164 number being queried.
Provider
Tier-2
An NS record is an authoritative Name Server DNS
record used to delegate to subordinates
49
ENUM and VoIP
ENUM DNS
IN NAPTR 3.4.3.9.1.1.1.3.9.3.0.1.8.7.8.e164.arpa.
?
... NAPTR ... "!.!sip19343_at_fwd.pulver.com!"
DNS SRV lookup fwd.pulver.com
SIP
SIP
server
server
878103931119343
sip19343_at_fwd.pulver.com
session
sipaxelm_at_nic.at43.at
sipmah_at_nic.at43.at
sip18341_at_fwd.pulver.com
sip19343_at_fwd.pulver.com
50
(Very short) ENUM History
  • 1999 IETF ENUM WG formed
  • 2000 IETF ENUM WG RFC2916
  • 2001 Various Workshops (ITU-T, Europe, US,
    Asia, …)
  • 2002 ITU-T Interim Procedures (IAB, RIPE-NCC)
    ITU-T generic TLD Investigation
    ETSI TS 102 051 "ENUM Administration in Europe"
  • 2003 ETSI TS 102 172 "Minimum Requirements for
    Interoperability of European ENUM
    Trials" Various ENUM Trials
  • 2004 ETSI ENUM Workshop (Feb 2004) and Plugtest
    (E2004)
  • IETF New RFC 3761
  • Enumservices registration with IANA
  • ETSI TS 102 172 v2, TS 102 055
    Infrastructure ENUM
  • 1st Commercialization in Austria

51
ENUM Delegations
Delegations in e164.arpa as of June 1st, 2004
  • 31 Netherlands
  • 33 France
  • 353 Ireland
  • 358 Finland
  • 36 Hungary
  • 374 Armenia
  • 40 Romania
  • 41 Switzerland
  • 420 Czech Republic
  • 421 Slovakia
  • 423 Liechtenstein
  • 43 Austria
  • 44 UK
  • 46 Sweden
  • 48 Poland
  • 49 Germany
  • 246 Diego Garcia
  • 247 Ascension
  • 290 Saint Helena
  • 55 Brazil
  • 65 Singapore
  • 86 China
  • 88234 Global Networks
  • 87810 VISIONng UPT
  • 971 UAE
  • 1 North America gains momentum
  • additional Asian countries (Korea, Japan,
    Australia, …) soon to come ?

http//www.ripe.net/enum/request-archives/
52
ENUM in Austria
  • Background and History
  • Legal Framework
  • Main Use Cases
  • ENUM-driven number range
  • The generic gateway
  • Identification and Validation
  • Planned activities 2004

53
ENUM Background in Austria
  • 2000-09 Start of activities within Telekom
    Austria
  • 2001-08 First consultation by Austrian regulator
    (RTR)
  • 2002-02 ENUM Workshop RTR, group of interested
    partners formed
  • 2002-05 Delegation request by RTR to RIPE,
    ITU-TSB for 3.4.e164.arpa
  • 2002-06 Tier 1 Registry in operation by NIC.AT
    (the Austrian ccTLD)
  • 2002-09 Austrian ENUM Trial Platform established
    officially
  • 2002-09 ENUM Tier 2 Nameserver (Telekom Austria)
    in operation
  • 2002-11 Policy Framework available, official
    start of trial
  • 2002-11 First Live Demo in Atlanta, GA (Fall
    VON/TIPHON/VISIONng)
  • 2002-12 Ready to invite friendly ENUM subscribers
    and users
  • 2003-02 Conversion to ETSI TS 102 172 compliance
  • 2003-10 1st part of trial completed, 2nd phase
    (business customers)
  • 2003-12 Large Scale ENUM and VoIP Pilot started
    at the Uni Vienna (AT43)
  • 2003-10 Decision to start preparation for
    commercial deployment
  • 2004-05 New Numbering Ordinance defines
    ENUM-driven number range
  • 2004-10 Target date for commercial ENUM start

54
Legal Framework
  • New Austrian Telecommunication Law (TKG 2003)
  • based on the New European Framework (NRF)
  • New Numbering Ordinance in Austria
  • in force since May 12th, 2004
  • taking VoIP and ENUM already into account
  • 43 720 for national portable numbers and
    VoIP (semi-nomadic)
  • 43 780 for VoIP and ENUM (nomadic)
  • Contract between NRA (RTR) and Tier 1 Registry
    (nic.at)
  • contains the policy framework for ENUM
  • the charter for the 3.4.e164.arpa domain
  • the validation guidelines for the Registry and
    Registrars
  • basic technical, operational and administrative
    requirements
  • Consulting on VoIP and ENUM issues by the
    Austrian ENUM Platform and the AK-TK
    (Intercarrier Platform)

55
Main Use Cases for ENUM
  • Business IP PBX and IP Centrex
  • with geographic and/or corporate numbers (ENUM
    opt-in)
  • linking VoIP islands together globally via the
    Internet
  • will be reached from the PSTN via private or
    public gateways
  • Residential and Business ENUM-driven numbers
  • IP device can be reached from IP and PSTN (via
    generic gateways)
  • calls may be routed to IP directly from the
    originating PSTN network
  • Residential mobile numbers (ENUM opt-in)
  • terminate IP originated calls on IP, plus
    evenually forwarding or forking to the mobile
    phone
  • PSTN operators may provide forced ENUM access
    from the PSTN via GG
  • Residential geographic numbers (ENUM opt-in)
  • secondary line (separate termination on PSTN and
    IP)
  • primary line attached via terminal adapter or
    SIP-server with FXO port
  • primary line (ported out), reached from PSTN via
    PoI

56
ENUM-driven Number Range
  • Format 43 780 abcdef (ghi)
  • the registration of the ENUM domain IS the number
    assignment
  • a cancellation of the ENUM domain will relinquish
    the number
  • easy, cheap, one-step process
  • decoupling of number range allocation and gateway
    operator
  • any gateway may route the whole number
    range, just needs to be able to query ENUM
  • any gateway may route similar number ranges
    (e.g. 87810, 42360, 260510, …)
  • these gateways are called generic gateways (GG)

57
The Generic Gateway
ENUMTier 1
ENUM Registry
Generic Gateway Operator
IPCSP Registrar
ENUMTier 2
PSTN ENUM-driven number range e.g. 43 780
Subscription
Internet
Registration
Calling Party A
Called Party B
58
Identification and Validation
  • Identification of E.164 number assignees within
    the ENUM system
  • depends on identification required for E.164
    number
  • (Re-)Validation (re-)checks the right to use the
    E.164 number
  • this does not necessarily require identification
    within ENUM
  • Validation methods therefore depend on the number
    range used
  • ENUM-driven numbers (43780)
  • only identification may be required (pre-paid?),
    validation is implicit
  • phone book entry required
  • Mobile numbers (opt-in)
  • validation via SIM-Card (e.g. SMS)
  • numbers directly assigned to end-user (e.g.
    private networks) (opt-in)
  • validation via assignment document
  • geographic numbers (opt-in)
  • validation via credentials under investigation,
    ev. call back,
  • If RegistrarTSP Identification and Validation
    internal matter

59
Austrian National Activities 2004
  • Establish a national policy framework 2Q2004
  • Start commercial deployment of ENUM 3Q2004
  • Residential customers
  • ENUM-driven number range 43780 (and also 87810
    VISIONng)
  • Mobile numbers (opt-in)
  • geographic numbers (terminating on IP) (opt-in)
  • geographic numbers primary line on PSTN (opt-in)
  • Corporate Customers (IP PBX and IP Centrex)
  • Geographic/network numbers (opt-in, IP PBX)
  • Geographic/network numbers (opt-in, ported out,
    IP Centrex)
  • Deploy Generic Gateways (GG) and ENUM access
    codes from PSTN
  • Planned
  • Make numbers in ENUM SMS- and MMS-enabled
  • Provide trusted identification on SIP for CLI
    (emergency service)
  • Provide certificates for E.164 numbers
  • to be used in signaling and validation
  • Usage of SIM-Cards and IMSI for mobile IP
    Communications
  • Provide location information and emergency
    service routing proxies

60
ENUM Myths
  • DNS is not fast enough..
  • no appreciable effect on call setup times
    (400ms).
  • DNS wont scale?!?!
  • 10 billion data items already
  • More data in intranets than outside
  • Over 100,000,000 delegations already
  • Every E-Mail including spam has to query DNS

61
The End
  • Thank you

Richard Stastny ÖFEG 43 664 420
4100 richard.stastny_at_oefeg.at
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