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Title: Active Learning with Technology: Myths, Magic, or Just a Lot of Bonk

Active Learning with TechnologyMyths, Magic, or
Just a Lot of Bonk
Dr. Curtis J. Bonk Professor, Indiana
University President, CourseShare http//php.india
How can you integrate technology in your classes?
  • Take to lab for group collaboration or search.
  • Take to an electronic conference.
  • Put syllabus or resources on the Web.
  • Experts via video/computer conferencing
  • Teleconferencing talks to tchrs experts
  • Require students sign up for a listserv.
  • Use e-mail minute papers e-mail admin.
  • Have students do technology demos.

Faculty Perceptions and Uses of Instructional
TechnologyWarren Wilson, Educause Quarterly,
Number 2, 2003
  • 3 Most Common Barriers
  • Time, Funding, and Faculty Reward Systems
  • 2 Challenges of Most Impact
  • Technical expertise and unrealistic expectations

How support faculty?
  • Show and Tell, Tech Fair, Share, Brown Bags,
  • Design Web pages to support teaching
  • Faculty technology mentor program
  • Create resident experts for faculty dev
  • Modeling from deans and chairs
  • Incentives hardware, software upgrades, new
    equip priority

More Support (IU) (Rogers, 2000)
  • Internal Support
  • IC, help desk, tech support onsite,
  • small pots of funding, active learning grants
  • summer workshops, colloqs, faculty institutes
  • laptop programs,
  • salient on annual reports, encourage research on
  • External Support tech training, courses,
    certificates resources, conferences, newsletters,
    join network (e.g., GEN), consortia

II. Magic.
A Revolution in Distance LearningStudents scurry
to online courses as colleges respond to demand
by adding offerings, Shawna VanNess,
October 19, 2003
  • US 3 million college students in 2001
  • US 118,000 online courses in 2002
  • Univ of Maryland 40,578 online
  • 17 of 22 undergraduate programs online
  • Univ of Phoenix 72,000 of 163,000 online

Indiana Univ (8 campuses) Fall 2003Students
99,693 loaded 77,407 logged inFaculty 7,461
loaded 5,532 logged inCourses 22,974 loaded
7332 active
Illinois Virtual Campus (Fall 2003
Newsletter)Ivan Lach,
  • 68 Illinois institutions (public and private,
    2-year and 4-year)
  • 3,951 course sections in spr 03
  • 50,125 students, spring 03 (24 inc.)
  • 125,074 online students during year (54
  • 34,399 for summer 03 (45 increase)

See also http// (Oakley,
E-Learning Technologies of Future?
  1. Assistive Technologies Talking Computers
  2. Blogs and Online Diaries
  3. Digital Portfolios
  4. Electronic Books
  5. Online Communities and Learning Portals
  6. Intelligent Agents
  7. Online Exams and Assessment
  8. Online Games and Simulations (Massive Multiplayer
  1. Online Translation Tools Language Lrng
  2. Pedagogical Courseware
  3. Peer-to-Peer Collaboration
  4. Reusable Learning Objects
  5. Videostreaming, IP Videoconferencing
  6. Virtual Worlds/Reality
  7. Wearable Computing
  8. Wireless Tech Tablet PCs, Handheld Devices

1. Computers that Talk to You (595)USA Today,
June 18, 2003
  • How is the weather this morning?
  • What is the score of the Cubs game?
  • What time is it in Helsinki?
  • Give me a recipe for chicken.
  • How did the market do today?
  • What is 16 degrees in Celsius, in Fahrenheit?
  • Where is Finding Nemo playing?

4. Electronic Books
October 11th, 2003
11. Peer-to-Peer Collaboration (
12. Reusable Learning Objects
  • Learning Objects are small or large resources
    that can be used to provide a learning
    experience. These assets can be lessons, video
    clips, images, or even people. The Learning
    Objects can represent tiny "chunks" of knowledge,
    or they can be whole courses.
  • Claude Ostyn, Click2Learn

13. Videostreaming and Videoconferencing (to
take off in next several years 4.5 billion in
2007 (Sept 23, 2003, Stephanie Olsen, CNet
  • I quickly found the standard production-based
    methods for creating and delivering engaging
    e-learning content were not sufficientwe
    discovered the Tegrity WebLearn solution for
    on-demand and live e-learning.
  • once they are recorded, the lectures can be
    reused in subsequent classes or stored as
    reference materialsI now have 100 of my
    lectures ready for the next time I teach this
    class. (On Demand Lectures Create an Effective
    Distrib Ed Experience, T.H.E. Journal, Nov, 2003,
    Stanley D. Lindsey).

15. Wearable Computing
16. Wireless Technology
16. Tablet PCs Finally Taking Off  (Wired News,
Sept 28, 2003)
  • And while Promisel said there will be a consumer
    market for tablet PCs -- such as college students
    taking them to class for note-taking -- what
    really needs to happen for the tablet PC to take
    off is the development of new software
    applications for corporate customers. predicts
    that in 2003, a total of 500,000 tablet PCs will
    be sold around the globe, which represents about
    1 percent of the total portable PC marketBut, by
    2007, IDC forecasts that the tablet PC could
    account for well over 20 percent of the portable

III. Just a Lot of Bonk.
Blended Learning
The Sloan Consortium(2003). Sizing the
Opportunity The Quality and Extent of Online
Education in the U.S., 2002 and 2003
81 offer at least one fully online or blended
course 97 of public institutions do
Why the term blended?(Osguthorpe Graham, 2003,
Blended Learning Environments Definitions and
  • Hybrid is the interbreeding of two different
    species of animals or plants to create a new
    species (i.e., a mongrel)
  • Blended focuses on the mingling together in ways
    that lead to a well-balanced combination (i.e.,
    to mix)

Ok, Million Dollar Question Where is blended
learning beneficial?
Examples of Blended Learning, Margaret Driscoll,
e-Learning, March 2002
  • Put assessments/reviews online
  • Follow-up in community of practice
  • Put reference materials on Web
  • Deliver pre-work online
  • Provide office hours online
  • Use mentoring/coaching tool
  • Access experts live online
  • Use e-mail and instant messaging

10 Blended Learning Examples in Higher Education
1 Internally Built Web Links(Human
Intelligence Homepage, Jonathan Plucker, IU)
2. My Class Discussion Forums, Surveys, Word
Docs, Web Links, Presentations
3. Online Course Portals and Digital Libraries
for Exploration Activities (e.g., Einstein
Digital Manuscript Repository, May 20, 2003)
4. Online Grammar Practice on Spanish (Pew
5. Divide Online and Class Experiences English
Classes OnlineGraham, Ure, Allen (2003, July).
Blended Learning EnvironmentsA Literature Review
and Proposed Research Agenda
  • Freshman English at BYU Students are required to
    meet F2F once a week instead of three times a
    week. Online modules provide writing instruction
    and teaching assistants use online and F2F
    contact to provide feedback and guidance on
    writing (Waddoups et al., 2003).

6. CPA Exam Review (June 14, 2003)and Web
Videos in Accounting (July, 2003)
  • Texas AM UniversityCorpus Christi combines CPA
    courseware with bi-monthly class meetings to prep
    for CPA Exam. (study text, proficiency questions,
    electronic flashcards and practice exams,
    scheduled assignments, goals, online grading,
    progress reports, tailored discussion groups, and
    personalized assistance from leading professors
    at the nations top accounting schools.)

7. TICKIT Program(Teacher Professional
Development, IU)
8. Professional Development Learning Communities
9. Math Emporium of Online Tutorials and Testing
(Virginia Tech, Robert Olin)
  • In the Math Emporium, students can take advantage
    of diagnostic quizzes, an electronic hyperlinked
    textbook and interactive, self-paced tutorials.
    There are armies of tutors, GTAs and faculty in
    the emporium to give students personal help when
    they do not understand the tutorials or
    quizzesSome traditional lectures by professors
    are also available along with help from a
    conventional tutor lab.

10 Web for Live Mentoring MBA Program (Harvi
Singh and Chris Reed (2001), Achieving Success
with Blended Learning, Centra)
  • University of Tennessee Physicians Executive MBA
    program showed blended learning (physical and
    virtual live eLearning) students completed
    program in half the time and less than half the
    cost and with 10 more learning

But how might blended learning address student
learning styles?
Why Address Learning Styles?
  • Promotes reflection on teaching
  • Move from just one mode of delivery
  • View from different viewpoints
  • Offer variety in the class
  • Might lower drop-out rates
  • Fosters experimentation

Kolb (1984)
  • According to Kolb, effective learning involves
    four phases
  • from getting involved (Concrete Experience) to
  • listening/observing (Reflective Observation) to
  • creating an idea (Abstract Conceptualization) to
  • making decisions (Active Experimentation).
  • A person may become better at some of these
    learning skills than others as a result, a
    learning style develops.

1. Read
4. Do
2. Reflect
3. Display
The R2D2 Method
  1. Read (Auditory and Verbal Learners)
  2. Reflect (Reflective Learners)
  3. Display (Visual Learners)
  4. Do (Tactile, Kinesthetic, Exploratory Learners)

1. Auditory or Verbal Learners
  • Auditory and verbal learners prefer words, spoken
    or written explanations.

1a. Videostreamed Lectures and Expert Commenting
  • Video streaming subscription services will take
    off in the next several years, according to a new
    study, which estimates that the market's value
    will reach 4.5 billion in 2007 (Sept 23, 2003,
    Stephanie Olsen, CNet

1b. Read and React to Documents in Foreign
Language (Fraser Liu, IU)
  • Have students receive e-newsletters from a
    foreign magazine as well as respond to related

1c. Blogs (diaries, writing)
2. Reflective and Observational Learners
  • Reflective and observational learners prefer to
    reflect, observe, view, and watch learning they
    make careful judgments and view things from
    different perspectives

2a. Job interviews Internships
  1. Learners interview someone about their job and
    post to the Web or Instructor provides reflection
    or prompt for job related or field observations
  2. Reflect on job setting or observe in field
  3. Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from
  4. Respond to peers
  5. Instructor summarizes posts

2b. Online Testing
2c. Learner-Content Interactions(Sun
2d. Conferences with Live Video Feeds(Internet
Time Group, 6/23/03 http//
2e. Electronic Portfolios
3. Visual Learners
  • Visual learners prefer diagrams, flowcharts,
    timelines, pictures, films, and demonstrations.

3a. Concept Mapping and Visualization Software
3b. Flash Visuals and Animations(e.g.,
Statistics, Cash Flow, etc.)eCollege Wales,
Univ. of Glamorgan
3c. Video Library of Concepts, Cases, or Experts
3d Video Papers
3e. Online Performances(e.g., Cyber Fashion
3f. Interactive Adventure Content(Andrew Revkin,
New York Times, May 25, 2003)

3g. Visual with Chat
  • Participants a facilitator of online therapy,
    students at all levels, a doctoral candidate in
    DE, administrators, teachers, lecturers,
    researchers, a physicists, a professor of
    Psychology, a professor of Mathematics, a
    consultant in training, an HR trainer, and a
    psychotherapist. We were located in Herzelia, a
    beach town north of Tel Aviv, Stanford
    California, Baltimore, Montreal, and Ismir,

4. Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners
  • Tactile/kinesthetic senses can be engaged in the
    learning process are role play, dramatization,
    cooperative games, simulations, creative movement
    and dance, multi-sensory activities,
    manipulatives and hands-on projects.

4a. Authentic Data Interactive News and
4b Learner Content InteractionBusiness
Healthcare Examples (Option 6)
4c. Business Case Simulations and Manipulations
4d. Meaningful Case-Based Learning My and SimTeacher
4e. Meaningful Online Simulations and Resources
(manipulate variables)
4f. Online SimulationsNational Budget Dissection
4g. Posting Oral Histories and Interviews
  • Have learners relate the course material to a
    real-life experience. (Create, edit, and post
    digital movies)
  • Example In a course on Technology Culture,
    students freely shared experiences of visiting
    grandparents on rural farms.

4h. Group Brainstorming and Decision Making Using
(No Transcript)
Intrinsic Motivational Terms?
  1. Tone/Climate Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
  2. Feedback Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
  3. Engagement Effort, Involvement, Excitement
  4. Meaningfulness Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
  5. Choice Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
  6. Variety Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
  7. Curiosity Fun, Fantasy, Control
  8. Tension Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
  9. Interactive Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
  10. Goal Driven Product-Based, Success, Ownership

1. Tone/Climate Ice Breakers
  • A. Eight Nouns Activity
  • 1. Introduce self using 8 nouns
  • 2. Explain why choose each noun
  • 3. Comment on 1-2 peer postings
  • B. Coffee House Expectations
  • 1. Have everyone post 2-3 course expectations
  • 2. Instructor summarizes and comments on how they
    might be met

Tone Social Ice Breakers
  • C. Introductions require not only that students
    introduce themselves, but also that they find and
    respond to two classmates who have something in
    common (Serves dual purpose of setting tone and
    having students learn to use the tool)
  • D. Scavenger Hunt (Surf Web)
  • 1. Create a 20-30 item online scavenger hunt
    (e.g., finding information on the Web)
  • 2. Post scores

2. Feedback.A. Annotations in Word Track
Changes and Commenting
2. Feedback B. Critical/Constructive Friends,
Email Pals
  • Assign a critical friend (based on interests?).
  • Post weekly updates of projects, send reminders
    of due dates, help where needed.
  • Provide criticism to peer (i.e., what is strong
    and weak, whats missing, what hits the mark) as
    well as suggestions for strengthening.
  • In effect, critical friends do not slide over
    weaknesses, but confront them kindly and
  • Reflect on experience.

2. FeedbackRequiring Peer Feedback
  • Alternatives
  • 2C. Require minimum of peer comments and give
    guidance (e.g., they should do)
  • 2D. Peer Feedback Through Templatesgive
    templates to complete peer evaluations.
  • 2E. Have e-papers contest(s)

3. EngagementA. Electronic Voting and Polling
  • 1. Ask students to vote on issue before class
    (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)
  • 2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
  • 3. Discuss with majority pt of view
  • 4. Repoll students after class
  • (Note Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique
  • anonymous input till a due date
  • and then post results and
  • reconsider until consensus
  • Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)

4. MeaningfulnessA. Field Reflections
  1. Instructor provides reflection or prompt for job
    related or field observations
  2. Reflect on job setting or observe in field
  3. Record notes on Web and reflect on concepts from
  4. Respond to peers
  5. Instructor summarizes posts

4. MeaningfulnessB. Case-Based Learning
Student Cases
  1. Model how to write a case
  2. Practice answering cases.
  3. Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field
  4. Link to the text materialrelate to how how text
    author or instructor might solve.
  5. Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
  6. Summarize the discussion in their case.
  7. Summarize discussion in a peer case.

5. Choice A. Multiple Topics
  • Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask
    students to participate in 2 out of 3
  • Provide different discussion tracks (much like
    conference tracks) for students with different
    interests to choose among
  • List possible topics and have students vote
    (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
  • Have students list and vote.

5. ChoiceB. Discussion Starter-Wrapper (Hara,
Bonk, Angeli, 2000)
  • Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and
    others participate and wrapper summarizes what
    was discussed.
  • Start-wrapper with roles--same as 1 but include
    roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's
  • C. Alternative Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
  • Instead of starting discussion, student acts as
    moderator or questioner to push student thinking
    and give feedback

6. Variety A. Just-In-Time-Teaching
  • Gregor Novak, IUPUI Physics Professor (teaches
    teamwork, collaboration, and effective
  • Lectures are built around student answers to
    short quizzes that have an electronic due date
    just hours before class.
  • Instructor reads and summarizes responses before
    class and weaves them into discussion and changes
    the lecture as appropriate.

7. CuriosityA. Synchronous Chats
  1. Find article or topic that is controversial
  2. Invite person associated with that article
    (perhaps based on student suggestions)
  3. Hold real time chat
  4. Pose questions
  5. Discuss and debrief (i.e., did anyone change
    their minds?)

(Alternative B. Email Interviews with experts)
7. Curiosity B. Games Online Jeopardy Game Games2Train
The Challenge
8. Tension Role Play
  • A. Role Play Personalities
  • List possible roles or personalities (e.g.,
    coach, optimist, devils advocate, etc.)
  • Sign up for diff role every week (or 1 main one)
  • Reassign roles if someone drops class
  • Perform within roles refer to diff personalities
  • B. Assume Persona of Scholar (Enroll famous
    people in your course
  • Students assume voice of that person for one or
    more sessions

Role 3 Conqueror or Debater/Arguer/Bloodletter
  • Takes ideas into action, debates with others,
    persists in arguments and never surrenders or
    compromises nomatter what the casualties are when
    addressing any problem or issue.

Role 4 Devil's Advocate or Critic/Censor/Confeder
  • Takes opposite points of view for the sake of an
    argument and is an antagonist when addressing any
    problem posed. This might be a weekly role that
    is secretly assigned.

9. Interactive A. Thoughtful Team Reflection
10. Goal DrivenA. Team Product
  • Team or Course White Paper, Business Plan, Study
    Guide, Glossary, Journal Have students work in
    teams to produce a product and share with other
  • Post work to online gallery. Expert Review and
    rate projects (authentic audience)
  • Students generate products for the class

Circle Best Three Ideas
  • 3 Definitely Will Use ___________________________
  • 3 May Explore ___________________________
  • 3 No Way
  • ___________________________

Dont Give Up!!!
Questions and Answers???