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The future is coming

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Title: The future is coming


1
Stand by
The future is coming
2
There is a change in the air
Built Environment and its Impacts on Healthy
Living Dan Burden, Principal and Senior Urban
Designer, Founder of Walkable Communities
A Century of Unintended Consequences got us to
here
3
We live in sobering times
The World Has Changed. The paving the way to
sprawl building practices of the past are
coming to the end. No one fully understands what
will replace these practices, but it will be
different, more walkable and workable, more
balanced, more focused on people, being less
isolated, more social, with less support for SOV
travel.
4
What is the first thing an infant wants to do
and the last thing an older person wants to give
up? Walking is the exercise that does not
need a gym. It is the prescription without
medicine, the weight control without diet, and
the cosmetic that cant be found in a chemist. It
is the tranquilizer without a pill, the therapy
without a psychoanalyst, and the holiday that
does not cost a penny. Whats more, it does not
pollute, consumes few natural resources and is
highly efficient. Walking is convenient, it needs
no special equipment, is self-regulating and
inherently safe. .
A walkability plan must set a stage for all other
modes of transportation to work, including
transit. If people cannot walk then transit
remains ineffective.
5
Why we cannot build our way out of traffic
Traffic Growth
Roads built
Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) around the U.S. have
increased by 70 percent over the last 20 years,
compared with a two percent increase in new
highway construction. The U.S. General
Accounting Office predicts that road congestion
in the U.S. will triple in 15 years even if
capacity is increased by 20 percent. Traffic is
growing about five times faster than the growth
in population. (Data compiled for a report to
the U.S. Department of Transportation in 2006
written by Stephen Polzin, (transportation
researcher at the University of South Florida in
Tampa.)
6
How can you know what to try with traffic until
.
  • Automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the
    villains responsible for the ills of cities and
    the disappointments and futilities of city
    planning. But the destructive effects of
    automobiles are much less a cause than a symptom
    of our incompetence at city building.
  • The simple needs of automobiles are more easily
    understood and satisfied than the complex needs
    of cities, and a growing number of planners and
    designers have come to believe that if they can
    only solve the problems of traffic, they will
    thereby have solved the major problems of cities.
  • Cities have much more intricate economic and
    social concerns than automobile traffic. How can
    you know what to try with traffic until you know
    how the city itself works, and what else it needs
    to do with its streets? You can't.
  • Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American
    Cities , 1961

7
1965
8
So what makes societies happy?
Feelings of well-being are determined as much by
status and social connectedness as by income.
Richer people are happier than poor people, but
societies with wider income gaps are less happy
on the whole. People who interact more with
friends, family and neighbours are happier than
those who dont.
Recent studies on life satisfaction show that
commuting makes people more unhappy than anything
else in life.
There are a few things we can agree on about
happiness, he says. You need to fulfill your
potential as a human being. You need to walk. You
need to be with other people. Most of all, you
need to not feel inferior. When you talk about
these things, designing a city can be a very
powerful means to generate happiness. From a
recent article on Enrique Penalosa, former Mayor
of Bogota, Columbia
9
One should choose as a livelihood activities
which support nature and society, adhere to the
path of peace, and study to acquire useful
knowledge. This is the way to happiness. Charak
a Samhita Ancient Ayurvedic Text  
10
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11
Internal Trip Capture
12
If it werent for the damn pedestrian there would
be no traffic problem in Los Angeles circa
1972, Los Angeles Traffic Engineer
Compact villages and a strong civilian presence
is the only solution to our traffic problems
circa 1995, San Diego Traffic Engineer
13
Chain of Impacts
FIRST ORDER
Widen Road
14
Chain of Impacts
Accept Congestion
FIRST ORDER
Increase Delay
Increase Cost
Use Alternative Modes
Own Fewer Cars
Improve Home
Drive Less
SECOND ORDER
Main Street
Less Strip
Community Reinvestment
THIRD ORDER
Keep Business
Keep Jobs
Less VMT
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Bad
Good
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19
School Busing and Parent Drop Offs
Building mega-schools and school busing practices
addressed a number of social, civil and economic
issues. But.School busing and parent drop offs
now account for as much as 30 of rush hour
traffic. Many children no longer feel connected
to their neighborhood. In some towns afternoon
school rush hour is bigger than the morning
commuter rush hour. This effect is part of an
undesired result of poorly located, oversized
schools, poor walkability, wide roadways, poor
neighborhood design and school busing not being
charged to local school boards.
20
Well Designed Density
What are the problems here?
Urban-Advantage.com
Lack of Security
Auto dependence
Lack of people
No place to buy a popsicle
Lack of investment
Lack of diversity
Lack of diversity
Lack of activity
21
George Washington was one of the first Americans
to envision making use of water for
transportation. Ben Franklin put money into the
venture. But, It was not until 1825 with the
completion of the Erie Canal in New York that
canal builders were vindicated. As the model for
most subsequent canals, the Erie ushered in the
canal era with great fanfare, proving to an
excited nation caught up in the Great Jubilee
that the American economy and spirit could indeed
benefit from a system of inland waterways.
22
What interest group did the most to lead America
out of the soupy mud that kept travel and speed
near walking speed?
23
We are pushing ahead with a great road program,
a road program that will take this Nation out of
its antiquated shackles of secondary roads It
will be a nation of great prosperity, but will be
more than that  it will be a nation that is
going ahead every day The expanding horizon is
one that staggers the imagination. October
29, 1954
24
People once fled cities for their health
Tennessee Avenue, Tallahassee, Florida
Today people are returning to cities
for their health
Portland, Oregon
25
Central Park New York City
Frederick Law Olmsted led the first effort to
separate traffic (by Functional Classification)
26
Townhouses frame the square while open space
provides an outdoor environment for nearby
residents
The largest lots of the TND can be at the edge
Civic buildings Should be terminate street or
open space vistas
In these cases where a TND is bordered by a
principal street higher intensity uses such as
medium density housing can be used in creating
the edge
The intensity of uses should gravitate away from
the neighborhood center
Based on the 1928 drawings by James Perry
27
Grosse Point Park, Michigan
155 homes x 101550 trips
28
Grosse Point Park, Michigan
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30
Security
31
Density with Design
Dover Kohl Partners
1980s 90s Density, but
32
Density with Design
Dover Kohl Partners
In New Projects Maintain the Relationship of
Building and the Street
33
Density with Design
Dover Kohl Partners
In New Projects Make the Streets Good Neighbors
34
Density with Design
Dover Kohl Partners
In New Projects Promote the Street as an
Amenity, and Inspire Investment
35
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Sick Schools
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41
Honolulu, Hawaii
42
San Francisco, California
17th Avenue and Vicente Street
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Trains and Trolleys helped America settle its
land. They also allowed us to frame and form our
best town centers and neighborhoods.
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51
2001 National Geographic Magazine Article on
Sprawl Photo by Newsday
Where are the parks? Where are the trails? Where
is the public realm? Where do people gather? How
do you go place to place? Where do you buy a
popsicle? How does a child visit a friend?
Levittown New York
National Geographic
52
Americas First Development
1550 feet from THE CHEERS BAR, 6 other bars, 8
delis, 4 banks, 3 hardware stores, 2 florists,
18 restaurants, 5 churches, grocer, pharmacist,
medical and dozens more.
Beacon Hill, Boston
53
1550 feet from NOTHING
Orlando, Florida
54
Not Walkable
Walkable
High Car Dependency
Low Car Dependency
Serious Congestion
Moderate Congestion
55
Inhabitants of walkable neighborhoods
healthier The Canadian Press April 7, 2009
Vancouver -- Researchers at the University of
British Columbia say two new studies confirm
people are healthier if they live in
neighbourhoods where it's easy to walk to work,
school and play. The studies show residents are
less likely to be overweight, obese or have high
blood pressure if all their needs are within
walking distance. Experts said yesterday that
the findings build on previous research showing
that adults who walk at least 30 minutes a day,
five days a week enjoy significant health
benefits. Researchers said the walking doesn't
have to be continuous exercise - it can include
short walks for daily activities, such as trips
to buy groceries, go to school, or visit friends.
56
Connectivity
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58
Make blocks a walkable size
block perimeters of 1,500 to 2,000 create a
connected network of streets
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Roswell, Georgia 3,260 miles of roads
Hardscrabble Rd.
Houze Rd.
Hembree Rd.
Crabapple Rd.
Crossville Rd.
Alpharetta Hwy.
Woodstock Rd.
Pine Grove Rd.
Old Ala Rd.
Holcomb Bridge Rd.
Marietta Hwy.
Azalea
Riverside Rd.
61
Roswell, Georgia 3,260 miles of roads 760 miles
connect Only 22 of roads are doing the heavy
lifting
Hardscrabble Rd.
Houze Rd.
Hembree Rd.
Crabapple Rd.
Crossville Rd.
Alpharetta Hwy.
Woodstock Rd.
Pine Grove Rd.
Old Ala Rd.
Holcomb Bridge Rd.
Marietta Hwy.
Azalea
Riverside Rd.
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University City Area
68
University City Area
69
NE Corridor Station Areas
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The Popsicle Test Can you take a
Popsicle to your brother or sister from the store
to your house before it melts?
72
Design for a mix of land uses
Centers include denser housing, a square,
civic uses, and neighborhood- oriented retail.
Neighborhood Centers
Parks and Open Spaces
Civic Buildings
73
Land Use Pattern Affects Travel Higher Density
can reduce Vehicle Trips
Significant reduction in VMT as we go from 3-4
units/acre to over 20 units/acre
Vehicle Trips
2-3 du/a
Walking Trips
Source John Holtzclaw, PhD, Sierra Club
74
8-10 du/a net
11-12 du/a net
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Walking teaches us who to share with
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If Cities are to reduce auto-dependence a
working alternative should include Strip centers
are replaced with town squares, destinations are
a walkable scale
81
If Cities are to reduce auto-dependence a
working alternative should include Empty
placeless space becomes lovable and loved.
82
If Cities are to reduce auto-dependence a
working alternative should include Streets
undergoing reconstruction become attractive,
respectful and function for all users
83
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85
Whats Wrong Here?
Americas Wealthiest County
86
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88
The Pedestrian in America has been marginalized
compromised to Death
89
Building from our Values
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Quality Of Life
In building facilities to accommodate cars
92
Human Health Issues
93
What got us into this mess? Many things -- No
one is innocent Bankers bundled and traded 500
shopping centers at a time, designed, not for
place but to fit their definition of
profitability. Bankers bundled 5,000 homes at a
time, all at set price points requiring 3
bedrooms and 2 baths. This was at a time when the
average American family shrunk to 2.1. As
consumers we drove up house sizes to 2200 square
feet The highway guys built the roads to
nowhere.
94
Fargo, North Dakota
95
Fargo, North Dakota
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These are Cottages?
98
Such places do not sprout by happenstance. Driven
by irresistible economic forces and shaped by
subtly shifting social patterns, they are being
created, down to the tiniest detail, by a handful
of major developers with a master plan for the
new America.
. NY Times, August 15, 2005
99
Exclusionary Zoning Workforce Housing
In about half of central Ohios suburbs, those
who teach the children, patrol the neighborhoods
and put out fires cant afford to live among the
people they serve. Exclusionary any community
that did not allow for more than 8 residential
units per acre.
100
Exclusionary Zoning Workforce Housing
"Granville will never allow it to happen," said
Officer Keith Blackledge. He and fellow officers
have tried for two years to unionize their
department to get higher pay, perhaps enough to
enable them to live in the Licking County village
35 miles east of Columbus. "Police officers in
any neighborhood are going to be good for
everyone," said Officer Jon Davis. "Just having
them there will improve the quality of the
neighborhood."
101
Surgeon Generals Report
  • 21 US citizens ages 9-17 have a diagnosable
    mental or addictive disorder associated with at
    least minimum impairment

102
Depressive Disorders
  • 19 million American adults
  • Leading cause of disability in the USA
  • Treatment
  • Medication
  • Social Contact, including therapy
  • And..

103
I shopped for a house, but I forgot to shop for a
community to live in Cheryl from a suburban
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada Neighborhood
Florida has the lowest rate of volunteerism in
the nation. What is that all about?
104
Mobility Health Issues
105
Action Question 1 If driving more than 20 miles
per day is not sustainable, how do we get back to
1985 levels.
Driving more miles each year (like obesity) is a
visible symptom, an indicator of a disease that
is running amuck in each of our towns and
villages.
106
Last year car buyers ranked fuel economy 17th on
their list of priorities, just below cup holders
and the car's stereo system, according to a
survey by CNW Research, a respected automotive
market analysis firm. Newsweek, April 08
107
Record transit, subway and bicycling in 2008!
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Having less of this
110
How Do Our Investments Affect Our Health?
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An Office and residential mix (plus a church on
weekends) share a common underground parking
garage in downtown Charlotte, North Carolina
113
GM bankruptcy an option U.S. auto sales hit
15-yr low Automaker needs 15 billion 
114
The discussion we need cannot center on whether
this will or will not be a Complete Street but
rather if we should be building this system in
the first place.
The Pedestrian and Bicyclist in America has been
marginalized and compromised to Death
115
Active Transportation is not about perfect
terrain, perfect climate its about
investment in the future
Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Temperature 20 degrees
Fahrenheit
116
The same technology that allowed us to span a
canyon for a railroad can now be applied to
connecting people on foot or bicycle, and still
honor the beauty of nature.
117
Where the expense of this treatment may not
pencil out in a town unwilling to make a full
investment in Active Transportation, it can as
part of an integrated system to get walking and
bicycling from 4 to 15-30 of mode share.
118
As I brought my group of 37 planners, engineers,
developers and others to Vancouver, B.C. to study
their town making I pointed out there will never
be a spot in your reach today where you dont see
at least 20 people walking or walking in every
direction you look.
119
The streets of our cities and towns ought to be
for everyone, whether young or old, motorist or
bicyclist, walker or wheelchair user, bus rider
or shopkeeper. But too many of our streets are
designed only for speeding cars, or worse,
creeping traffic jams. Theyre unsafe for people
on foot or bike and unpleasant for everybody.
120
Terms Describing Streets of the Future
Complete Streets, Green Streets, Context
Sensitive Design, LEED for Neighborhood
Design Healthy Streets
121
Smart Streets form highly-connected networks of
complete streets. Street connectivity and
sidewalk completeness are correlated with lower
average vehicle use per person as well as
dispersed vehicle loads that can decrease
congestion.
122
Smart Streets are right sized for their place
an mission, and not built to a model that does
not take in the values of the people who will
live there. Narrow streets help to create
comfortable settings for walking, gathering, and
lingering, especially in neighborhoods and
shopping districts. They often work within a
larger network that provides a framework of
higher-speed streets that offer connectivity to
regional destinations. With regard to
ecological aims, right-sizing means limiting
impervious surfaces and potentially freeing
right of way space that can do double duty by
functioning to buffer roadside activity and
travel lanes while also introducing ecological
functions in the street space.
123
Smart Growth Streets are designed and managed
with speeds and intersections appropriate to
context. To advance walkability and compact
development patterns, smart growth street designs
manage speed and intersection operations to
advance overall community objectives.
124
Reframing Key Transportation ConventionsDESIGN
TRAFFIC - Interpreting the Results
Capacity of Streets
125
Economics of Streets
126
Where would you rather walk? Where would
you rather bike? Which is the safest place
to bike? Where would you rather drive?
Where would you rather live? Which is the
safest place to drive?
127
Does it fit within the available right-of-way?
150?
128
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U.S. A-1-A, Ft Lauderdale, Florida
130
U.S. A-1-A, Ft Lauderdale, Florida
131
U.S. A-1-A, Ft Lauderdale, Florida
132
U.S. A-1-A, Ft Lauderdale, Florida
133
U.S. A-1-A, Ft Lauderdale, Florida
134
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135
Santa Barbara, California
State Street
136
Pedestrian LOQ
C
A
B
137
What would the quality of this walking experience
be without this on-street parking and tree canopy.
Lake Oswego, Oregon
138
Six Feet Wide
Seven Feet Wide
Space permitting, use with bike lanes (6
parking, 7 bike lanes)
Del Mar, California
139
Ten Feet
Six Feet
Four Feet
Two Feet
Davidson, North Carolina
140
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142
The Gift of Density
Low
Moderate
143
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146
Vancouver now has so much density that there is
no comparison until you travel to Asia to
Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.
Virtually all growth occurred in brown fields,
industrial yards, old rail yards. Virtually all
former single family homes are still in place.
Loved, cared for, and worth a heck of a lot of
money.
As Vancouver has built itself into the one city
in the Most Livable City in the World Vehicle
Miles Per Day (VPD) is declining. Registered car
ownership is also declining.
147
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150
Land Use Pattern Affects Travel Higher Density
can reduce Vehicle Trips
Significant reduction in VMT as we go from 3-4
units/acre to over 20 units/acre
Vehicle Trips
2-3 du/a
Walking Trips
Source John Holtzclaw, PhD, Sierra Club
151
8-10 du/a net
11-12 du/a net
152

Bridgeport Way, University Place, Washington
153
Bridgeport Way, University Place, Washington
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La Jolla Boulevard, Bird Rock, San Diego,
California (Five to two lane conversion,
before). Four signals and one four-way stop
being removed. Back-in Angled parking to be
added. (23,000 ADT)
159
14 Feet
La Jolla Boulevard, Bird Rock, San Diego,
California
160
La Jolla Boulevard, Bird Rock, San Diego,
California
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Steve Price Urban Advantage
170
Steve Price Urban Advantage
171
Steve Price Urban Advantage
172
Steve Price Urban Advantage
173
Steve Price Urban Advantage
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2nd Avenue, South
176
3rd Avenue, West
177
Cahaba Road
178
West Boulevard
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The Cycle of Strip Development
  • INPUTS
  • Auto Oriented Business
  • Single Use Zoning
  • Single Family Residential
  • OUTCOMES
  • Wider Roads
  • Induced Traffic
  • More Traffic

GROWTH
Land Use Planning
Transportation Planning
GROWTH
  • OUTCOMES
  • Isolated Neighborhoods
  • Multiple Automobile Trips
  • Poor Mobility
  • Difficult Walking
  • INPUTS
  • Traffic Demand
  • Forecasting
  • Congestion

181
Breaking The Cycle of Strip Development
  • INPUTS
  • Diversity of Business
  • Mixed Use Zoning
  • Diversity of Residential Units
  • Context Sensitive Solutions
  • Community Involvement

Community Planning
Land Use Planning
Transportation Planning
  • OUTCOMES
  • Healthy Neighborhoods
  • Choices of Transportation
  • More Open Space
  • Sense of Place
  • Sense of Community
  • OUTCOMES
  • Increased Mobility
  • More Walking Bicycling
  • Increased Access

GROWTH
182
San Diego, California
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La Jolla Boulevard, Bird Rock, San Diego,
California (Five to two lane conversion,
before). Four signals and one four-way stop
being removed. Back-in Angled parking to be
added. (23,000 ADT)
189
14 Feet
La Jolla Boulevard, Bird Rock, San Diego,
California
190
La Jolla Boulevard, Bird Rock, San Diego,
California
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Grandview Drive , University Place, WA (33 mph
Average Speed)
197
12 Feet
5 Feet
Curb-to-Curb 17 feet 38 mph running
speeds
Natomas, Sacramento, California
198
University Place, Washington
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Land Use Pattern Affects Travel Higher Density
can reduce Vehicle Trips
Significant reduction in VMT as we go from 3-4
units/acre to over 20 units/acre
Vehicle Trips
2-3 du/a
Walking Trips
Source John Holtzclaw, PhD, Sierra Club
201
Vancouver now has so much density that there is
no comparison until you travel to Asia to
Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.
Virtually all growth occurred in brown fields,
industrial yards, old rail yards. Virtually all
former single family homes are still in place.
Loved, cared for, and worth a heck of a lot of
money.
As Vancouver has built itself into the one city
in the Most Livable City in the World Vehicle
Miles Per Day (VPD) is declining. Registered car
ownership is also declining.
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8-10 du/a net
11-12 du/a net
205
San Diego, California
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