4M14E ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – 4M14E ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: da4c7-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

4M14E ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

Description:

Railways: fa ade measurements and predictions. Night time noise often critical ... Cars, taxis, trucks, buses, cycles. Pedestrian journeys. Public/private ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:59
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 55
Provided by: Asatisfied8
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: 4M14E ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT


1
4M14E ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
  • Peter Guthrie

2
Recommended text books
  • Wood, C. (2002). Environmental Impact Assessment
    a Comparative Review (2nd Edition). Harlow
    Prentice Hall
  • Therivel, R. and Partidário, M.R. (1996). The
    Practice of Strategic Environmental Assessment.
    London Earthscan
  • Glasson, J. Therivel, R. and Chadwick, A. (1999).
    Introduction to Environmental Impact Assessment
    (2nd Edition). London Spon Press

3
What is EIA?
  • an important procedure for ensuring that the
    likely effects of new development on the
    environment are fully understood and taken into
    account before the development is allowed to go
    ahead
  • (DETR and National Assembly for Wales, 1999)

4
What is it really?
  • Environmental Impact Assessment is a process, set
    down as a repeatable series of steps to be taken,
    to allow the environmental consequences of a
    proposed development to be assessed.
  • The environmental consequences have to be those
    INCREMENTAL effects which are due to the proposed
    development, and not those which are due to the
    passage of time or other developments not
    included in the proposal.

5
Origins and history of EIA
  • 1960s witnessed the emergence of environmentalism
    (e.g. publication of Silent Spring by Rachel
    Carson in 1962)
  • First formal system of EIA established in the US
    following the National Environmental Policy Act
    (NEPA) of 1969

6
Origins and history of EIA
  • NEPA sought to ensure that environmental concerns
    were considered in the decision-making of Federal
    Government agencies
  • Section 102(2)(c) required agencies to prepare a
    detailed statement on the environmental impact of
    proposals for legislation and other major
    Federal actions significantly affecting the
    quality of the human environment

7
Origins and history of EIA
  • The statement referred to as an Environmental
    Impact Statement (EIS) - should include details
    on
  • any adverse environmental effects which cannot be
    avoided should the proposal be implemented
  • alternatives to the proposed action

8
Origins and history of EIA
  • Since 1969 a host of other countries have adopted
    EIA legislation
  • In 1977 the European Commission began drafting a
    directive on EIA and finally published a proposal
    in 1980
  • Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the
    effects of certain public and private projects on
    the environment the EIA Directive was adopted
    in July 1985 and Member States had until 3 July
    1988 to implement its requirements

9
The EIA Directive
  • The EIA Directive requires projects likely to
    have significant effects on the environment by
    virtue of their nature, size or location to
    undergo an environmental assessment before the
    competent authority in question grants consent

10
The EIA Directive
  • The EIA Directive was amended in 1997 (Directive
    97/11/EC). Following signature of the Aarhus
    Convention on 25 June 1998, Directive 2003/35/EC
    was adopted which amends amongst others the EIA
    Directive and brings it into line with the public
    participation requirements of the Aarhus
    Convention

11
The EIA Directive
  • See the European Commissions web pages on
    environmental assessment at
  • http//europa.eu.int/comm/environment/eia/home.ht
    m

12
The EIA Directive
  • The EIA Directive defines a project as
  • the execution of construction works or of other
    installations or schemes,
  • other interventions in the natural surroundings
    and landscape including those involving the
    extraction of mineral resources

13
The EIA Directive
  • The EIA should identify, describe and assess the
    direct and indirect effects of a project on the
    following factors
  • human beings, fauna and flora
  • soil, water, air, climate and the landscape
  • material assets and cultural heritage
  • the interaction between the above factors
  • EIA should therefore have a strong social
    dimension

14
Screening (does the project require EIA?)
Impact assessment (interpreting the impacts)
Scoping (what issues and impacts should the EIA
address?)
Mitigation (what can be done to alleviate
negative impacts?)
Baseline studies (establish the environmental
baseline)
EIS preparation/review (document the EIA
findings)
Alternatives (consider the different approaches)
Public consultation (consult general public and
NGOs)
Monitoring (monitor impacts of project)
Impact prediction (forecast the environmental
impacts)
15
Screening
  • Is an EIA needed?
  • Many projects may have no significant
    environmental effects
  • A screening mechanism seeks to identify those
    projects with potentially significant adverse
    environmental effects

16
Screening
  • Two principal approaches to screening
  • the use of thresholds
  • case-by-case examination against criteria
  • Under the EIA Directive
  • EIA is mandatory for projects listed in Annex I
    of the Directive
  • EIA is required subject to Member States
    thresholds and criteria for projects listed in
    Annex II of the Directive

17
Scoping
  • The scope of an EIA is the issues and impacts it
    addresses
  • Scoping is the process of deciding which of a
    projects possible alternatives and impacts
    should be addressed in the EIA
  • An EIA should focus only on the significant
    issues and impacts

18
Scoping
  • Scoping is carried out in discussions between the
    developer, the competent authority, relevant
    agencies and, ideally, the public
  • Effective scoping enables limited resources to be
    allocated to best effect (i.e. through
    investigation of only the most significant
    impacts)
  • Scoping is not mandatory under the EIA Directive

19
Baseline studies
  • Following the scoping phase, it is essential to
    assemble all the relevant information on the
    current status of the environment
  • The baseline study should anticipate the future
    state of the environment assuming the project is
    not undertaken - the no action alternative
  • This provides the baseline against which future
    impacts can be assessed

20
Baseline studies
  • Baseline studies should be undertaken for each
    alternative site so that the relative severity of
    the impacts for each alternative can be assessed
  • New field work may necessary (e.g. ecological
    survey) if relevant data is not already available

21
Alternatives
  • EIA is ideally undertaken for a project and its
    alternatives (e.g. different locations, scales,
    designs)
  • Alternatives are the raw material of EIA
  • The US Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has
    described the discussion of alternatives as the
    heart of the EIS
  • Many EISs fail to consider alternatives

22
Impact assessment
  • Impact assessment involves evaluating the
    significance of the impacts identified
  • Significance can be determined through
    professional judgement, reference to regulations
    etc.
  • Potential for bias in determining what is
    significant
  • The conclusions of the impact assessment can
    ultimately be used by decision-makers when
    determining the fate of the project application

23
Mitigation
  • Negative impacts on the environment identified
    during the EIA can be alleviated through
    mitigation measures
  • The mitigation hierarchy Avoid - Reduce - Remedy
    - Compensate - Enhance
  • Impacts remaining after mitigation are known as
    residual impacts
  • The legislation obstructs the proper process of
    design development

24
EIS preparation / review
  • The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is a
    formal document which includes information on the
    development and information relating to
    screening, scoping, baseline studies,
    alternatives etc.
  • Common requirement to include a non-technical
    summary

25
EIS preparation / review
  • Once complete, the EIS is submitted to the
    competent authority (along with the planning
    application)
  • The EIS is often reviewed (either formally or
    informally)
  • The review enables the competent authority to
    decide whether the EIA is adequate, accurate and
    unbiased

26
Public consultation
  • The EIA Directive provides for public
    consultation on the application for development
    and the EIS

27
Post-project monitoring
  • Monitoring should determine
  • the accuracy of the original predictions
  • the degree of deviation from the predictions
  • the possible reasons for any deviations
  • the extent to which mitigation measures have
    achieved their objectives

28
What is in an ES?
  • Non Technical Summary
  • Description of the proposals
  • Assessment of Baseline conditions
  • Assessment of no development conditions
  • Assessment of conditions with development
  • Mitigation proposals

29
What is in an ES?
  • All conditions assessed for
  • Construction phase
  • Operation phase

30
Construction Phase
  • Temporary
  • Higher levels of impact usually deemed acceptable
  • Difficult to predict
  • VERY difficult to enforce conditions
  • Usually well influenced by effective consultation

31
Operation Phase
  • Long Term
  • Much less room for compromise on standards
  • Relatively simpler to predict
  • Less difficult to enforce conditions, as the
    conditions are on the project owner
  • Usually less influenced by effective consultation
    at scheme level, more at detailed level

32
Operation Phase
  • Can be several phases
  • Project itself may be developed in stages
  • Sometimes need to look at
  • Commissioning
  • Opening
  • Operation after period
  • Operation once landscaping mature
  • Operation at design capacity
  • Operation at ultimate capacity

33
Consents Process
  • ES generally accompanies an application for
    permission to proceed
  • May be at Local, Regional, or National level
  • Local and regional levels usually can refer
    upwards
  • Application will be at outline or detailed stage
    increasingly difficult to get approval on outline
    applications

34
Secretary of State Inspectors / Reporters
(Scotland) Councillors (District, County or
Borough) Chief or Senior Planning Officers
35
But…
  • At local level, Councillors (elected members),
    may be capricious and driven by political
    considerations

36
Consents Process
  • Planning Authority will impose conditions on
    acceptance eg for UK
  • S106 Conditions of TCP Act
  • S38 Agreement Highways Act
  • Parts of other Acts eg Ports and Harbours Act
    (Harbour Revision Orders)
  • Contributions to development outside site
    boundary
  • Contributions to local government initiatives
  • Limits to levels of activity (difficult to
    enforce)

37
(No Transcript)
38
Consents Process
  • Refusal leads to appeal process
  • If significant objections, Planning Authority may
    refer the application to higher level of
    government (in England and Wales, the Secretary
    of State)
  • In UK, 98 of all planning applications are
    granted, eventually albeit in amended form

39
Acoustics and Vibration
  • Roads well established methodology
  • Airports widely accepted contours for
  • LA EQ 16 hour and 8 hour
  • Railways façade measurements and predictions
  • Night time noise often critical
  • Vibration threshold (usually threshold of
    perception)

40
  • More than half of Europe's citizens live in noisy
    surroundings
  • One third of Europeans have disturbed sleep due
    to noise
  • Prolonged exposure to noise can cause
    hypertension and heart disease
  • Noise above 80db may cause aggressive behaviour
  • A link between noise and mental health is
    suggested by the demand for sleeping pills and
    tranquillizers
  • An adult's ear can tolerate an occasional noise
    level of up to 140db
  • A child's ear should never be exposed to noise
    above 120db
  • Source bbc.co.uk

41
Air Quality
  • Looking for
  • Oxides of nitrogen (NOx)
  • Oxides of sulphur (SOx)
  • Ozone O3
  • Particulates PM10 and now PM2.5
  • Dioxins and Furans for Incinerators
  • Particulates (dust)
  • Odour

42
Air Quality
  • No legal standards
  • Most projects have very limited impact
  • Dioxins and Furans have become significant
    concerns since the extremely low levels could be
    measured
  • Roads schemes always show improvement in air
    quality over next twenty years

43
Forestry and Agriculture
  • Classification of land (Grade 1, 2, 3)
  • Severance and viability
  • Orphaning of land parcels
  • Isolating buildings from fields etc
  • Opportunities for landscaping on isolated pieces
    of land

44
Water Quality
  • Aquifer protection zones
  • River designations
  • Ecology impacts
  • Hazard assessment from spills etc

45
Landscape and Visual Amenity
  • Visual assessment
  • Site categorisation (AONB, Conservation area)
  • Inter visibility plots
  • Landscape description
  • Landscape value
  • Opportunities for landscaping

46
Twyford Down
47
Heritage and Archaeology
  • Site categorisation (SAM, Grade I, II, II)
    (World Heritage Site, Conservation Area)
  • Locally important buildings without designation
  • English Heritage
  • National Trust
  • County Archaeologist

48
Ecology
  • Assessment of ecological value
  • Site categorisation (SSSI,SNCI, SAC,SPA)
  • Inventory of flora and fauna
  • Rare species
  • Protected species (incl Red List)
  • Impact of severance, disruption etc
  • English Nature, RSPB, Wildlife Trusts etc

49
Geology and Soils
  • Assessment of geological value
  • Pedology characterisation
  • Site protection (SSSI)

50
Traffic Impact Assessment
  • Traffic flows generally on roads
  • Cars, taxis, trucks, buses, cycles
  • Pedestrian journeys
  • Public/private transport split
  • Congestion/traffic management
  • Proposed mitigation measures

51
Sustainability Assessment
  • Currently part of EIA
  • Should be the over-arching process
  • No current guidelines

52
Construction Impacts
  • Traffic movements
  • Dust
  • Mud
  • Social impacts itinerant workers
  • Business generation
  • Spoil heaps
  • Contamination of rivers streams

53
Construction Impacts
  • Light pollution
  • Noise
  • Vibration of piling plant
  • Materials stockpiles
  • Construction sites

54
How does EIA actually contribute to Sustainable
Development?
About PowerShow.com