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BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The Zambia country Poverty Reduction Paper PRP coming to our national Educat

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EDUCATION PLANNING AND PROVISION? ... It will provide a Curriculum that is responsive to the state of the Zambian environment. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The Zambia country Poverty Reduction Paper PRP coming to our national Educat


1
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
A PAPER PRESENTED TO THE ESSA CONFERENCE WORKSHOP
ON THE LOCALISED CURRICULUM AS A WAY AND MEANS
TOWARDS POVERTY REDUCTION THRUOGH
EDUCATION. PREPARED BY MUTINTA MWEEMBE CHIEF
CURRICURULUM DEVELOPMENT SPECIALIST STANDARDARDS
AND CURRICULUM DIRECTORATE CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
CENTRE LUSAKA ZAMBIA


2
  • BACKGROUND INFORMATIONThe Zambia country
    Poverty Reduction Paper (PRP)
  • Focus on learning-1989-99
  • The national Educational policy of Education
    Educating our future of May 96
  • The Zambia Education Curriculum Framework-of
    December-2000,
  • The Teachers Curriculum Manual-2003 and
  • The Guidelines for the Localised Curriculum
    of-January,2005. All are addressed towards
    answering the questions of

3
  • What was done in the past which is not done
    today?
  • What activities did we do in our communities that
    brought wealth and prosperity to individuals and
    our communities?
  • What do we need to do in order to eradicate
    poverty and bring prosperity to the individual
    and our nation as a whole?
  • In answering these questions it was found that it
    was only through changing our Curriculum that
    we could address these questions and eventually
    find answers to reduce poverty in our midst.

4
  • What was done in the past which is not done
    today?
  • What activities did we do in our communities that
    brought wealth and prosperity to individuals and
    our communities?
  • What do we need to do in order to eradicate
    poverty and bring prosperity to the individual
    and our nation as a whole?
  • In answering these questions it was found that it
    was only through changing our Curriculum that
    we could address these questions and eventually
    find answers to reduce poverty in our midst.

5
  • INTRODUCTION
  • THE CURRICULUM CHANGES LEADING TO
  • POVERTY REDUCTION IN ZAMBIA
  • In Zambia today the curriculum has been well
    arranged and laid out in the school
    Learning/Teaching and assessment programme , but
    yet, many parents and stakeholders simply view
    formal education as one that leads to further
    academic studies which is crowned by large
    income employment. (The basic curriculum
    framework 2000).

6
  • This leaves little desire for many parents to
    allow their children to go to school. In some
    areas, parents would rather let their children do
    various income generating activities found in
    those areas such as
  • fishing,
  • basket/
  • mat making,
  • fish-farming,
  • Crop and Animal husbandry,
  • Bee -keeping for honey,
  • confectionery,
  • Restaurant and other activities. fishing,
  • basket/
  • mat making,
  • fish-farming,
  • Crop and Animal husbandry,
  • Bee -keeping for honey,
  • confectionery,
  • restaurant, Carpentry This leaves little desire
    for many parents to allow their children to go to
    school. In some areas, parents would rather let
    their children do various income generating
    activities found in those areas such as
  • fishing,
  • basket/
  • mat making,

7
  • and in other words generally running small scale
    Enterprises, than go to school. Therefore it was
    found as a need to change the Curriculum to the
    dictates of time and needs of the society.

8
  • That is why the School Curriculum and the
    Teacher Education pre and in-service curriculum
    are both undergoing radical reforms in Zambia.
    These two are being designed so that they can
    complement each other. Both these Education
    reforms aim at putting Educating Our Future
    our Education policy into practice (Teachers
    Curriculum manual April 2001).

9
  • WHY DO WE NEED A LOCALIZED CURRICULUM?
  • The purpose of introducing a localized curriculum
    as a component of the core national curriculum is
    to enhance the relevance of the curriculum to
    individual and community needs. The intention is
    that parents, learners and the local communities
    in general, should feel that formal education is
    strongly linked to their day-to-day life and
    activities, additionally the localization of the
    curriculum is about developing the kind of
    teaching/learning and assessment, that will bring
    about benefits to the local community spilling
    over to the provincial, National and
    international Market benefits. This can be
    achieved by developing skills, knowledge,
    positive attitudes, values, and competences in
    the learners that contribute to the social,
    cultural, political and economic development of
    the individual and community.

10
  • HOW IS THE LOCALISED CURRICULUM TO BE
  • IMPLEMENTED?
  • It has been realized that a Localized curriculum
    cannot be achieved and implemented in isolation.
    It must integrate environmental issues, causes,
    risks, and expected solutions basing on
    individual and community needs and aspirations.
    The development of the Localised Curriculum
    therefore should be contextualised and located
    within each particular community and developed by
    the particular community basing on their area
    social-cultural, economic and political needs
    .The best institutions where these can be
    implemented are the Basic Schools, Teacher
    Education Colleges and the Communities involving
    teachers, parents, experts in various activities
    and the learners in the planning and
    implementation of their own activities. Whether
    we agree or not Teachers, parents and other
    community experts and their learners can be
    products as well as agents of change towards
    sustainable development.

11
  • HOW HAVE WE INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENTAL
  • EDUCATION INTO OUR CURRICULUM IN ZAMBIA?
  • The need to introduce and integrate Environmental
    Education into the Zambian Education system was
    recognized to be one of the most effective ways
    of ensuring that Environmental management
    occupies a significant role in our Zambian
    society. This integration has been done in the
    Basic Education and in the Teacher Training
    Curriculum so as to prepare a teaching and
    learning cadre that would be very effective in
    participating in their community activities
    towards achieving sustainable environmental
    management and sustainable development in Zambia.

12
  • WHAT ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESSES HAVE BEEN INTEGRATED
  • INTO THE SCHOOL SYSTEM?
  • The Environmental Education processes which
    have been integrated into the school system do
    not only develop hands on Environmental Education
    experiences, but also have been contextualised
    towards local needs of the learners. In this
    context a Localised curriculum for each
    particular area is required to be developed
    basing on its social, cultural, political,
    economical and scientific background. The
    Localised Curriculum is accommodating the
    teaching of various life sustaining skills which
    include environmental based skills and
    activities. It is expected that learning under
    the Localised Curriculum should link the
    community towards the use of their local
    knowledge and day to day activities in bringing
    benefits to the individuals, their homesteads and
    to their immediate communities. It is envisaged
    that this will bring about the kind of
    teaching/learning and assessment that will foster
    into learners the acquisition of sustainable
    knowledge, skills, values, positive attitudes and
    competences that can contribute to their social,
    cultural and economic development of any
    particular community.

13
  • WHAT WAS NOT DONE IN THE PAST
  • The development of the school curriculum was
    basically left to the Educationist, there was
    very little or no consultation with other
    stakeholders involved in the provision or use of
    Education such as the communities, Parastatal
    organisations, the church, quasi-Government and
    Non Governmental Organisations. Even though all
    these organizations were players in the provision
    and implementation of education . This led to the
    use of different means and ways of education
    strategies, yet all aiming at one expected out,
    that of empowering the learner to live a
    sustainable life.

14
  • WHAT IS THE WAY FORWARD IN
  • EDUCATION PLANNING AND PROVISION?
  • It has been realized that in order for us to
    harness all these efforts, while at the same time
    provide access of learners to quality education,
    there is need to involve a consultative approach
    that will combine the effective use of different
    education stakeholders/ players and ,factors and
    strategies to achieve sustainable development.
    The factors to be considered therefore are as
    follows

15
  • the development of local resource persons,
  • identification of various local activities in
    each area
  • tapping on local knowledge and ingenuity of a
    people on their Environmental activities
  • availing training locally suitable to local
    needs
  • availing effective use of relevant and up to date
    data and materials relatively available in the
    local communities relevant to the needs of the
    learners and their immediate communities.
  • Situating learning in their own contexts based
    on their experiences and that of their societal
    goals and expectations.

16
  • In the absence of any of these above the learning
    process, though being as effective as it may seem
    to be in the normal classroom teaching/learning
    and assessment processes, in the modern sense it
    will not cater for the holistic needs of society.
    Therefore the need to bring teaching/learning and
    assessment experiences which will be in the
    context of the people and their life
    expectations.
  • Even where considerable improvements have been
    made in recent years in the provision of
    education materials and the emphasis of the use
    of various teaching methods, the idea of
    community based learning is quite critical to our
    society today.

17
  • CONCLUSION
  • HOW DO WE VIEW THE ENVIRONMENT
  • TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT?
  • The world is made up of many different elements
    that exist in the environment. The environment is
    a sum total of living and non-living elements
    that surround us. These elements being Air,
    Water, Land, Plants and Animals. The interaction
    and interdependence of these elements provide the
    important life support systems upon which all
    life on earth depends.

18
  • THE STATUS OF ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION IN THE
    SCHOOL CURRICULUM
  • WHAT WAS IT IN THE PAST
  • Environmental Education existed as an extra
    curricular activity in the school Curriculum
    being well pronounced under the Chongololo and
    Conservations clubs. Environmental Education was
    never viewed as a part of the formal curriculum
    and this went on until the curriculum review of
    1993.

19
  • After 1993, there was a general community out-cry
    to integrate Environmental Education as a local,
    national, regional and global concern. But, in
    order to do this, there was a need to
    strategically integrate it into the existing
    curriculum without creating a separate new
    learning area in such a way that it stood out as
    an extra burden to teachers as they were already
    weighed down with an overloaded curriculum.
    (Educating our Future)

20
  • WHAT IS THE PRESENT POSITION OF ENVIRONMENTAL
    EDUCATION
  • Bearing this in mind and also considering that
    there was a general shortage of time and
    resources, the integration of Environmental
    Education in the already existing disciplines
    seemed most practical. That way, it would then
    automatically jump from the back, straight into
    the front seat. In This way then, the Ministry of
    Education would have integrated it into their
    system with no constraints. The new approach
    incorporated would foster into learners the art
    of recognizing and acquiring knowledge, skills ,
    positive attitudes, values and acceptable
    behavioral change towards the sustainable
    developmental concepts ultimate in the
    development of a locally acceptable and developed
    skilled and Environmentally knowledgeable
    clientele in the needs and dictates of their
    society.

21
  • These principles are extremely crucial for
    understanding and appreciating the
    inter-relationships that exist between humans,
    their culture and their surroundings. All these
    values would be infused in the formal education
    system without competing for time and resources
    of the other learning areas.
  • This type of education would then be responsive
    to the provision of practice in analytical and
    creative thinking towards decision-making,
    problem solving and self-evaluation empowering
    the products with anew (code of conduct), with
    regard to issues on the environment. This is the
    kind of empowerment our citizenry in schools and
    communities should be getting having gone through
    their own planned and implemented Localised
    Curriculum.

22
  • WHAT ARE THE EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF THIS TYPE OF
    EDUCATION?
  • It is expected that this type of Education if
    encouraged will achieve self reliance and reduce
    on poverty and unemployment, but as all the
    principles and recommendations from both the
    regional, national and local Environmental
    conventions and meetings have been lamenting on
    sustainable development. This will be the only
    way towards achieving it.

23
  • CURRICULUM DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
  • The new curriculum will be child centered.
  • It will provide opportunities to the learners for
    Problem solving approaches to solve
    environmental problems.
  • It will provide a more participatory type of
    education availing a curriculum that can respond
    to environmental issues in planning and
    implementation.
  • It will provide a Curriculum that is responsive
    to the state of the Zambian environment.
  • It will also create a Curriculum that allows
    praxis taking into consideration Environmental
    Education issues, causes, risks and expected
    solutions combined so that practice and theory
    could be achieved.

24
  • The new Localised curriculum will be in the
    Zambian context, community based and located in
    the needs of the end users and in its areas of
    its practical needs and practice. This means
    therefore that the new school curriculum will
    reflect the true and realistic Zambian
    social-cultural, economic and political
    situation.
  • In the past, the design of the curriculum was by
    curriculum experts outside schools and then
    handed down to teachers for implementation. The
    planning and implementation will look at the
    needs and include all other stakeholders and
    education providers and practitioners.
  • It will be a Curriculum responsive to the state
    of the Zambian environmental crisis in regard to
    poverty levels. Therefore will regard ways and
    means how to bring about Sustainable development
    using community based Entrepreneurial activities
    in

25
  • relation to the immediate environment and the
    needs of its people environmental policies that
    address poverty and curriculum needs both process
    and structural reforms.
  • The learners will use their life expectations in
    their learning process which can represent and
    incorporate as much of Zambias environmental
    issues, risks and problems in the identified
    areas. In so doing the curriculum is envisaged to
    run more on the basis of an Environmental
    Education course that would enable learners being
    responsive to the Zambian environmental situation
    and their own community environmental needs and
    concerns.
  • There should avail a situation where education
    for technological development and job creation
    should integrate environmental and sustainable
    developmental issues in their communities to
    achieve sustainable development. Where they turn
    the sleeping capital in their communities into
    sustainable wealthy reaching safe-guarding even
    greater impacts on the environment in a negative
    sense. Poverty as in the past, will then
    accompany past policies of separate development
    and instead be replaced by sustainable living
    leading to sustainable development

26
  • RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CORE CURRICULUM AND
    THE LOCALISED STEPS IN DEVELOPING A LOCALISED
    CURRICULUM
  • A localized curriculum is crucial in developing
    an understanding between the school and the local
    community. Bearing this in mind, the
    establishment process will therefore apply as
    many consultative methodologies as possible in
    order to effectively consolidate the formulation
    of the Localized Curriculum. Such methods will
    involve

27
  • 1. Sensitization
  • In order to develop a local curriculum,
    sensitization is an important stage because
    stakeholders are needed in order to formulate and
    implement a Localized Curriculum. This way, they
    will understand its main purpose, intentions and
    its implementation strategies and support it.
  • 2. Needs Assessment.
  • This is an important tool that is used as a means
    of identifying types of common economic, social,
    political and cultural activities that take place
    in a local community. This assessment further
    helps the people to integrate Environmental
    issues and activities found in an area into the
    school curriculum. It is important that the needs
    assessment report produced be circulated to all
    teachers, parents and other Educational providers.

28
  • 3. Planning Stage.
  • This involves careful selection and putting
    together of activities involving skills,
    knowledge, positive attitudes , behavior and
    experiences found in the area and the various
    stakeholders involved in both the provision, of
    both the conventional and traditional education.
    . These components will then be further be
    re-defined into General and Specific learning
    outcomes for each activity that will follow a
    certain scope and sequence order.
  • 4. Approval
  • A consultative forum needs to be held with the
    various stakeholders in order to discuss and
    determine whether the activities planned are
    relevant, feasible and achievable in meeting the
    tasks of the learners and the community, also
    considering the expected benefits of the
    particular community as outcomes of the
    particular planned course.

29
  • MINISTRY OF EDUCATION
  • This is the mother body that is responsible for
    all education and teacher training initiatives.
    The Ministry has recently developed a policy that
    decentralises training and materials development
    especially on Environmental Education and the
    localised Curriculum in particular.

30
  • 5. Development Process
  • This is seen as a critical stage because it is be
    based on resource mobilization. Resource
    mobilization as seen in this case will involve
    human, financial, time and material resources
    required achieving the learning/teaching and
    assessment programmes. All comments and views
    from stakeholders will then be incorporated into
    the final document as a draft curriculum that
    will be both distributed used in
    teaching/learning process and stored for
    reference in future.
  • 6. Implementation
  • The school system and district boards will ensure
    that teachers are adequately trained to implement
    the localized curriculum in their work bearing in
    mind that the Localised Curriculum is part of the
    core Curriculum and is to be integrated into the
    school based continuous assessment mechanism.

31
  • 7. Monitoring and Evaluation
  • Different monitoring and evaluation tools need to
    be developed along the way. This is crucial in
    ensuring sustainability. It is envisaged that
    monitoring and evaluation will be better attained
    under combined efforts with partner
    organizations. In carrying out the monitoring
    there is need to develop various tools such as
  • QUESTIONNARES
  • GROUP DISCUSSIONS WITH ALL INTERESTED PARTIES
  • CHECKLISTS
  • CONTINOUS ASSESSMENT RECORD BOOKS
  • LEARNERS EXPERIENCES
  • TEACHER EXPERIENCES
  • LOCAL LEADERSHIP EXPEXTATIONS AND EXPERIENCES
  • REPORTS
  • PRODUCTS AS PORTIFOLIOS
  • GAINS AND FAILURES

32
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • Environmental Education Policy Initiative (EEPI)
    1993 The Environment, Development and
    Environmental Education, Sharenet, Howick.
    SouthAfrica
  • POVERTY reduction paper of zambia
  • WWF ZEP 2001 Emerging responses to the
    environmental crisis adapted from Rhodes
    University SADC International Certificate
  • Ministry of Education 2000 Basic School
    Curriculum Framework,
  • Ministry of Education, 1996 Educating Our
    Future- National Policy on Education, Zambia
    Education Publishing House, Lusaka.
  • Curriculum Development Centre (CDC), 2001.
    Teachers Curriculum Manual.
  • The state of Environment of Zambia
  • Government Republic of Zambia/IUCN Publication
    The National Conservation Strategy Avon Litho
    Limited 1985 UK
  • Environmental Council of Zambia National
    Environmental Education Workshop Report 1999

33
  • M.C. Monroe D. Cappaert Integrating EE into
    the School Curriculum Kendall/Hunt Publishing
    Company 1994 University of Michigan USA
  • Curriculum Development Centre Environmental
    Education Teachers Manual 2000 LUSAKA
  • CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT CENTRE Guidelines to the
    Localised Curriculum Manual developed
    2005,Lusaka.
  • WWF USA Exploring Biodiversity A Guide for
    Educators around the World Conservation
    International/WWF USA 2002 USA
  • National Convention Centre Environmental
    Education foe Sustainable Development African
    Perspectives EEASA International Conference
    Report National 2001 LESOTHO.
  • Zambia Publishing House Educating Our Future
    Ministry Of Education 1996 Learning from
    Development Volunteer Service Overseas study
    guide 1994 London.

34
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