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Bereavement and Mourning: Psychological and Social Considerations

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Bereavement and Mourning: Psychological and Social Considerations ... Bereavement and Mourning. Grief Work Hypothesis. need to confront experience of bereavement ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Bereavement and Mourning: Psychological and Social Considerations


1
Bereavement and Mourning Psychological and
Social Considerations
  • Chapter 8 Understanding the Experience of Loss
  • Chapter 11 Death in the Lives of Adults
  • Models of Coping with Bereavement
  • Grief Work Hypothesis
  • Dual Process Model

2
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Models of Coping with Bereavement
  • Grieving is crucial, necessary and unavoidable
    for successful adaptation." (Malkinson, 1996, p.
    155)
  • "Those who show the most evidence of working
    through the loss are those who ultimately have
    the most difficulty in resolving what has
    happened." (Wortman Silver, 1987, p. 207)
  • Centrality of grief work dominant theoretical
    formulation

3
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Grief Work Hypothesis
  • need to confront experience of bereavement
  • suppression of loss pathological/detrimental
    health consequences
  • need to come to terms with loss
  • work toward detachment from deceased
  • mastery of pain
  • Acceptance ? better adaptation

4
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Limitations of Grief Work Hypothesis
  • Inadequate Representation of Bereavement-Related
    Phenomena
  • (a) definition of the bereavement stressor
  • (b) process
  • (c) outcome variables

5
Bereavement and Mourning
  • (a) Bereavement as Stressor
  • lack of specification of loss/change
  • lack of recognition of range of stressors
  • lack of recognition of multiplicity of losses
  • requires restoration of coherence in life
    narrative

6
Bereavement and Mourning
  • (b) Process Variables Non-dynamic, Intrapersonal
    Conceptualization
  • Dynamics of confrontation-avoidance
  • Coping in social/interpersonal context

7
Bereavement and Mourning
  • (c) Outcome Variables
  • Medical model focus
  • Focus on psychological/physical symptomatology
  • Focus on negative products of grieving
  • Human suffering pathologized

8
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Lack of Universal Application
  • Gender specificity
  • Cultural specificity
  • Conclusions
  • Identify facilitative types of confrontation/avoid
    ance

9
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Dual Process Model of Coping with Bereavement
  • (Stroebe Schut, 1999)
  • Loss Oriented Coping
  • Restoration Oriented Coping
  • Oscillation
  • PROCESS/COPING STRATEGIES ? goals/outcomes

10
Dual Process Model of Bereavement
11
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Loss-Oriented Coping
  • focusing on processing loss experience
  • focus on continuing relationship with deceased
  • range of emotional reactions
  • pleasurable reminiscing ? painful longing
  • happiness re end of suffering ? despair of being
    left alone

12
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Restoration-Oriented Coping
  • restoration NOT outcome variable
  • restoration secondary sources of stress coping
    with stress
  • Mastering new tasks
  • Re-organizing life
  • Developing new identity (finding meaning)
  • range of emotional reactions
  • pride of self-efficacy ? anxiety re failure

13
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Oscillation
  • central distinguishing component of model
  • alternation between loss- restoration-oriented
    coping
  • dynamic regulatory mechanism
  • oscillation key to mental/physical health outcome

14
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Implications
  • Social and Cultural Context of Grieving
  • reciprocal impact of multiple grievers
  • confrontation with reality of loss necessary but
    modulated
  • non-traditional coping patterns beneficial

15
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Gender Differences
  • poor health consequences
  • unmitigated communion unmitigated agency
  • Men benefit gt from disclosure/emotion focused
    approach
  • Women benefit gt from problem focused approach
  • adoption of non-traditional coping patterns
    reduces distress

16
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Advantages of DPM
  • dynamic loss-oriented and restoration oriented
  • permits microlevel analyses of cognitive/emotional
    processes
  • value-free model (permits cultural and personal
    variation)

17
Bereavement and Mourning
  • Current Theoretical Status
  • extension/specification of grief work
  • compatibility with other theories (theoretical
    pluralism)
  • Attachment theory (Bowlby) ? role of continuing
    bonds
  • Cognitive Stress theory (Lazarus Folkman) ?
    role of positive meaning re/construction (e.g.,
    disclosure)
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