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Psychology 203 Human Development


Sensory and motor changes are small and gradual. Age-related visual problems in five areas ... Horn and Cattell. Fluid intelligence (neurological status) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychology 203 Human Development

Psychology 203 Human Development
  • Physical and Cognitive Development
  • In
  • Middle Adulthood
  • Chapter 15

Middle Age A Cultural Construct
  • Middle adulthood was least studied part of life
  • Middle age came into use 1900 because of
    lengthening of life expectancy
  • Only present in industrial societies
  • No consensus on specific biological or social
    events that mark beginning or end

Middle Age
  • Text book defines middle age in chronological
    terms (40-65 years)
  • Meaning of middle age varies with
  • Health
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Cohort (group or followers)
  • Culture

Middle Age Physical Development
  • Use it or Lose it! research suggest that this
    is true
  • The more middle age people do, the more they can
  • Physical changes are direct results of
  • Biological aging
  • Genetic makeup
  • Behavioral factors
  • Lifestyle factors

Physical Development Sensory and Psychomotor
  • Young adulthood middle years
  • Sensory and motor changes are small and gradual
  • Age-related visual problems in five areas
  • Near vision (reading moving sings)
  • Sensitivity to light
  • Visual search (locating a sign)
  • Speed of processing visual information

Physical Development Sensory and Psychomotor
  • Lens of eye
  • becomes progressively less flexible
  • Ability to shift focus diminishes
  • 40 and older need reading glasses (presby means
    with age)
  • Bifocals and Trifocals glasses
  • Hearing loss speeds up at age 50 and beyond

Physical Development Sensory and Psychomotor
  • Sensitivity decline in midlife
  • Sensitivity to taste
  • Sensitivity to smell
  • Women tend to retain senses longer than men
  • Lose sensitivity to touch after 45
  • Strength and coordination decline
  • Loss of muscle fiber replaced by fat
  • Some muscle strength by age 45
  • 10-15 strength may be gone by 60
  • First weakening in back and leg muscles, then arm
    and shoulder (in age 60s)
  • Manual dexterity generally becomes less efficient
    after 30s

Physical Development Structural and Systemic
  • Changes in appearance
  • 50-60s skin becomes less taut and smooth
  • Hair becomes thinner do to slowed replacement
    rate (collagen molecules become rigid and elastin
    fibers more brittle
  • Hair becomes greyer because of melanin decline
  • Perspire less because number of sweat glands
  • Bone density decreases becoming more thin and
    brittle (women twice as rapidly then men)

Physical Development Structural and Systemic
  • Heart begins to pump more slowly and irregularly
    in mid 50s
  • By 65, may loose up to 40 of aerobic power
  • Vital capacity (lung volume of air) diminish at
    age 40 (40 decline by age 70)

Physical Development Sexuality and Reproductive
Female Male
Hormonal change Drop in estrogen and progesterone Drop in testosterone
Symptoms Hot flashes, vaginal dryness, urinary dysfunction undetermined
Sexual changes Less intense arousal, less frequent and quicker orgasms Loss of psychological arousal, less frequent erections, slower orgasms, longer recovery, increased risk of erectile dysfunctions
Reproductive capacity Ends Continues some decrease in fertility may occur
Physical Development Sexuality and Reproductive
  • Menopause
  • Physical
  • Vaginal
  • Dryness
  • Burning
  • Itching
  • Infections
  • Urinary
  • Infections
  • Dysfunction (tissue shrinkage)
  • Hot flashes

Physical Development Sexuality and Reproductive
  • Psychological
  • Irritability
  • Nervousness
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Memory loss
  • Not insanity

Physical Development Sexuality and Reproductive
  • Changes in Male Sexuality
  • Physical
  • Sudden drop in hormone production
  • Weakness
  • Lower sexual drive
  • Erectile failure
  • Memory loss
  • Fatigue
  • Reduced muscle and bone mass
  • Reduced body hair
  • Climacteric
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Irritability
  • Insomnia
  • No strong relationship between testosterone
    levels and sexual desire or performance

Physical Development Sexuality and Reproductive
  • Sexual Activity
  • Diminish only slightly and gradually during 40
    and 50s
  • Many find sexual relationship better
  • Know their own sexual needs and desires better
  • Sexual dysfunction is persistent disturbance in
    sexual desire or sexual response
  • Lack of interest
  • Painful intercourse
  • Difficulty in arousal
  • Premature orgasm or ejaculation
  • Inability to reach climax
  • Anxiety about sexual performace

Physical Development Sexuality and Reproductive
  • Appearance and Attractiveness
  • 1.6 million had injections of Botox
  • Wrinkles and graying hair imply
  • Over the hill for woman
  • In the prime of life for men
  • Self-esteem suffers when people devalue their
    physical being

Health Health Concerns
  • Hypertension (chronically high blood pressure)
  • Most common chronic condition 45-64 men
  • Second most common (after arthritis) in women
  • Leads to
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Cognitive impairment

Health Health Concerns
  • Lifestyle diseases (table 15-2)
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Diabetes
  • Breast cancer
  • Long cancer
  • Prostate cancer
  • Colorectal cancer
  • Melanoma (skin cancer)
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoarthritis

Health Health Concerns
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • Lower socioeconomic status lower life expectancy
  • Chronic disease
  • Lower well-being
  • Restricted access to health care

Health Health Concerns
  • Race/Ethnicity
  • Hypertension
  • 33 African American adults
  • 25 white Americans
  • 20 death African American
  • 10 death white Americans
  • Diabetes
  • 10 African American
  • Blindness
  • Kidney failure
  • Amputation of limbs
  • Largest single underlying factor of African
    Americans health problem is POVERTY

Health Health Concerns
  • Womens Health After Menopause
  • Heart Disease every ten years after menopause
    risk of heart disease X3
  • Bone Loss
  • Estrogen helps blood absorb calcium from food
  • Breast Cancer
  • One in eight American women
  • 95 survive for at least 5 years
  • 50 can expect at least 15 years
  • Hysterectomy
  • 33 by age 60
  • May be overused
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • 38 of postmenopausal American women
  • Risk of breast cancer, heart attack, stroke and
    blood clots
  • Replace with
  • Losing weight
  • Stop smoking
  • Lower cholesterol

Health Health Concerns
  • Osteoporosis seems to have a genetic basis
  • Recommended way to reduce the risk of
    osteoporosis is to eat foods high in calcium

Health Emotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Negative moods
  • Suppress immune functioning
  • Increasing susceptibility to illness
  • Positive moods
  • Increase immune functioning
  • Decrease susceptibility to illness
  • The more stressful the changes the greater the
    likelihood of illness within one to two years
  • Stressful events are less likely to lead to
    illness when the stressful event can be
    controlled by the person experiencing it

Health Emotional States, Personality and Stress
Health Emotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Whether or not an event causes stress may
    depend on  the reaction it produces
  • Stress harms health indirectly
  • Sleep less
  • Smoke and drink more
  • Eat poorly
  • Pay little attention to their health
  • More realistic in coping with stress
  • Learned more effective strategies
  • Accept what cannot be changed

Health Emotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Men who use adaptive defenses for 20-47 years see
    themselves having good physical health at 65
  • Stress management workshops
  • Relaxation techniques
  • Meditation
  • Biofeedback

Health Emotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Job related stress
  • High job satisfaction and control reduce stress
  • Social support helps coping with stress and a
    lack of social support correlates with heart
  • Employees with high levels of skills and
    abilities are more resistant to stress
  • Type A / Type B personalities
  • Hardiness, self-efficacy, and locus of control
  • Self-esteem, negative affectivity, type of
    occupation, and sex characteristics

Health Emotional States, Personality and Stress
  • Unemployment
  • Greatest work-related stressor
  • Headaches
  • Stomach trouble
  • High blood pressure
  • Physical and metal illness
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
  • Anxiety
  • Depression
  • Marital and family problems

Health Emotional States, Personality and Stress
  • When men who define their worth in terms of
    their ability to support their family lose their
    jobs they experience
  • loss of identity
  • loss of control of their lives
  • loss of a sense of purpose
  • decreased ability to structure their time  

Cognitive Development Middle-aged prime of
Cognitive Ability
Cognitive Development
  • Horn and Cattell
  • Fluid intelligence (neurological status) Decline
    with age
  • Perceiving relations
  • Forming concepts
  • Drawing inferences
  • Crystallized intelligence (education and cultural
    experience) hold or improve with age
  • Vocabulary
  • General information
  • Responses to social situations
  • Social dilemmas

Cognitive Development
  • Cognitive development in middle adulthood is
    usually related to acquiring specialized
  • Cognitive ability in expertise continue and are
    independent of general intelligence
  • Encapsulation captures fluid abilities
    (information processing) for expert problem
  • Thinking is more flexible and adaptable

Cognitive Development Integrative Thought
  • Feature of postformal thought is integrative
  • Integrate logic with intuition and emotion
  • Integrate conflicting facts and ideas
  • Integrate new information with known information
  • Filter information through their life experiences
    and previous learning

  • Exceptional talents are less born than made
    require systematic training and practice
  • Extraordinary creative achievements
  • Deep highly organized knowledge of the subject
  • Intrinsic motivation to work hard for the sake of
    the work
  • Strong emotional attachment to the work
  • Creativity develops over a lifetime in social
    context, not nurturing environments

  • Highly creative people characteristic
  • self-starters
  • strong sense of purpose and direction
  • can juggle several ideas or projects at a time
  • are not easily discouraged

Creativity and Intelligence
  • General intelligence has little relationship to
    creative performance
  • Sternberg three aspects of intelligence may play
    a role
  • Insightful define a problem and see it in a new
  • Analytic evaluate an idea and decide whether
    its worth pursuing
  • Practical selling an idea and getting accepted

Creativity and Age
  • Creative peoples last decade of a creative
    career typically produces only abut half as much
    as during the late 30s or early 40s
  • Age curve varies depending on field
  • Poets, mathematicians and theoretical physicists
    late 20s early 30s
  • Research psychologists peak around 40
  • Novelist, historians and philosophers late 40s
    or 50s

Work and Education
  • Age-differentiated roles based on age
  • Traditional life structure in industrialized
  • Holdover from a time when life was shorter and
    social institutions less diverse
  • Age-integrated roles open to adults of all ages

Occupational Patterns
  • Ginzberg two career paths
  • Stable
  • Stay with a single vocation
  • Workaholics last ditch effort to reach
    financial security
  • Mellowed come to terms with their level of
  • Shifting
  • Multiple occupational choices
  • Try to achieve a better match between what they
    can do
  • want and expect from work
  • what they are getting out of it

Work versus Retirement
  • 80 for 40-59 years work
  • 61 for 60-69 years work full time 36 part time
  • 50 year olds work for financial reasons
  • 60 year olds work for intrinsic value
  • Enjoyment of work
  • Remain productive
  • Feeling valued
  • Respected

Mature Learners
  • 45 of middle-aged people participated in
    continuing or adult education
  • Training to update knowledge and skills
  • New occupations
  • Many adults simply enjoy learning