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Title: NS100

Fundamentals of Naval Science
Damage Control
1. Understand damage control theory and its
interaction with the damage control
organization. 2. Understand the different
classes of fires and their preferred
extinguishing agents. 3. Understand the basic
purpose of the firemain system.
4. Discuss the basic procedures for combating
shipboard fires and flooding. 5. Be familiar
with the damage control equipment, used in
combating fires and flooding.
Damage Control Theory
Shipboard fires and other damage control
emergencies can cause loss of life and severely
damage equipment. It can go from a small
casualty to a shipwide catastrophe in a few
seconds. Recent history provides us with example
of fire on board Forrestal, Enterprise, Stark,
and more recently YP693.
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Damage Control Theory
The only way to effectively fight fires and
control the spread of damage is to have a
well-trained and ready Damage Control
Damage Control Organization
1. The primary duty of the DC organization is the
prevention and control of damage in order to keep
the ship fighting. DC objectives are attained by
taking the necessary action to
a. preserve stability
b. preserve water-tight integrity
c. control list and trim
Damage Control Organization
d. prevent, isolate, combat, extinguish and
remove effects of fire.
e. detect, confine, and remove effects of
CBR attack
f. facilitate the care of personnel injuries
g. make rapid repairs to the ships structure
and equipment
Damage Control Organization
3. Damage Control organization is divided into
two parts a. Administrative / preventative
organization - PQS / PMS
b. Battle corrective organization - inport
fire parties, rescue and assistance (RA)
teams,and repair lockers.
Fire Prevention
Fire Prevention
Background Fire and flooding are constant
potential hazards aboard ship. All possible
measures must be taken to prevent their
occurrence or to bring about their rapid control
and return to normalcy.
Fire Prevention
1. Each ship is required to institute and
maintain a fire prevention program. 2. The
program should heighten the awareness of ships
personnel in the following areas a. Reduction
of fire hazards
b. Proper stowage, handling, classification
of hazardous material (HAZMAT)
Fire Prevention
c. Shipboard fuels fire prevention
d. Hotwork precautions
e. Removal of trash
f. Removal of fuels and lubricants from drip
Fire Prevention
g. Proper PMS on firefighting equipment
h. Conduct frequent fire safety inspections.

Battle Organization (Underway)
The basic D.C. organization consist of D.C.
central and repair parties.
1. Commanding Officer (command and control) a.
Has overall responsibility for the safety of the
ship and the lives of the crew. b. Must ensure
the command is adequately trained and
continually exercised. c. Must be fully aware of
the adequacy and operability of all DC
Battle Organization (Underway)
  • 2. Executive Officer
  • Responsible for training and DC readiness
  • b. Leader of the Damage Control Training
  • Team (DCTT).

Battle Organization (Underway)
3. Officer of the Deck (OOD) a. COs primary
assistant and / or direct representative on
the bridge. b. Must have extensive knowledge of
ships systems and DC emergency procedures.
Battle Organization (Underway)
4. Damage Control Assistant (DCA) a. Coordinates
action from Damage Control Central (DCC). b.
Receives and evaluates information from all
repair parties.
c. Initiates orders to repair parties.
Battle Organization (Underway)
e. Keeps the bridge informed of the progress of
firefighting, flooding control, CBR defense...
f. Maintains required charts and diagrams.
Battle Organization (Underway)
5. At-sea Fire Party a. Responds immediately to
fire alarms when repair parties are not
b. Extinguishes small fires without disrupting
other ships operations.
c. Controls fires until general quarters
stations can be manned and become ready to
effect relief of the Repair party.
Battle Organization (Underway)
6. Repair Parties a. General Functions -
Control and extinguish fires, control flooding -
First aid evacuation of wounded - Electrical and
sound-powered phone repair - Identification and
decontamination of CBR agents - Perform
emergency repairs - Evaluate and report damage -
Repair hull damage
Battle Organization (Underway)
b. Specific functions - Repair II Forward
Repair - Repair III Aft Repair (secondary
DCC) - Repair V Main Propulsion - Repair VIII
Electronics Repair
Repair Party Organization
Number of Men Position
1 Scene
Leader Attack Team
1 Team Leader -
OBA Attack Team
1 per hose Nozzleman - OBA
Attack Team
2 per hose Hosemen - OBA
Attack Team
1 per hose Plugman
4 Rapid Response
2 Investigator
2 Messenger/Phone
Emergency Party Organization
a. Repair Party Leader - Takes charge at the
repair locker. - Receives reports from scene
leader and investigators. - Reports to
and receives orders from DC Central.
Emergency Party Organization
b. Scene Leader - In charge at the scene -
Determines the method of attack, what
agents to use, where to establish initial
fire and smoke boundaries, etc. - Receives
information from the team leader and
investigators, and makes reports to the
repair locker and DC Central
Emergency Party Organization
Emergency Party Organization
c. Team Leader - In charge of the attack team
(nozzleman and hosemen) and reports to the
scene leader. - Wears an OBA and
protective clothing - Operates the Naval
Firefighters Thermal Imager (NFTI) when
Team Leader
d. Nozzleman - Wears an OBA and protective
clothing. - Employs hose or other extinguishing
agent under the direction of the team leader.
e. Hosemen - Wears an OBA and protective
clothing. - Tends hose or other extinguishing
agent under the direction of the nozzleman.
Emergency Party Organization
f. Access / Overhaul man - Uses various tools
and techniques, as required, to safely gain
access to spaces for attack teams. -
After fire is extinguished, returns to use
various tools as required to overhaul the fire
and ensure the fire is completely out.
Emergency Party Organization
g. Plugman - Stands by the fire-plug for hose
charging and securing under the direction of
the scene leader. - Provides CO2 or PKP
bottles to the scene as needed. - Wears
an OBA when required.
Emergency Party Organization
h. Rapid response Team - Proceeds directly to
the scene of the fire with portable
extinguishers to attack the fire. - Does
not dress out. Their job is to extinguish a
small fire or to control a large fire to
keep it from spreading further.
Emergency Party Organization
  • Investigators

- Constantly searching all surrounding /
boundary areas for fire, damage, and
personnel casualties. - Reports to the repair
party leader or scene leader as appropriate,
using the best means.
Emergency Party Organization
j Boundarymen - Cool decks and bulkheads
with installed systems - Set fire
boundaries as directed by the scene
leader or investigator. - Remove/relocate
flammables as required.
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Emergency Party Organization
m. Electrician - Secures electrical power to
and through the affected space when
directed by the scene leader. - Secures
or energizes ventilation as directed by the
repair party leader.
Emergency Party Organization
o. Gas Free Petty Officer - Conducts
atmospheric tests following desmoking to
ensure the space is safe for personnel.
Fire Fighting Procedures
When the fire is discovered a. Spread the word

b. On-Scene Leader proceeds to scene
c. Rapid Response Team attempts to extinguish
the fire
d. Secure electrical power to the space
Fire Fighting Procedures
e. Attack team dons firefighting gear and
proceeds to the space
f. Boundary men will set boundaries - Remove
flammable liquids from adjacent spaces
- Continually monitor decks and
bulkheads for fire and heat - Cool decks and
bulkheads if they become hot
Fire Fighting Procedures
g. Investigators rove the perimeter of the fire,
report the status of fire boundaries.
h. OSL makes continuous reports to the repair
party leader, who reports to the DCA.
i. once fire is out, set a reflash watch
j. Desmoking team will desmoke affected
Fire Fighting Procedures
k. Gas free Petty Officer conducts atmospheric
tests to ensure compartment is safe
DCA control the entire evolution from
DC Central and advises the CO.
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Flooding Procedures
The following procedures are general guidelines
for controlling either flooding or progressive
flooding a. Attempt to secure the source of
b. Spread the word
c. On-Scene Leader proceeds to scene
d. Rapid Response Team attempts to Secure the
source of flooding ( Watertight Compartmentation)
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Flooding Procedures
e. Secure electrical power to the space
f. Installed eductors can be used on larger
ships to provide a greater capacity to
remove water
g. Boundarymen will set flooding boundaries
- Continually monitor decks and bulkheads
for progressive flooding - Report any
additional flooding
Flooding Procedures
h. Investigators rove the perimeter of the
flood, report the status of fire boundaries.
i. OSL makes continuous reports to the repair
party leader, who reports to the DCA.

DCA controls the entire evolution from
DC Central and advises the CO.
Classes of Fires
1. Class ALPHA Fires - Characterized by any
material that leaves an ash when burned -
Fuels are mattresses, books, paper, wood, etc.
- Generally produces white smoke
Primary extinguishing agent firefighting water
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Classes of Fires
2. Class BRAVO Fires - Flammable liquid
fires - Gasoline, JP-5, DFM, oils,
paints, thinners, solvents, - Generally
produces black smoke
Primary extinguishing agent AFFF Aqueous Film
Forming Foam
Classes of Fires
3. Class CHARLIE Fires - Electrical fires
- Electric motors, controllers, wiring, and
electronic equipment - Generally produces
bluish-white smoke
Primary extinguishing agent Carbon Dioxide
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Classes of Fires
4. Class DELTA Fires - Special fires -
Normally associated with burning metals
(magnesium, titanium) - No specific type of
smoke associated with this type of fire.
- Primary extinguishing agent Large amounts of
water jettison if possible.
Firemain System
- The purpose of the firemain system is to
provide seawater for fighting fires, but the
firemain also provides many other critical
services, such as cooling for electronics and air
Firemain System
Main Components of the Firemain System 1. Fire
and Flushing Pumps These pumps are electric,
diesel, or steam-driven centrifugal pumps rated
between 500 - 1000 GPM. These pumps are designed
to have a discharge pressure of between 75 - 175
Most ships will have 125 PSI as the nominal
firemain pressure
Firemain System
2. Piping Piping is normally 5 inches to 8
inches CU-NI (a copper nickel alloy) that is
highly resistant to corrosion. 3. Risers Risers
are vertical sections of piping that lead to
spaces located above the firemain system . Cutout
valves are installed to isolate risers from the
Firemain System
4. Fire-plugs Fire-plugs come in 1-1/2 or
2-1/2 sizes. On larger ships they are located
so any point of the ship can be reached with 100
or 50 feet of hose from each of two or more
Firemain System
5. Fire Stations Stations consist of a
fire-plug and attached fire hoses (1-1/2 or
2-12). Salt water enters the fire-plug via a
riser from the firemain system. Normally used to
provide firemain to the hose, but in the event of
loss of firemain firefighting water can be rigged
from an outside source to the firemain.
Firemain System
6. Firemain Valves (cutout valves) These globe
or butterfly valves are used for sectionalization
/ isolation of the firemain.
Firemain System
Types of the Firemain Systems 1. Single Main
2. Horizontal Loop
3. Vertical Loop
4. Composite
5. Multiple Horizontal Loop
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Firemain System
DC Features of the Firemain System 1.
Sectionalization The division of the firemain
system into the maximum number of independent
It Prevents the loss of the entire firemain if
one section is damaged by securing selected
system cutout valves
Firemain System
2. Isolation The process of cutting out a
damaged portion of the firemain so water loss and
/ or flooding is stopped and the undamaged
portion of that section can continue to
function. Once a break is isolated, it can be
easily bypassed by jumper hoses.
Firemain System
Regular firehoses are used as jumpers. The
firehoses are normally coupled to the nearest
available fire-plug, and cutout valves are used
to isolate the damaged installed piping.
DC Equipment and Protective Clothing
Overview In a DC situation, the knowledge one
possesses regarding DC equipment, breathing
devices, and protective clothing may indeed save
not only their life, but those of their shipmates.
DC Equipment and Protective Clothing
Fire - Public Enemy 1 Whether at sea or inport
there is no greater destructive force to a ship
than that created by a fire.
Fire-fighting is an all- hands evolution which
relies on individuals to properly employ DC
equipment associated with combating a fire.
Breathing Devices
1. EEBD Emergency Escape Breathing Devices
(EEBDs) are life-saving equipment designed to
provide 15 minutes of breathable air and
protection from surrounding hostile toxic
atmospheres to personnel while escaping from
below decks. EEBDs are designed as a one-time
use, throw- away device, and are not intended for
use while fighting a fire.
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Breathing Devices
2. OBA Oxygen Breathing Apparatus (OBA) is an
entirely self-contained breathing apparatus which
enables the wearer to breath independently of the
outside air. It produces its own oxygen, thereby
allowing personnel to enter a compartment
containing smoke, fire, or those having a low
oxygen content.
Breathing Devices
2. OBA - Each Canister allows the wearer to
breathe adequately for a max. of 60 minutes,
however the actual duration is proportional to
the work level. - It is because the exertion
and hard work associated with fire-fighting
that each canister is subsequently recognized
as safely providing 30 minutes of oxygen to
the firefighter.-
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Protective Clothing
FFE The firefighters ensemble (FFE) provides
the firefighter with greater protection from
exposure to heat, steam, water, sharp objects,
debris, and flames. The ensemble resembles those
worn by civilian firefighters, composed of a
one-piece jumper, protective hood, gloves, boots,
and helmet.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Water Water is the extinguishing agent of choice
when combating class Alpha fires. Salt water
from the ocean is drawn in by means of a pump,
pressurized, and discharged through hoses and
nozzles. Water is also used when combating class
Delta fires. During these fires, the appropriate
action is simply to jettison the burning object
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
P-250 mod 2 Pump The P-250 pump is an internal
combustion engine that is designed to take a
suction from the sea to provide water for
fire-fighting purpose. The P-250 draws a large
volume of water by means of a suction hose which
is placed over the side of the ship, pressurizes
the column, and discharges it through an exit
port, which can be connected to standard hose or
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
P-250 mod 2 Pump - The 55 horsepower engine is
capable of pumping 250 gallons per minute at
125 psi. - The P-250 is found on the weather
decks of vessels in large full cover
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
P-100 Pump The P-100 replaced the P250 on board
the Navy ships . However on board some YPs we
still use the P250. P100 pump is designated to
be - lightweight (16 pounds)
- reliable
- easy to operated
- capable to use JP or DFM as fuel
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
The pump is capable of pumping 275 gallons per
minute at 45 PSI
Disadvantage The pump is not intended to provide
water to ships firemain .
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Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Fire Hoses The orange fire-fighting hoses used
onboard ships are made of rubber synthetic which
is abrasive-proof and cold resistant. The
standard Navy fire hose comes in two sizes,
reflecting the diameter of the hose 1. 1-1/2
2. 2-1/2
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Fire Hoses -The standard length of fire hose
is 50 feet, although other lengths can be
found. - The hoses can be found ready to be
connected to fire-plugs at fire stations
located throughout the ship.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Variable Nozzles - The bail operated
Vari-nozzle has a pistol grip on the underside
of the nozzle for better control of the
fire-fighting water discharge. - The
two-position bail is closed when forward and
opened when back. The discharge pattern is
regulated by a variable nozzle which rotates
to provide numerous spray patterns from wide
angle to solid stream.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Portable CO2 Fire Extinguishers The standard
Navy portable CO2 fire extinguisher is primarily
used in combating class Charlie fires, and in
limited cases against class Alpha fires.
- Each extinguisher has a rated capacity of
15 pounds of CO2, providing an effective range
of four to six feet, and lasting approximately
45 seconds during continuous use.
Co2 Extinguisher
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Dry Chemical (PKP) Extinguishers Portable dry
chemical extinguishers are primarily used on
class Bravo fires. The dry potassium bicarbonate
powder (PKP), interrupts the chemical reaction of
a fire and thereby slows down combustion.
The 18 and 27 pound extinguishers contain a
cartridge containing CO2 which is used to expel
the powder from the canister.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Dry Chemical (PKP) Extinguishers - The max
effective range is 18 feet, and each
extinguisher lasts approx. 18 seconds during
continuous use.
PKP extinguishers are found at various locations
onboard ships, especially near engineering
spaces, galleys, and flammable store lockers.
How to Activate a Portable Fire Extinguisher

1. The pin at the top should be removed from the
valve, and the cylinder placed on the deck to
prevent static electricity.
How to Activate a Portable Fire Extinguisher
2. When ready, one hand should grasp the horn
by the handle to direct the flow of CO2 to the
BASE of the fire
How to Activate a Portable Fire Extinguisher
  • 3.Squeeze the release lever to regulate the

How to Activate a Portable Fire Extinguisher
  • 4. Sweep the nozzle back and forth at the base
    of the fire. After the fire is out, watch it
    carefully since it may re-ignite.

Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
AFFF Fire Extinguishing systems Aqueous Film
Forming Foam, commonly referred to as light
water, is used primarily against class Bravo
fires. - AFFF is combined with water, in the
precise ration of 6 AFFF to 94 water, to
produce foam.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
AFFF Fire Extinguishing systems Placing this
layer of foam on top of a flammable liquid,
serves a dual purpose. - First, the AFFF /
water mixture produces a film on the surface
of the flammable liquid which prevents the
escape of vapors. - Second, the layer of foam
effectively keeps oxygen from the fuel
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
AFFF Fire Extinguishing systems These two
actions inhibit the combustion process,
ultimately extinguishing the fire. AFFF can be
applied easily and quickly by a number of
different systems - Inline Eductor - Bilge
Sprinkling System - Installed AFFF System
HALON 1211 /1301
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Halon 1301 The Halon 1301 system is a fixed DC
system which is used primarily against class
Bravo fires. Halon is a halogenated hydrocarbon
stored as a liquid super-pressurized with
nitrogen in cylinders ranging from 10 to 125
pounds in engineering spaces.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Halon 1301 Halon 1301 is particularly effective
against large, flammable liquid fires, and is
therefore found in nearly all fuel compartments,
propulsion spaces and other similar areas.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Halon 1301 - Upon activation of the system,
and a subsequent time delay, Halon is
released into the compartment as a colorless,
odorless gas with a density 5 times that of
air. - This chemically inhibits the flame
front, not allowing the chemical chain
reaction to occur.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Halon 1301 - Because Halon does not smother a
fire, it is vital that the compartment is
completely air-tight before the system is
activated, so that the gas does not escape
and allow the fire to reflash.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Range Guard Fire Extinguishing System The range
guard fire system is a fixed fire extinguishing
that is specifically designed for use with
shipboard galley/pantry deep fat fryers. The
system responds automatically to the detection of
a fire, or it can be manually operated by the use
of manual controls.
Extinguishing Agents and Equipment
Range Guard Fire Extinguishing System - A fire
extinguishing chemical, aqueous potassium
carbonate (APC), is discharged from cylinders
through nozzles located over the deep fat
fryers. - When APC comes in contact with the
burning oils in the fryer, a soapy foam is
formed. This prevents air from mixing with the
oil, inhibits the combustion, and ultimately
extinguishes the fire.
Flooding may occur from a number of causes -
Underwater or waterline hull damage
  • - Ruptured water piping

  • - The use of large quantities of water for
  • Fire-fighting or counter-flooding

If the ship suffers extensive damage, such that
it does not stop listing, trimming, or settling
in the water, chances are that it will sink
within minutes. It is because of these dramatic
consequences that all hands must be prepared to
use the available assets o combat the effects of
flooding and progressive flooding.
Flooding Equipment
Shoring Shoring is often used onboard ships to
- support ruptured decks - strengthen weakened
bulkheads - build up temporary decks and
bulkheads against the sea - support hatches
doors - provide support for equipment that has
broken loose.
Flooding Equipment
Shoring The basic materials required for shoring
are - shores - portable beam - wedge -
triangular block - shole - rectangular block -
strongback - wooden piece used to distribute
pressure from a shore
Flooding Equipment
Portable Eductors Portable eductors are jet-type
pumps used to move liquid from one place to
another by entraining the pumped liquid in a
rapid flowing stream of water (Venturi Effect).
Flooding Equipment
Portable Eductors These portable eductors are
ideally suited for removing liquid from a flooded
compartment because of their ability to pump
liquids containing small particles of foreign
matter in addition to contaminated water.
Flooding Equipment
Portable Eductors Since the operating medium of
an eductor is water under pressure, they can be
actuated through fire hoses by either firemain
pressure or the discharge of a P-250 pump.
Flooding Equipment
Portable Eductors Two Types
1. Single-jet - Uses a single jet around the
periphery of the vacuum chamber. A strainer
prevents debris from being sucked into the
eductor, and a foot valve prevents back-flooding.
Flooding Equipment
2. Peri-jet eductor - Uses six jets around the
periphery of the vacuum chamber. The peri-jet is
approximately 7 more efficient than the
single-jet eductor, but does not have a strainer
or foot valve.
Flooding Equipment
Portable Electric Submersible Pump The portable
electric sub-pump is used aboard ships for
dewatering flooded compartments that do not have
an installed drainage system.
- It is a centrifugal pump driven by a constant
speed AC or DC motor.
- The discharged liquid is routed overboard via a
2-1/2 fire hose.
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Controlling the effects of a CBR attack involves
limiting the exposure of vital areas of the ship
and personnel to the agent, as well as removing
the contaminant from the vessel. A practical
knowledge of the protective masks, clothing, and
equipment used in the event of a CBR attack is
crucial to the survivability of the crew.
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Breathing Devices and Protective
Clothing Protective Masks The protective masks
found onboard naval vessels are worn during CBR
attacks. These rubber masks remove contaminants
from the environmental air through attached
canisters. The protective mask currently found
onboard ship is MCU-2/P protective mask
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Breathing Devices and Protective
Clothing MCU-2/P protective mask This unit uses
one C2 canister which also filters vapors,
aerosols, and particulate matter but uses a
standard NATO thread for canister replacement.
Each canister will filter the environmental air
safely for 30 days.
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Breathing Devices and Protective
Clothing Chemical Protective Overgarment
(CPO) The CPO is a light-weight, charcoal-lined
suit offering protection against chemical and
biological agents only.
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Breathing Devices and Protective
Clothing Chemical Protective Overgarment
(CPO) The suit, when worn in conjunction with a
protective mask,, chemical protective gloves, and
chemical protective boots, affords the wearer the
maximum protection against these environments
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Breathing Devices and Protective
Clothing Chemical Protective Overgarment
(CPO) In a contaminated environment the CPO
provides 6 hours of protection from agent
penetration. Because of the reduced
effectiveness when wet, wet weather clothing
should be worn over the CPO when contact with
water is inevitable.
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Equipment Countermeasure Washdown System The
countermeasure washdown system is a series of
sprinklers located on the weather decks of
ships which showers the vessel with salt water.
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Equipment Countermeasure Washdown System -
Prior to a CBR attack the system is activated to
lay a protective coating of water on the
vessel. - After the attack the system is again
activated to flush and remove the contaminant
Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR)
Equipment Countermeasure Wash-down System This
serves to remove a majority of the contaminants,
the remainder of which is scrubbed by the
decontamination teams.
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