BHS 49907 Memory and Amnesia - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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BHS 49907 Memory and Amnesia


Source monitoring the ability to keep track of where a memory came from. ... quality of the source of a melody that can identify the instrument played and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BHS 49907 Memory and Amnesia

BHS 499-07 Memory and Amnesia
  • Memory and Reality

Source Monitoring
  • Source monitoring the ability to keep track of
    where a memory came from.
  • Accurate source judgments can be made on partial
    or vague information using familiarity.
  • Source is integrated into the memory trace.
  • The search for source information is controlled
    by prefrontal lobes whereas retrieval involves
    temporal lobes.

Types of Source Information
  • Several criteria are used to make judgments about
    the source of information
  • Perceptual information
  • Contextual information
  • Expectedness of the source
  • Semantic detail or affective information
  • Cognitive operations during original experience

Types of Source Monitoring
  • Internal distinguishing what you thought about
    doing from what you actually did.
  • External distinguishing between two external
    sources (who said what?)
  • Reality monitoring distinguishing memories of
    what really happened from what was imagined.

Source Monitoring Errors
  • Information about source grounds memories in
  • Repeated attempts to remember can increase
    likelihood of confusing a real event with an
    imagined one.
  • Repeated attempts to remember introduce
    perceptual qualities to the memory through
    imagination, making the memory seem real.
  • Choices distort memories for qualities.

Source Cueing
  • Source cueing when the source is used as a
    retrieval cue to aid memory.
  • Knowledge about the source can be used to narrow
    down choices during recall.
  • Timbre is a perceptual quality of the source of a
    melody that can identify the instrument played
    and aid memory for the song itself.

  • Not all plagiarism is intentional.
  • Cryptomnesia when a person recalls a previously
    encountered idea without realizing the original
  • The idea is mistakenly believed to be an original
  • This is a reality monitoring failure the source
    is lost or was never encoded.

False Fame
  • Familiarity increases when information is
    repeatedly presented.
  • False fame effect the tendency to think someone
    is famous because their name sounds familiar.
  • Unfamiliar names previously viewed on a list were
    considered more famous the next day.
  • There is a preference for the familiar.

Sleeper Effect
  • When we first encounter information, the
    credibility of the source affects our acceptance
    of it.
  • Later, when the source is forgotten, the
    information may gain (or lose) credibility
    compared to when first received.
  • Conditions for the effect (1) attention to the
    info (2) source presented second (3) must rate
    trustworthiness immediately afterward.

False Memories
  • False memory when people recall something that
    never happened.
  • Deese-Roediger-McDermott Paradigm for creating
    false memories
  • Present a list of words associated with another
    word that is not presented, e.g. sleep.
  • On testing, people are likely to recall sleep.
  • Associations prime the not-presented word.

Conditions for False Memory
  • The more associations, the more likely the false
    memory will occur.
  • The less recallable the actual items are, the
    more reconstruction is needed and the more likely
    a false memory.
  • More likely with partial or fuzzier recall.
  • Pictures less likely to show the effect.

Influences on False Memory
  • When people are directed to forget the list,
    false memory goes up.
  • Part-set cueing is extended to the not-presented
    word, so false memory goes down.
  • If the not-presented word is more emotional,
    false memory declines.
  • Influenced by conformity expectation.

False Memory from Integration
  • Information from different points in time becomes
    integrated into a single memory.
  • Several things are misremembered as the same
  • Bransford Franks overlapping content is more
    likely to be integrated.
  • Ants ate sweet jelly on the table.

Implanted Memories
  • Loftus deliberately planted false memories in
  • The content of a question about the past becomes
    part of what is later remembered.
  • The more plausible the information, the more
    likely it will be implanted, but the implausible
    can be implanted.

Imagination Inflation
  • Imagining an event, real or false, increases
    confidence in the memory for that event.
  • Viewing pictures makes false memory more likely.
  • Students can develop their own false memories by
    answering questions they know to be false.

Qualities of False Memories
  • True memories are more often
  • Richer in detail, more emotional
  • More likely to be recollected field memories.
  • False memories are more often
  • Stereotypical events
  • Known observer memories
  • These qualities cannot be used to distinguish the
    true from false because of overlap.

Hypnosis Memory
  • Hypnosis an altered state of consciousness in
    which a person is more willing to accept follow
  • People vary in hypnotizability.
  • Hypnotic amnesia is a recent phenomenon induced
    by expectations.
  • Amnesia was not part of hypnosis until 20th

Early Hypnotists
Mesmer (1779)
Inducing Hypnosis
Accuracy of Hypnotic Recall
  • People report more memories while hypnotized, but
    are less accurate.
  • The increased info may be no different than what
    occurs with repeated questioning without
  • Along with more information, more intrusions
    (false info).
  • Hypnotized subjects are more easily fooled.

Everyday False Memories
  • Verbal overshadowing memories change as we talk
    about them.
  • 64 recalled robber without narrative, 38
    percent with narrative
  • Revelation effect slowly revealed info can
    cause new info to be judged as old.
  • Slow revelation generates familiarity
  • A lengthy memory recovery process can add a sense
    of familiarity to what is described.