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History of Music

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Second melodic line (vocal) In 4ths or 5ths. Medieval. Organum. Later becomes more complex ... Different voices and melodic lines become very complex & ornate ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Music


1
History of Music
  • Lecture II
  • Medieval Renaissance Music

2
objective
  • I will be able to
  • describe the
  • changes made to
  • music during the
  • Medieval and
  • renaissance
  • Periods

3
Overview
  • Medieval
  • Roman Empire falls to barbarians
  • Vandals, visigoths, etc.
  • Church Takes over
  • Huge Impact
  • Culture declines dramatically
  • Almost disappears!

4
Medieval
  • 400 1400 CE
  • lack of central political power (roman empire)
  • church takes center stage
  • Does so for about 1000 years

5
Medieval
  • Church also dominates culture
  • Music, Art, etc.
  • Music does not change for _at_ 500 years

6
Medieval
  • Church and Music
  • Most music created in monasteries
  • All music serves religious purposes
  • Not for entertainment
  • Based off of the catholic mass

7
Medieval
  • Church and Music
  • Greek roman music disappear
  • Considered pagan
  • Kept the Greek modes
  • Became the church modes
  • Stayed in 1 octave
  • Begin end on tonic

8
Medieval
  • Church and Music
  • Later changes
  • Not for hundreds of years
  • Polyphony
  • Musical notation

9
Quick Questions
  • When did the Medieval occur?
  • 400 1400 CE
  • 2. What power dominated politics and culture
    during this time?
  • The church

10
Quick Questions
  • 3. Where was most music created?
  • monasteries
  • 4. True or False
  • The church completely abolished everything that
    was greek or roman.
  • false Greek modes

11
Two types of music
  • Sacred
  • Church Music
  • Religious
  • Secular
  • Traveling musicians
  • Popular folk music

12
Medieval (sacred)
  • Purpose
  • Religious
  • Based on the Catholic mass
  • Words chants
  • Only parts of the mass
  • Only played during mass
  • Sung by choir of boys men
  • Also sung by monks nuns

13
Medieval (sacred)
  • Form/Texture
  • Monophonic
  • Plainsong/plainchant
  • Ritual church music
  • Single vocal melody line
  • No music (unaccompanied)
  • Free rhythm

14
Vocabulary
  • accompaniment
  • uh-kuhm-puh-ni-muhnt
  • something added for ornament
  • a part of music designed to serve as background
    and support for more important parts

15
Vocabulary
  • Free Rhythm
  • Sounds like speaking
  • Not regular
  • Not largely repetitive

16
Vocabulary
  • ACCOMPANIEMENT
  • Free rhythm

17
Quick Questions
  • What are the two types of music?
  • sacred secular
  • 2. What was the primary form of sacred music?
  • plainsong

18
Quick Questions
  • 3. What type of texture did plainsong use?
  • monophonic
  • 4. What was plainsong based on?
  • the catholic mass

19
Medieval (sacred)
  • Plainsong

20
Medieval (sacred)
  • Form/Texture
  • Monophonic
  • Plainsong/plainchant
  • Antiphonal
  • Parts of the choir
  • Leader and the choir

21
Medieval (sacred)
  • Plainsong
  • Cultures and communities isolated
  • Chants all a little different from area to area
  • Mozarabic
  • Ambrosian
  • Gallican
  • celtic

22
Medieval (sacred)
  • Gregorian chant
  • Pope gregory I
  • 600 ce
  • Standardizes mass
  • Use standard music
  • Lasted hundreds of years (even today)

23
Medieval (sacred)
  • Instruments
  • None really
  • Vocals

24
Medieval (sacred)
  • Musical notation
  • Early example
  • 4 lines
  • neumes

25
Medieval (sacred)
  • Musical notation
  • No bar lines
  • No rhythm
  • Just pitch

26
Medieval
  • Musical notation
  • Will change later

27
Quick Questions
  • Who standardized plainsong chants?
  • pope gregory i
  • 2. What kind of instruments were used in sacred
    music?
  • none or vocals only

28
Quick Questions
  • What are the two types of music?
  • sacred secular
  • 2. What was the primary form of sacred music?
  • plainsong

29
Two types of music
  • Sacred
  • Church Music
  • Religious
  • Secular
  • Traveling musicians
  • Popular folk music

30
Medieval
  • Medieval music at this time still focused on
    singing
  • Sacred Latin mass
  • Secular common
  • language

31
Medieval (secular)
  • Purpose
  • _at_ 1000 ce
  • Popular entertainment
  • Develops folk music
  • Originally set to poetry
  • Minstrels Troubadours

32
Medieval (Secular)
  • Minstrels
  • Originally a castle servant
  • Entertainer
  • Juggling
  • Fire eating
  • Dancing
  • Less refined
  • Troubadours
  • Traveled more
  • Replaced minstrels
  • Poetry songs
  • Chivalry
  • Courtly love
  • More refined

33
Medieval (Secular)
  • Minstrels
  • Troubadour

34
Quick Questions
  • When did secular music really begin?
  • _at_ 1000 ce
  • 2. Name the two type of secular musicians.
  • minstrels and troubadours

35
Medieval (secular)
  • Form/Texture
  • Monophonic
  • Some musical instrument accompaniment
  • String (lute, fiddle, etc.)
  • Percussion (drum, etc.)

36
Medieval (secular)
  • Form/Texture
  • Simpler than sacred
  • Based on modes
  • Faster than sacred
  • Topics
  • chivalry
  • War
  • Courtly love

37
Medieval (secular)
  • Quick note
  • Courtly love was NOT normally between man wife
  • Church disapproved
  • This is chivalrous??

38
Quick Questions
  • What was the texture of early secular music?
  • monophonic
  • 2. True or false
  • early secular music was actually slower than
    sacred music?
  • false

39
Medieval
  • Polyphony
  • _at_ 900 ce
  • Starts with sacred
  • Later includes secular
  • Two forms
  • Organum
  • Motet

40
Medieval
  • Organum
  • Ore-GA-num
  • Organa (plural)
  • Second melodic line (vocal)
  • In 4ths or 5ths

41
Medieval
  • Organum
  • Later becomes more complex
  • Multiple voices

42
Medieval
  • motet
  • Mo-tet
  • Similar to organum
  • Two voices sing slightly different texts

43
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44
Medieval
  • Polyphony mass
  • Only parts of mass were sung in church
  • Later, all parts added
  • Now the various movements were related to each
    other
  • Fit together like a musical puzzle

45
Medieval
  • Overall effect of polyphony
  • Different voices and melodic lines become very
    complex ornate
  • Not very harmonious (homophonic)

46
Complex polyphony required new musical notation
  • Well look at that in a few slides…

47
Quick Questions
  • When did polyphony begin?
  • _at_ 900 ce
  • 2. Name the two early forms of polyphony.
  • organum motet

48
Quick Questions
  • true or false
  • late medieval polyphony became very ornate and
    complex.
  • True

49
Medieval
  • Musical notation
  • New polyphony required new notation due to
    complexity

50
Medieval
  • Innovations in
  • Pitch
  • rhythm

51
Medieval
  • Musical notation
  • Pitch
  • Guido darezzo
  • _at_ 1000 CE
  • 5 line staff
  • Each line space represent a pitch
  • Still used neumes

52
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53
Guidonian Hand
54
Guidonian Hand
55
Medieval
  • Musical notation
  • Rhythm
  • Franco of cologne
  • _at_ 1250 ce
  • Different shaped notes
  • Became the notes of today

56
Franconian Musical Notation
57
Quick Questions
  • Name the two biggest changes to musical notation.
  • pitch rhythm
  • 2. Name the two monks responsible for these
    changes.
  • darezzo franco

58
Quick Questions
  • What required musical notation to become more
    complex?
  • more complex polyphony in music

59
Renaissance
60
renaissance
  • Out of the dark ages (medieval)
  • 1400 1600
  • Rebirth
  • Science math\
  • Exploration
  • New appreciation for greeks/romans
  • New Art (ars nova)

61
renaissance
  • Changes to music
  • More influence on
  • Human experience
  • Individuality
  • Instrumental music
  • Public access to music
  • polyphony

62
renaissance
  • Major changes
  • Printing press
  • Middle class
  • Protestant reformation

63
renaissance
  • Printing Press
  • 1450
  • Mass production
  • Cheaper
  • sheet music
  • Also method books
  • Supports music education

64
renaissance
  • Growing middle class
  • More money/time
  • More education
  • Lute, recorder, guitar
  • Sheet music method books!
  • More entertainment!!!
  • Public concerts, etc.

65
renaissance
  • middle class
  • Note musicians still worked for patrons
  • Church
  • Wealthy families
  • royalty

66
renaissance
  • Changes in church
  • Protestant reformation
  • Songs now sung by whole congregation
  • Not just the choir
  • Chorale music
  • Became hymns
  • Sang in common language

67
renaissance
  • Form/texture
  • Increasing polyphony
  • 2-4-6 voices
  • Satb
  • More focus on instruments

68
renaissance
  • Sacred music
  • Motet
  • 4 part harmony (satb)
  • Music more than words

69
renaissance
  • Secular music
  • Madrigals
  • Small groups
  • 4-6 voices
  • No instruments
  • Verses choruses
  • Songs _at_ love

70
renaissance
  • Instruments
  • Accompanied
  • Singing
  • Dancing
  • Purely instrumental music now written

71
renaissance
  • Instruments
  • consorts

72
renaissance
  • Instruments
  • Percussion
  • Strings
  • Brass
  • woodwinds

73
renaissance
  • Percussion
  • Triangle
  • Jew's harp
  • Tambourine
  • Bells
  • Rumble-pot
  • Various drums

74
renaissance
  • strings
  • Lyre
  • Harpsichord
  • Viol
  • Irish Harp
  • Hurdy Gurdy

75
renaissance
  • Viol
  • commonly has six strings
  • played with a bow
  • predecessor of modern violin, viola, and
    violoncello (cello)
  • larger size
  • rest it against the floor or between the legs
  • similar to the cello

76
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77
renaissance
  • Irish Harp
  • most popular instrument of Ireland and Scotland
  • significant Irish history
  • is Ireland's national symbol
  • is usually plucked
  • size can vary greatly
  • from one played in one's lap to a full-size harp
    that stands on the floor

78
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79
renaissance
  • Hurdy gurdy
  • wheel fiddle
  • the strings pass over a wheel (like a bow)
  • distinctive sound
  • "drone strings"
  • constant pitch
  • Similar to bagpipes

80
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81
renaissance
  • brass
  • Slide trumpet
  • Cornett
  • Trumpet
  • Sackbut

82
renaissance
  • Slide trumpet
  • Similar to the trombone of today
  • Challenging to hold
  • Slow dance music

83
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84
renaissance
  • Sackbut/Sagbutt
  • A different name for the trombone
  • Replaced the slide trumpet
  • Almost exclusively in church music

85
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86
renaissance
  • Cornett
  • played like the recorder but blown like a trumpet
  • several sizes
  • closest instrument to the human voice
  • ability to use dynamics and expression.

87
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88
renaissance
  • Trumpet
  • Early trumpets had no valves,
  • different sizes
  • Limited use in church
  • most commonly used
  • Military
  • Announcing royalty

89
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90
renaissance
  • woodwinds
  • Shawmm
  • Bagpipe
  • Transverse flute
  • Recorder

91
renaissance
  • Woodwinds
  • Aerophones
  • column of air vibrating within a pipe
  • control the length of the sound waves produced by
    the vibrating air
  • different methods
  • blowing across a mouth hole
  • blowing into a mouthpiece
  • single reed
  • double reed
  • more eccentric and exotic

92
renaissance
  • Shawm
  • Keyless
  • about a foot long, seven holes
  • made of wood
  • carvings and decorations
  • most popular double reed
  • used in the streets with drums and trumpets
  • brilliant, piercing, and often deafening sound
  • The musician puts the entire reed in their mouth,
    puffs out their cheeks, and blows into the pipe
    while breathing through their nose.

93
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94
renaissance
  • Bagpipe/Bladderpipe
  • invented by herdsmen
  • when its player takes a breath, the player only
    needs to squeeze the bag
  • non-return valve.
  • reed is located inside the long metal mouthpiece
    (bocal)

95
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96
renaissance
  • Transverse flute
  • similar to the modern flute
  • mouth hole near the stopped end
  • player blows in the side
  • holds the flute to the right side

97
renaissance
  • Recorder
  • common instrument still
  • Rather than a reed, uses a whistler mouth piece
  • seven finger holes and a thumb hole

98
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