New Trends in Water Resources Planning and Management Emphasis on Water Shortage Management - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: New Trends in Water Resources Planning and Management Emphasis on Water Shortage Management


1
New Trends in Water Resources Planning and
ManagementEmphasis on Water Shortage Management
G. Tsakiris
National Technical University of Athens Centre
for the Assessment of Natural Hazards Proactive
Planning
2
OUTLINE A The Changing Context B Water
Framework Directive C Decentralisation and
Public Participation D Drought as a Natural
Hazard E Water Shortage Management The
Proactive Approach F Concluding Remarks
3
(No Transcript)
4
(No Transcript)
5
(No Transcript)
6
The Transformation
  • Population Increase
  • Population Mobility
  • Urbanisation
  • Climate Change
  • Globalisation
  • Complexity
  • Uncertainty
  • Turbulence

Complexification
7
(No Transcript)
8
(No Transcript)
9
Changing Approaches toPlanning and Management
  • 1960s Feasibility studies, Elitist planning,
    Extrapolative orientation
  • 1970s Environmental Impact Assessment,
    Indicators/Principles Standards, modeling/data
  • 1980s Cumulative Impact Assessment, foresight
    emphasis, User pays, Polluter pays principle
  • 1990s Sustainability, Equity/Efficiency/Effort,
    Normative Planning
  • 2000s Globalization, Integrated/Holistic/Comprehen
    sive

10
Historic evolution of transparency and
participation
11
Treatment of stakeholders trends from warning,
through consultation and participation to
partnership
12
Emerging Key Notions
  • Integrated management
  • Water security
  • Transparency of governance
  • Policy reform
  • Transboundary interdependencies
  • River basin focus
  • True costing
  • Interdisciplinary approaches

13
Millennium Development Goals
By 2015, cut in half the proportion of people
without sustainable access to safe drinking water
and sanitation.
14
(No Transcript)
15
THE ESSENCE OF WFD/2000
  • PLANNING AND INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
  • PRICING AND TRUE COST RECOVERY
  • PARTICIPATION AND IMPROVED DECISION MAKING

16
Key Characteristics WFD
  • Prevent further deterioration, achieve good
    status for all waters
  • Promote sustainable water use
  • River basin approach
  • Combined approach of emission limit values and
    quality standards
  • Get prices right
  • Get citizens involved

17
WFD/2000 Framework
18
(No Transcript)
19
Drought Phenomenon
  • More frequent and severe droughts
  • Higher vulnerability to water stress of society
    and environment
  • Drought affects water deficient and sufficient
    countries
  • Increased impacts in Europe
  • Drought the most difficult to determine
    hazardcreeping natural hazard

20
Causes and types of water scarcity
Causes Regime Natural Human Induced and Natural
Permanent Aridity Desertification
Temporary Drought Water Shortage
21
Variables representing water availability
Drought type Water availability variable
Meteorological Precipitation, precipitation and evapotranspiration
Hydrological Streamflow, reservoir storage or flow in aquifers
Agricultural Soil moisture supply
22
Drought as a natural hazard
23
Drought impacts
  • Economic
  • Environmental
  • Social

24
Climate Change
Three major findings for increased Climate
Variability during the 21st century for the
Mediterranean region (IPCC, 2007)
  1. Temperature increase in the order of 1.4o C up to
    5.8o C
  2. Precipitation decrease in the order of 20
  3. Increased frequency of extreme events, mainly
    floods, droughts, heat waves and forest fires

Change in annual precipitation and temperature Change in annual precipitation and temperature Change in annual precipitation and temperature
Athens Thessaly Sparta Cyclades Crete (?P mm) (-80) to (-120) (?T oC) 4 to 5 oC gt 5 oC
Change in sea level rise (?H m) Change in sea level rise (?H m) Change in sea level rise (?H m)
0.20 to 0.40
25
Climate Change
  • Change in the mean
  • Change in the dispersion

floods
droughts
26
Key scientific and technical issues
  • Monitoring of water-related variables
  • Selection of drought indices
  • Comparability drought prone areas
  • Uni-dimensional analysis

27
Spatial drought assessment
SPI
gt2.001.50 to 1.991.00 to 1.49-0.99 to
0.99-1.49 to -1.00-1.50 to -1.99lt-2.00
RDI
28
Comparison of Indices
  • Distribution of Mean Annual Precipitation
  • Drought Prone Areas
  • Based on SPI Based on RDI

29
Drought conditions 1955-2002 (a12)
Athens
E. Crete
Thessaly
Cyclades
30
Water system vulnerability
  • Exposure of the System (E)
  • Capacity of the System (S)
  • Social Factor (SF)
  • Severity of the event (Qmax)
  • Conditions and interrelated factors (I)

31
Monitoring of water-related variables
  • Precipitation
  • Snowpack
  • Evaporation and evapotranspiration
  • Temperature
  • Wind speed
  • Air humidity
  • Streamflow
  • Groundwater
  • Reservoir storage
  • Soil water reserves
  • Water demand
  • Water quality

32
UNI-DIMENSIONAL APPROACH
  • Duration ? Reference Period (1yr) 3, 6,
    9, 12 months
  • Duration ? each year separately (gt1yr) ?
    multiyear effect
  • Areal extent ? river basin (WFD
    2000/60) ? critical area comparison
    digital representation ? meteorological
    determinants transfer ? calculate drought index

33
Mornos basin
34
Major Water Shortage Management Options
35
?. Severity Assessment Transparency
  • Frequent information of water shortage severity
  • Meetings and public discussions
  • Task force establishment
  • Analysis of demand and efficiency
  • Preparation of options and responsibilities
  • Targets in various uses
  • Official request to central government and/or EU
  • Planning of employees vacations

36
?. Demand reduction measures (1)
  • Public learning campaign appeals for voluntary
    conservation from
  • Farmers
  • Industrialists
  • Touristic agents
  • Public
  • Bounces and incentives
  • Free distribution and/or installation of
    particular water saving devices
  • Extensive installation of water meters (in all
    types of systems)
  • Low-flow showerheads
  • Shower flow restrictions
  • Toilet dams
  • Displacement devices
  • Pressure-reducing valves

37
?. Demand reduction measures (2)
  • Restrictions on non essential uses
  • Street flushing
  • Pavement hosing
  • Car washing
  • Lawn sprinkling
  • Filling of swimming pools
  • Water cooled air conditioning without
    re-circulation
  • Public fountains
  • Park irrigation
  • Irrigation of golf courses
  • Irrigation of perennial and drought resistant
    crops
  • Prohibition of selected commercial and
    institutional uses
  • Car washes
  • School showers
  • Irrigation of non important plants

38
?. Demand reduction measures (3)
  • Drought emergency pricing
  • Irrigation water charge per volume
  • Drought rate (special extra charge for
    irrigation)
  • Drought surcharge on total water bills
  • Summer use charge
  • Rationing programmes
  • Per area and crop allocation of irrigation water
  • Per capita allocation of residential use
  • Per household allocation of residential use
  • Prior use allocation of residential use
  • Percent reduction of commercial and institutional
    use
  • Percent reduction of industrial use
  • Complete closedown of industries and commercial
    establishments with heavy use of water

39
C. System improvements
  • Raw water sources
  • Water treatment plant
  • Distribution system
  • Reduction of system pressure to minimum possible
    levels
  • Implementation of a leak detection and repair
    programme
  • Discontinuing hydrant and main flushing
  • Selection of individual household inspection for
    repairs

40
D. Emergency water supplies (1)
  • Inter-use transfers
  • Purchase of water rights of farmers
  • Planned reallocation of irrigation to municipal
    use
  • Water trade - water banks
  • Inter-district transfers
  • Emergency interconnections
  • Importation of water by trucks
  • Importation of water by railroad cars

41
D. Emergency water supplies (2)
  • Cross-purpose diversions
  • Reduction of reservoir releases for hydropower
    production
  • Reduction of reservoir releases for flood control
  • Diversion of water from recreation water bodies
  • Relaxation of minimum streamflow requirements
  • Auxiliary emergency sources
  • Utilization of untapped creeks, ponds and
    quarries
  • Utilization of dead reservoir storage
  • Construction of a temporary pipeline to an
    abundant source of water (major river)

42
Prioritisation of water demand
43
Institutional and governance issues
  • Dimensions
  • Technocratic dimension
  • Implementation process
  • Institutional context
  • Key critical issues for RBO establishment
  • Consistent commitment of governance
  • Acceptance of shared responsibilities
  • Participation of stakeholders
  • Fully institutionalised initiatives

44
Concluding remarks
  • Proactive management of water systems
  • Drought indices assessing drought severity
  • Uni-dimensional analysis of drought
  • Common truncation level for comparability between
    regions
  • Water shortages caused by drought
  • Vulnerability analysis of each system
  • Risk the key determinant for prioritisation of
    demand
  • RBO the responsible agencies
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Title: New Trends in Water Resources Planning and Management Emphasis on Water Shortage Management


1
New Trends in Water Resources Planning and
ManagementEmphasis on Water Shortage Management
G. Tsakiris
National Technical University of Athens Centre
for the Assessment of Natural Hazards Proactive
Planning
2
OUTLINE A The Changing Context B Water
Framework Directive C Decentralisation and
Public Participation D Drought as a Natural
Hazard E Water Shortage Management The
Proactive Approach F Concluding Remarks
3
(No Transcript)
4
(No Transcript)
5
(No Transcript)
6
The Transformation
  • Population Increase
  • Population Mobility
  • Urbanisation
  • Climate Change
  • Globalisation
  • Complexity
  • Uncertainty
  • Turbulence

Complexification
7
(No Transcript)
8
(No Transcript)
9
Changing Approaches toPlanning and Management
  • 1960s Feasibility studies, Elitist planning,
    Extrapolative orientation
  • 1970s Environmental Impact Assessment,
    Indicators/Principles Standards, modeling/data
  • 1980s Cumulative Impact Assessment, foresight
    emphasis, User pays, Polluter pays principle
  • 1990s Sustainability, Equity/Efficiency/Effort,
    Normative Planning
  • 2000s Globalization, Integrated/Holistic/Comprehen
    sive

10
Historic evolution of transparency and
participation
11
Treatment of stakeholders trends from warning,
through consultation and participation to
partnership
12
Emerging Key Notions
  • Integrated management
  • Water security
  • Transparency of governance
  • Policy reform
  • Transboundary interdependencies
  • River basin focus
  • True costing
  • Interdisciplinary approaches

13
Millennium Development Goals
By 2015, cut in half the proportion of people
without sustainable access to safe drinking water
and sanitation.
14
(No Transcript)
15
THE ESSENCE OF WFD/2000
  • PLANNING AND INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
  • PRICING AND TRUE COST RECOVERY
  • PARTICIPATION AND IMPROVED DECISION MAKING

16
Key Characteristics WFD
  • Prevent further deterioration, achieve good
    status for all waters
  • Promote sustainable water use
  • River basin approach
  • Combined approach of emission limit values and
    quality standards
  • Get prices right
  • Get citizens involved

17
WFD/2000 Framework
18
(No Transcript)
19
Drought Phenomenon
  • More frequent and severe droughts
  • Higher vulnerability to water stress of society
    and environment
  • Drought affects water deficient and sufficient
    countries
  • Increased impacts in Europe
  • Drought the most difficult to determine
    hazardcreeping natural hazard

20
Causes and types of water scarcity
Causes Regime Natural Human Induced and Natural
Permanent Aridity Desertification
Temporary Drought Water Shortage
21
Variables representing water availability
Drought type Water availability variable
Meteorological Precipitation, precipitation and evapotranspiration
Hydrological Streamflow, reservoir storage or flow in aquifers
Agricultural Soil moisture supply
22
Drought as a natural hazard
23
Drought impacts
  • Economic
  • Environmental
  • Social

24
Climate Change
Three major findings for increased Climate
Variability during the 21st century for the
Mediterranean region (IPCC, 2007)
  1. Temperature increase in the order of 1.4o C up to
    5.8o C
  2. Precipitation decrease in the order of 20
  3. Increased frequency of extreme events, mainly
    floods, droughts, heat waves and forest fires

Change in annual precipitation and temperature Change in annual precipitation and temperature Change in annual precipitation and temperature
Athens Thessaly Sparta Cyclades Crete (?P mm) (-80) to (-120) (?T oC) 4 to 5 oC gt 5 oC
Change in sea level rise (?H m) Change in sea level rise (?H m) Change in sea level rise (?H m)
0.20 to 0.40
25
Climate Change
  • Change in the mean
  • Change in the dispersion

floods
droughts
26
Key scientific and technical issues
  • Monitoring of water-related variables
  • Selection of drought indices
  • Comparability drought prone areas
  • Uni-dimensional analysis

27
Spatial drought assessment
SPI
gt2.001.50 to 1.991.00 to 1.49-0.99 to
0.99-1.49 to -1.00-1.50 to -1.99lt-2.00
RDI
28
Comparison of Indices
  • Distribution of Mean Annual Precipitation
  • Drought Prone Areas
  • Based on SPI Based on RDI

29
Drought conditions 1955-2002 (a12)
Athens
E. Crete
Thessaly
Cyclades
30
Water system vulnerability
  • Exposure of the System (E)
  • Capacity of the System (S)
  • Social Factor (SF)
  • Severity of the event (Qmax)
  • Conditions and interrelated factors (I)

31
Monitoring of water-related variables
  • Precipitation
  • Snowpack
  • Evaporation and evapotranspiration
  • Temperature
  • Wind speed
  • Air humidity
  • Streamflow
  • Groundwater
  • Reservoir storage
  • Soil water reserves
  • Water demand
  • Water quality

32
UNI-DIMENSIONAL APPROACH
  • Duration ? Reference Period (1yr) 3, 6,
    9, 12 months
  • Duration ? each year separately (gt1yr) ?
    multiyear effect
  • Areal extent ? river basin (WFD
    2000/60) ? critical area comparison
    digital representation ? meteorological
    determinants transfer ? calculate drought index

33
Mornos basin
34
Major Water Shortage Management Options
35
?. Severity Assessment Transparency
  • Frequent information of water shortage severity
  • Meetings and public discussions
  • Task force establishment
  • Analysis of demand and efficiency
  • Preparation of options and responsibilities
  • Targets in various uses
  • Official request to central government and/or EU
  • Planning of employees vacations

36
?. Demand reduction measures (1)
  • Public learning campaign appeals for voluntary
    conservation from
  • Farmers
  • Industrialists
  • Touristic agents
  • Public
  • Bounces and incentives
  • Free distribution and/or installation of
    particular water saving devices
  • Extensive installation of water meters (in all
    types of systems)
  • Low-flow showerheads
  • Shower flow restrictions
  • Toilet dams
  • Displacement devices
  • Pressure-reducing valves

37
?. Demand reduction measures (2)
  • Restrictions on non essential uses
  • Street flushing
  • Pavement hosing
  • Car washing
  • Lawn sprinkling
  • Filling of swimming pools
  • Water cooled air conditioning without
    re-circulation
  • Public fountains
  • Park irrigation
  • Irrigation of golf courses
  • Irrigation of perennial and drought resistant
    crops
  • Prohibition of selected commercial and
    institutional uses
  • Car washes
  • School showers
  • Irrigation of non important plants

38
?. Demand reduction measures (3)
  • Drought emergency pricing
  • Irrigation water charge per volume
  • Drought rate (special extra charge for
    irrigation)
  • Drought surcharge on total water bills
  • Summer use charge
  • Rationing programmes
  • Per area and crop allocation of irrigation water
  • Per capita allocation of residential use
  • Per household allocation of residential use
  • Prior use allocation of residential use
  • Percent reduction of commercial and institutional
    use
  • Percent reduction of industrial use
  • Complete closedown of industries and commercial
    establishments with heavy use of water

39
C. System improvements
  • Raw water sources
  • Water treatment plant
  • Distribution system
  • Reduction of system pressure to minimum possible
    levels
  • Implementation of a leak detection and repair
    programme
  • Discontinuing hydrant and main flushing
  • Selection of individual household inspection for
    repairs

40
D. Emergency water supplies (1)
  • Inter-use transfers
  • Purchase of water rights of farmers
  • Planned reallocation of irrigation to municipal
    use
  • Water trade - water banks
  • Inter-district transfers
  • Emergency interconnections
  • Importation of water by trucks
  • Importation of water by railroad cars

41
D. Emergency water supplies (2)
  • Cross-purpose diversions
  • Reduction of reservoir releases for hydropower
    production
  • Reduction of reservoir releases for flood control
  • Diversion of water from recreation water bodies
  • Relaxation of minimum streamflow requirements
  • Auxiliary emergency sources
  • Utilization of untapped creeks, ponds and
    quarries
  • Utilization of dead reservoir storage
  • Construction of a temporary pipeline to an
    abundant source of water (major river)

42
Prioritisation of water demand
43
Institutional and governance issues
  • Dimensions
  • Technocratic dimension
  • Implementation process
  • Institutional context
  • Key critical issues for RBO establishment
  • Consistent commitment of governance
  • Acceptance of shared responsibilities
  • Participation of stakeholders
  • Fully institutionalised initiatives

44
Concluding remarks
  • Proactive management of water systems
  • Drought indices assessing drought severity
  • Uni-dimensional analysis of drought
  • Common truncation level for comparability between
    regions
  • Water shortages caused by drought
  • Vulnerability analysis of each system
  • Risk the key determinant for prioritisation of
    demand
  • RBO the responsible agencies
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