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One Size Does Not Fit All: An Introduction to Differentiated Instruction

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Peter H. Reynolds. Listen to the story online. http://www.fablevision.com/place/radio/ns.html ... Music! Color Increases Understanding ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: One Size Does Not Fit All: An Introduction to Differentiated Instruction


1
One Size Does Not Fit AllAn Introduction to
Differentiated Instruction
Workshop 1
2
Take Care of Business
  • Introductions
  • Expectations
  • Graduate Credit
  • Service Agreements Vouchers

3
How well do YOU know the people around you?
  • 3 Facts a Fib
  • Write 3 facts about yourself
  • Write 1 fib about yourself
  • Circulate talk to 5 people
  • If they do not correctly identify the fib, they
    must sign your postcard

4
Workshop Outcomes
  • Increased understanding of what Differentiated
    Instruction IS IS NOT
  • Add to our Instructional Strategies Toolbox
  • Increased understanding of theories of multiple
    intelligence/learning styles
  • Begin planning a differentiated lesson/unit for
    your own classroom

5
If students don't learn the way we teach them,
we must teach them the way they learn. - Marcia
Tate, Developing Minds Inc., Conyers, GA
6
What Is Your North Star?
  • Peter H. Reynolds
  • Listen to the story online
  • http//www.fablevision.com/place/radio/ns.html
  • Read it online
  • http//www.fablevision.com/northstar/index.html

7
Differentiation IS NOT . . .
  • The same as an IEP for every student
  • Just another way to group kids
  • Expecting less of struggling learners than of
    typical learners
  • A substitute for specialized services
  • Chaotic
  • New

8
Good Differentiation IS . . .
  • Varied avenues to content, process, product
  • Respectful of all learners
  • Proactive
  • Student-centered
  • A blend of whole class, small group, and
    individual instruction
  • Based on students readiness, interests, and/or
    learning profile

9
Essential Questions
  • Who are the students in our classrooms?
  • What diversity impacts and influences curriculum
    and instruction?

10
Diversity in the Classroom
  • ADD
  • ADHD
  • Gifted/Talented
  • LD
  • Vision Impaired
  • Hearing Impaired
  • Maturity
  • Autistic
  • Physically Disabled
  • Multiple Handicapped
  • English Language Learners
  • Social Status
  • Economic Status

11
3 Keys to Differentiated Instruction
  • Content
  • What we teach students
  • Materials and methods used
  • Process
  • Activities
  • Calls on students to use key skills
  • Product
  • How students show what they have learned
  • Should also allow students to extend what they
    learned

12
Key 1 Adapt Content
  • Refers to both materials methods
  • Accommodate students different starting points
  • Some students ready for more complex or abstract
    levels
  • Some students ready for independent work

13
Content Differentiation Examples
  • Multiple versions of texts
  • Variety of texts to support concept
  • Interest centers
  • Learning contracts
  • Support systems
  • Audiotapes
  • Mentors
  • Study partners

14
Key 2 Adapt Process
  • Students use key skills
  • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Multiple Intelligence Theories
  • Common focus
  • Vary student activities
  • Teacher uses a variety of methods

15
Process Differentiation Examples
  • Tiered Assignments
  • Layered Curriculum (Nunley)
  • Learning Centers
  • Jig Saw Assignments
  • Learning Logs
  • Graphic Organizers
  • Modify their environment (fidgets)

16
Key 3 Adapt Product
  • Culminating learning experience that occurs after
    many days or weeks of study
  • Demonstration and extension of what they know,
    understand, and are able to do

17
Product Differentiation Examples
  • Variety of assessment types
  • Tiered Assignments
  • Independent Study

18
Variables to Consider
  • Readiness in reading, math, beyond
  • Complexity Challenge of both process product
  • Pace of learning and production
  • Grouping practices
  • Use of assessment results to inform teaching and
    learning

19
Guidelines for the DI Classroom
  • Focus on essentials
  • Attend to student differences
  • NO strategy works on ALL students
  • Assess often and use it to make
    adjustments/modifications
  • Mutual respect
  • Be flexible
  • Doesnt happen 100 of the time!!!!

20
Simple Ways to Start
  • Add an interdisciplinary element to a favorite
    unit
  • Collaborate with other teachers
  • Offer students a variety of presentation options
  • Apply Multiple Intelligence thinking to
    group/individual projects

21
Time For a Break
22
A Few Fun Strategies
  • Teach In Color!
  • Creature Comforts!
  • Music!

23
Color Increases Understanding
  • Using color for key concepts can increase memory
    retention up to 25

24
Experiment
25
Memorize the Pattern30 seconds
Orange Purple Yellow Blue
Red Pink Black Blue
Yellow Orange Red Green
Orange Purple Yellow Blue
Red Pink Black Blue
Yellow Orange Red Green
26
Memorize the Colors Used30 seconds
Purple Orange Yellow Blue
Red Orange Yellow Green
Blue Purple Green Orange
Purple Orange Yellow Blue
Red Orange Yellow Green
Blue Purple Green Orange
27
Memorize the Pattern30 seconds
Orange Blue Green Purple
Purple Yellow Pink Red
Red Orange Blue Green
Orange Blue Green Purple
Purple Yellow Pink Red
Red Orange Blue Green
28
Teach in Color
  • Color Code
  • Key Concepts
  • Colored Pens
  • Color with Sunshine
  • Painted Essay
  • Colored Acetate
  • Number chart
  • Sliding mask
  • Highlighting tape
  • Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome

29
A Quick Start
  • Color Code key concepts
  • Easy in modern classrooms
  • White boards, Smart Boards, computer software
  • Key terms in all content areas
  • Math (parts of equations)
  • Language arts (parts of speech, important
    vocabulary, editing)
  • Correct with sunshine
  • Students do their own color coding
  • Highlighting Tape
  • Colored pens/pencils/highlighters

30
Word Walls in Color
  • CALEB GATTEGNO

31
Correct With Sunshine
  • Use yellow highlighter to identify incorrect
    answers
  • Give student option to correct and receive
    partial (or whole) credit
  • Key to success require students to explain in
    writing what they did wrong and how they
    corrected the problem

32
(No Transcript)
33
Use Colored Pens/Pencils
  • In writing for peer editing
  • Each member of group gets a different color
  • Can instantly see if everyone has contributed
  • Option students use colored pen for their own
    editing/revising
  • For language study of verbs
  • Color code the different tenses
  • Color code the verb endings
  • Color code roots/prefixes/suffixes

34
Skier(to ski)
  • Je skie
  • Tu skies
  • Il/elle/on skie
  • Nous skions
  • Vous skiez
  • Ils/elles skient

35
The Painted Essay
36
Peripherals
  • Post key concepts or terms on walls
  • Use bright colored paper
  • At test time . . .
  • Leave it up in same place
  • Cover the concept with the same color paper
  • Memory trigger for visual learners
  • They can picture the words.

37
Vision Learning
  • 25 of students in grades k-6 have visual
    problems that are serious enough to impede
    learning. (American Public Health Association)
  • It is estimated that 80 of children with a
    learning disability have an undiagnosed vision
    problem. (Vision Council of America)

38
20/20 does not mean that vision is perfect!
  • The 20/20 vision test does not test how well you
    see at reading distance. In fact, the 20/20 test
    fails to evaluate many other important aspects of
    normal vision such as
  • Eye focusing
  • Eye coordination
  • Eye teaming (binocular vision)
  • Eye movement
  • Visual perceptual skills
  • Color vision

39
Simple Tools
  • Sliding Masks Focus Frames
  • Provides for a narrower focus
  • Add colored acetate
  • Book Marks Sticky Flags
  • Provides focus
  • Add colored acetate
  • Coded Bookmarks
  • Sticky Flags

40
Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome
  • 12 of population
  • Contrast problems (only 1 symptom)
  • Black text on bright white paper
  • Striped patterns on carpet clothes seem to move
  • Vertical/horizontal blinds
  • Leads to classroom difficulties
  • Restlessness
  • Difficulty staying on task

41
Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome
  • Contrast problems (only 1 symptom)
  • Strategies
  • Use dull colored paper for writing
  • Use colored acetate over black text on white
    paper
  • Use a bookmark when reading to avoid losing place
  • http//www.hale.ndo.co.uk/scotopic/
  • http//www.irlen.com/sss_main.htm

42
Creature Comforts Grades K-12
  • Tolerance for sitting will ALWAYS be at different
    levels for different people.
  • Even adults benefit from Fidgets or Movement
  • Set ground rules in the classroom.
  • Remove it if/when it becomes a toy or
    distraction

43
Tactile FidgetsGrades K-12
  • Paper clip
  • Cellophane tape rolled backwards around a finger
  • Pipe cleaners
  • Stress balls
  • Pocket Fidget (small item kept in the childs
    pocket)
  • Carpet square under desk

44
Visual FidgetsGrades K-12
  • Lava lamp
  • Fish tank
  • Mobile

45
Nomadic Learners
  • If we build in enough movement during the class
    period, students will be less likely to move on
    their own.
  • Motion resources
  • Minds in Motion
  • Learning on Their Feet

http//doe.sd.gov/oess/schoolhealth/mindsinmotion/
index.asp
46
Ideas for the Nomadic Learner
  • Mini Field Trip
  • A Home Away From Home
  • Music Stand Learning
  • Rocking Chair Reversal

47
Act It Out Visual CluesGrades 4-12
  • Vocabulary strategy for the Kinesthetic Learner
  • Place students into groups
  • Provide 60 seconds to figure out how to Act Out a
    vocabulary word
  • Example PERIMETER (walking around edge of room)

48
perimeter
area
49
Involve the Senses
  • See
  • Hear
  • Taste
  • Smell
  • Touch

50
The Role of Music
51
Why Music?
  • Stimulates the brain
  • Right side for creativity
  • Activates thinking parts of the brain
  • Creates a sound curtain to isolate groups
  • Increases attentiveness
  • Effects emotions, heart rate, mood, mental images
    of listener
  • Embeds learning faster
  • Alphabet song
  • http//www.school-house-rock.com/Prea.html

52
Time For Lunch
53
Multiple Intelligences
  • Begin With the Brain

54
Dots on Grids








A
B








D
C
55
Brain Principles
  • The brain is a complex adaptive system.
  • The brain is social.
  • The search for meaning is innate.
  • The search for meaning occurs through patterning.
  • Emotions are critical to patterning.
  • Every brain simultaneously perceives and creates
    parts.

56
More Brain Principles
  • Learning involves both focused attention and
    peripheral perception.
  • Learning always involves conscious and
    unconscious processes.
  • We have at least 2 ways of organizing memory.
  • Learning is developmental.
  • Complex learning is enhanced by challenge and
    inhibited by threat.
  • Every brain is uniquely organized.

57
Simple Learning Styles
  • Auditory
  • Learns best from listening
  • Visual
  • Learns best from seeing
  • Kinesthetic/Tactile
  • Learns best from doing

58
Why Visual Literacy?
  • Average youth today
  • By age 18 - 22,000 hours watching TV
  • By age 14 has seen 12,000 murders on network TV
    programming!!!!
  • By 18 12,500 hours in school
  • Average vocabulary of 14-year-olds is shrinking
  • In 1950 25,000 words
  • In 1999 10,000 words

59
Visual Learner
  • Images go directly to long-term memory in brain
  • Humans process visuals 60,000 times faster than
    text
  • Words processed sequentially
  • Keyboard
  • Images processed simultaneously
  • Camera

60
Turn Your Paper Sideways
  • Grades 2-7 (or higher if needed)
  • A trick for lining up numbers when working with
    multi-digit numbers in columns
  • TURN THE PAPER SIDEWAYS use the lines as column
    guides
  • Also provides novelty (brain trigger)

61
Jig-Saw Book
  • Good tool for kinesthetic learners
  • They can manipulate the content

62
Gardners Multiple Intelligences
  • Logical/Mathematical
  • Visual/Spatial
  • Musical/Rhythmic
  • Bodily/Kinesthetic
  • Naturalist
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Verbal/Linguistic

63
Sternberg Intelligences
  • Analytical
  • Practical
  • Creative

64
Time For a Break
65
Writing Intelligence Preference Lesson Plans
  • As a result of the lesson, students should
  • Know what?
  • Understand what?
  • Be able to do what?
  • What range of learner needs in your class relate
    to the topic?

66
Difficulty vs Rigor
  • We must be careful not to assign
  • more difficult tasks (tasks requiring
  • more effort or time) when what we
  • mean to do is challenge students with more
    rigorous tasks (tasks requiring more complex
    thought).
  • Judith Dodge - Differentiation in Action

67
Assignments for Next Time
  • Try a new strategy report back to the group
    about the experience
  • Begin the planning process for a lesson using
    intelligence preference
  • Choose a standard (or standards) to teach
  • Identify student goals for that standard
  • Choose possible strategies
  • Be prepared to share with the group

68
He Was Me
69
Resource - Nunley Website
  • HOT TOPIC 1 When counting, gestures help.
    Researchers discoveredthat when students have to
    count things, those that could point, nod or
    otherwise make body gestures, were faster and
    more accurate than those who were not allowed to
    gesture. The gesture apparently adds rhythm
    which makes counting more accurate and also aids
    the brain in maintaining place. Carlson, R. et
    al. (2007). Journal of Experimental Psychology
    Learning, Memory Cognition, Vol 33, 4
  • Teacher Tip 2 We use music for transition
    times in class and between class periods. I ask
    for student volunteers to bring in a CD of their
    choice for us to use for the week. No name,
    workshop participant, Midland, Michigan.
  • You can subscribe to this newsletter at
  • http//help4teachers.com/newsletter.htm

70
  • Facilitated By
  • Sara Fridley Kathleen West
  • Region 3 Education Service Agency
  • sara.fridley_at_k12.sd.us
  • kathleen.a.west_at_k12.sd.us

71
Have You Visited Lately?
  • http//sdesa.k12.sd.us
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