The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

Description:

Primary pump testing, control rod drive mechanism testing, fuel handling system ... Large-scale fabrication amenable to hot-cell operations must be developed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:21
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 31
Provided by: paulli
Learn more at: http://web.mit.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership


1
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership
  • Phillip J. Finck
  • Idaho National Laboratory
  • April 2, 2007

2
Spent Nuclear Fuel Management Options
3
Objectives of Advanced Fuel Cycles
Objectives Technology Potential Improvements Within current repository design boundaries
Management of Usable Isotopes Denaturing through incremental improvements to the once through cycle Consumption in Closed Cycles with FRs Transmute up to 50 fissile Transmute up to 99 fissile
Repository Utilization Improved once through cycles Closed Cycles with FRs Store up to 2 times more energy-equivalent-waste Store orders of magnitude more energy-equivalent waste
Resource extension Improved once through cycles Closed Cycles with FRs Extract 30 more energy Extract orders of magnitude more energy
4
Yucca Mountain Reference Case
5
Repository Benefits for Limited Recycle in LWRs
  • Limited LWR recycling of plutonium and americium
    would allow a drift loading increase of about a
    factor of 2
  • Subsequent burning in fast reactor needed to
    derive large benefits

6
The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Objectives
are Stated in The National Security Strategy
  • The United States will build the Global Nuclear
    Energy Partnership to work with other nations to
    develop and deploy advanced nuclear recycling and
    reactor technologies.
  • This initiative will help provide reliable,
    emission-free energy with less of the waste
    burden of older technologies and without making
    available separated plutonium that could be used
    by rogue states or terrorists for nuclear
    weapons.
  • These new technologies will make possible a
    dramatic expansion of safe, clean nuclear energy
    to help meet the growing global energy
    demand.The National Security Strategy of the
    United States of America (March, 16, 2006) 29.

7
Key Elements of the U.S. Nuclear Energy Strategy
Include Domestic Efforts
  • Expand nuclear power to help meet growing energy
    demand in an environmentally sustainable manner.
  • Develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced
    technologies for recycling spent nuclear fuel
    that do not separate plutonium, with the goal
    over time of ceasing separation of plutonium and
    eventually eliminating excess stocks of civilian
    plutonium and drawing down existing stocks of
    civilian spent fuel. Such advanced fuel cycle
    technologies will substantially reduce nuclear
    waste, simplify its disposition, and help to
    ensure the need for only one geologic repository
    in the United States through the end of this
    century.
  • Develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced
    reactors that consume transuranic elements from
    recycled spent fuel.

8
Supporting the GNEP Strategy Requires New
Facilities, Technology Development and RD
Geologic Disposal
Spent Fuel(63,000 MTHM)
Addl.RecyclingReactors
Existing LWR Fleet
AdvancedRecyclingReactor
ProcessStorage
AdvancedSeparation
FR Fuel
ExpandedLWR Fleet
Industry led,Lab Supported
2020-2025
Support for Industry-led effortand RD for GNEP
beyond 2020-2025
Advanced FuelCycle Facility
Technology Development and RD
DOE Lab led, NRC, Universities,
Industry,International Partners
9
For the Initial GNEP Operation We Envision Three
Supporting Facilities
Nuclear fuel recycling center (CFTC)
Advanced recycling reactor (ABR)
Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility
10
Key Elements of the U.S. Nuclear Energy Strategy
Include International Efforts to
  • Establish supply arrangements among nations to
    provide reliable fuel services worldwide for
    generating nuclear energy, by providing nuclear
    fuel and taking back spent fuel for recycling,
    without spreading enrichment and reprocessing
    technologies.
  • Develop, demonstrate, and deploy advanced,
    proliferation resistant nuclear power reactors
    appropriate for the power grids of developing
    countries and regions.
  • Develop, in cooperation with the IAEA, enhanced
    nuclear safeguards to effectively and efficiently
    monitor nuclear materials and facilities, to
    ensure commercial nuclear energy systems are used
    only for peaceful purposes.

11
International Expansion of Nuclear Power is
Underway
http//www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518
,460011,00.html
12
An International Fuel Service is an Essential
Part of Reducing Proliferation Risk
  • Fuel Suppliers operate reactors and fuel cycle
    facilities, including fast reactors to transmute
    the actinides from spent fuel into less toxic
    materials
  • Fuel Users operate reactors, lease and return
    fuel.
  • IAEA provide safeguards and fuel assurances,
    backed up with a reserve of nuclear fuel for
    states that do not pursue enrichment and
    reprocessing

13
International Partnerships are Critical to GNEP
Success
  • Develop the basis for an assured fuel supply
    concept with other nations
  • IAEA or similar international organization
    administered mechanism to provide supply
    reliability in cases that could not be resolved
    in the commercial market, facilitation of new
    commercial arrangements when supply interrupted
    for some reason other that safeguards compliance
  • Eligibility based on
  • safeguard compliance, nuclear safety standards,
    and reliance on international market without
    indigenous enrichment and reprocessing
  • Foster specific RD and technology collaborations
    through interactions with National Laboratories
    to address critical areas U.S. Russia
    agreement
  • Complete international agreement on GNEP
    Statement of Principles
  • Hold GNEP meeting for other interested nations
    thereafter.

14
GNEP Critical Technology Issues
15
GNEP Why and Why NOW
  • There is a rapidly expanding global demand for
    nuclear power
  • Without some global regime to manage this
    expansion many more Iranian situations will
    likely appear
  • A global regime is forming up with Russia,
    France, Japan and China having both the will and
    the means to participate.
  • The United States, through GNEP, is leading the
    formation of this global regime but we do not
    have the means to participate in its execution.
  • Unless the United States implements the domestic
    aspects of the GNEP program we will suffer
    significant consequences in our energy security,
    industrial competitiveness and national security.
  • There are potential repository benefits, but the
    international need for GNEP is compelling.
  • The United States must act decisively and quickly
    to implement GNEP or face the real possibility of
    having no influence over the certain future
    global expansion of nuclear energy.

16
ABR, ALWR, and LWR Capacity for 2.4 Nuclear
Power Growth Rate
17
Comparison of SNF Storage and Disposal for
Once-Through and Recycling scenario
18
NEA/OECD Working Party on Scientific Issues of
the Fuel Cycle includes studies of User/Supplier
scenarios
19
Near-term Focus is Input to the Secretarial
Decision Package for June 2008
  • Deployment options. Comparison with partner
    states
  • Economic and business payoffs
  • Effect of uncertainties in technology development
  • Input to business plan
  • Role of nuclear (with GNEP) in global energy
    picture
  • Integrated waste management strategy
  • Provide input to NEPA and PEIS activities

20
Development of Advanced Spent Fuel Processing
Technologies for GNEP
21
ABR Technology Development
  • Addresses Technology Development for ABR
    Prototype
  • Performs feasibility studies for select ABR
    Prototype components
  • Steam generator testing, accelerated aging of
    critical materials and components, passive
    fission gas monitoring , etc.
  • Performs key features testing of ABR Prototype
    critical component
  • pump performance testing, fuel handling machine
    testing, reactor shutdown system testing, seismic
    isolation bearing testing, water flow simulation
    stability testing, etc.
  • Performs testing of key ABR Prototype plant
    components to verify performance characteristics
    and safety responses in a prototypical
    environment
  • Primary pump testing, control rod drive mechanism
    testing, fuel handling system operations,
    testing, and recovery, qualification of
    structural materials, performance of reliability
    testing of shutdown systems, etc.
  • Ends with ABR Prototype safety tests
  • Addresses economic issues of fast reactors
  • Develops and tests advanced fast reactor features
    that can contribute to improved economic
    performance
  • Requires an infrastructure to support technology
    testing and development

22
Fast Reactor Support Facilities Infrastructure
  • U.S. lacks the infrastructure to test large
    sodium components in a prototypic environment
  • ETECs Liquid Metal Engineering Center has been
    decommissioned
  • General Electric no longer has sodium testing
    facilities
  • ANL has some some active/some inactive but
    not for very large components
  • France and Japan reportedly have some testing
    capability but condition is unknown.
  • ABR Program must support rebuilding of U.S.-based
    sodium component testing infrastructure to
    support ABR component development to
  • Provide for prototypic testing environment for
    sodium components
  • Provide for personnel training on sodium
    handling, sodium component operations, and
    maintenance

23
Fast Reactor Support Facilities Infrastructure
(Contd)
  • Development of ABR Prototype and successor ABRs
    may require additional support facilities
    (examples)
  • Water loop testing facilities for component
    testing
  • Targeted research and development facilities for
    lab-scale testing
  • Materials Testing Capability
  • Driver Core Fuel Manufacturing Facility

24
Technical Risk Evaluation
Feasibility Issues 1. U.S. infrastructure is insufficient for manufacturing and testing
2. Need to re-establish the regulatory structure
3. No fabrication capability for driver fuel

Performance Issues 1. New technologies will improve costs and reliability of the ABR - compact components - advanced energy conversion systems - seismic isolation - fuel handling machines - in service inspection technologies - primary design
25
The initial post irradiation examination (PIE) of
metal and nitride fuels irradiated in ATR is
completed.
  • Essential post-irradiation examinations of the
    AFC-1 fuels are completed.
  • ATR irradiation of AFC-1D (metal), AFC-1G
    (nitride) and AFC-1H (metal) transmutation fuel
    samples continued.
  • Comprehensive review of the U.S. fast reactor
    fuel experience compiled into a white paper.

26
Metal and oxide TRU fuels are candidates for the
first generation transmutation fuel.
Candidates for First Generation Transmutation ( lt
20 years)
  • Oxide Fuels (powder processing)
  • Successful small-scale fabrication and
    irradiation on limited amount of samples (France,
    Japan)
  • Effect of group TRU on fabrication process
    unknown
  • Effect of lanthanides on fabrication
  • Large-scale fabrication amenable to hot-cell
    operations must be developed
  • Limitations on linear power
  • Metal Fuel
  • Successful small-scale fabrication and
    irradiation on limited amount of samples
  • Large-scale fabrication without loss of Am must
    be demonstrated
  • Fuel-clad interactions at high burnup must be
    investigated
  • Effect of lanthanides on FCCI must be addressed

Back-up Options for Initial Candidates
  • Am recovery and use in moderated targets
  • Fabrication using powder metallurgy
  • Development of advanced clad materials (liners)
  • Driver fuel and MA targets
  • Sphere-pac or vibro-pac fuel technology
  • Risk trade-off fabrication versus performance
  • Driver fuel and MA targets

Long-Term Options (2nd or 3rd Generation) for
Increased Efficiency ( gt 20 years)
  • Nitride
  • High TRU loading potential
  • Fabrication process requires further work
  • N-15 enrichment.
  • Dispersion
  • High burnup potential
  • Fabrication process requires further work
  • Separations process must be developed

27
To achieve fuel qualification tests using LTAs,
considerable developmental testing is required.
PHASE III Demonstrate fabrication process
Validate fuel performance specifications
Validate predictive fuel performance codes
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
PHASE II Optimize the fuel design Fuel
Specification and Fuel
Safety Case Fuel properties measurements with
variance Predictive fuel behavior models and
codes
Phase IV Qualification
LTA Tests
DBA Transients Tests
Transient Response Tests
Phase III Design Improvements Evaluation
Undercooling Tests (2? Clad T)
High-Power Tests (2? LHGR or Fuel T)
Fabrication Variables Tests
Design Parameters Tests
Scoping Transient Tests
Phase II Concept Definition Feasibility
Scoping Tests II (prototypic)
PIE
Scoping Tests I (screening)
Fuel Candidate Selection
0
2
8
12
4
6
10
14
16
18
20
Time (years)
28
Transmutation fuel development is considerably
more challenging than conventional fuels.
  • Multiple elements in the fuel
  • U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm
  • Varying thermodynamic properties
  • e.g. High vapor pressure of Am
  • Impurities from separation process
  • e.g. High lanthanide carryover
  • High burnup requirements
  • High helium production during irradiation
  • Remote fabrication quality control
  • Fuel must be qualified for a variable range of
    composition
  • Age and burnup of LWR SNF
  • Changes through multiple passes in FR
  • Variable conversion ratio for FR

Legacy SNF From LWRs
LWRs
Reprocessing
TRU
Fuel Fabrication
TRU
Fast Burner Reactors
Reprocessing
29
Fuel performance prediction requires integral
understanding of multiple phenomena.
Dynamic properties Changes with irradiation,
temperature, and time.
  • Microstructure
  • Initial distribution of species
  • Initial stoichiometry
  • Thermal conductivity
  • Thermal expansion
  • Specific heat
  • Phase diagrams
  • Fission gas formation, behavior and release
  • Materials dimensional stability
  • Restructuring, densification, growth, creep
    and swelling
  • Defect formation migrations
  • Diffusion of species
  • Radial power distribution
  • Fuel-clad gap conductance
  • Fuel-clad chemical interactions
  • Mechanical properties

Nonlinear effects Initial condition dependence
(fabrication route).
30
A parallel analytic and experimental development
assures implementation shortly after the first
LTAs.
About PowerShow.com