RECONCILING WORK AND FAMILY TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – RECONCILING WORK AND FAMILY TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: d3772-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

RECONCILING WORK AND FAMILY TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

Description:

Commissioned by the Work and Family Programme of the INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ... children to and from school, supervising homework and grooming children; ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:47
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 30
Provided by: Yvon1
Learn more at: http://www.amchamtt.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: RECONCILING WORK AND FAMILY TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


1
RECONCILING WORK AND FAMILYTRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
  • Rhoda Reddock
  • Yvonne Bobb-Smith

2
BACKGROUND
  • Commissioned by the Work and Family Programme of
    the INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANIZATION (ILO)
  • With special emphasis on the following
    Conventions
  • Workers with Family Responsibilities Convention
    (No. 156 of 1981)
  • Maternity Protection Family Responsibilities
    Convention (No. 183 of 2000)

3
OBJECTIVES
  • TO DOCUMENT IMPORTANT CHANGES OCCURING IN FAMILY
    AND WORK IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO -
  • Changes in family structure role
  • Implications for changing nature of work
  • Policies practices to reduce work-family
    conflict
  • Gender impact of work-family conflict
  • Impact of family responsibilities on earning and
    poverty
  • Recommendations for Reconciling Work with Family.

4
RESEARCH METHODS
  • PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION
  • SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION

5
PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION
  • FORMAL INTERVIEWS e.g.
  • Workers in Social Services
  • Labour Consultants
  • Family social workers
  • Human resource managers
  • Trade union leadership
  • Tobago House of Assembly.
  • INFORMAL INTERVIEWS/OBSERVATIONS e.g.
  • Female and male parents
  • Consumers in malls
  • Workers in the informal economy
  • Workers in Early childhood centres

6
SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION
  • PUBLICATIONS AND ONLINE RESOURCES
  • Industrial Court Library
  • Family Court Library
  • Ministry of Social Development
  • Ministry of Labour and Micro-enterprise
    Development
  • University of the West Indies
  • Centre for Gender Development studies
  • Central Statistical office
  • ILO and Govt of TT Online Resources.

7
Trends in Family and Household Organisation
  • Women as household heads
  • households below the poverty line tend to be
    larger and headed by females who are often single
    mothers with dependent children, or contain at
    least one elderly person living alone or in an
    extended family setting sometimes having
    responsibility for the entire household.
  • Elderly in Households
  • 22 of all households had at least one older
    person (65 years and older). Of these, 42 were
    extended family households while 21 comprised
    persons living alone.
  • Male Single Parents
  • There are a minority of single father families.
    They were more likely than married fathers to be
    living in an extended or complex household and to
    have more adult support available.

8
Trends in Family and Household Organisation
  • WORK AND CHANGING FAMILY TRADITIONS
  • Parents utilize the services of paid help for
    preschoolers, such as daily or live-in domestic
    help.
  • They place children in the care of neighbours or
    relatives.
  • They give responsibilities to older siblings
  • They use private or public child-care services.
  • They hire help for after school care.
  • They choose jobs, which have flexible hours to
    manipulate their work time around hours for
    childcare.
  • They establish their own businesses.

9
Trends in Family and Household Organisation
  • FAMILY, WORK AND THE SEXUAL DIVISION OF LABOUR
  • Grandparents, from fifty up, perform parenting
    roles especially in cases of abandonment of
    children by biological parents.
  • This form of informal adoption arises out of
    unemployment, migration, substance abuse, death
    caused by HIV/AIDS, murder and incarceration.

10
Trends in Family and Household Organisation
  • Children in households with younger heads -under
    30 and 30-39 years of age are 80 and 40 more
    likely to attend school than children in
    households with older heads those aged
    40(Bronte Tinkew,199827).
  • Joan Rawlins (2004) study found that 82 of
    caregivers of the elderly were women. Forty-five
    percent were over 50 years old and seven percent,
    between 20-29 years old. Spouses cared for 23.

11
Trends in Family and Household Organisation
  • Women find great difficulty in continuing
    breastfeeding after returning to work

I returned to work when my son was 3½ months
old. I visit his daycare every working day to
breastfeed him and to express milk. How do I do
it? My day goes like this I breastfeed him at
about 700 am before we leave home. I drop my
(two) older children to school and then leave my
baby in St James. I begin my lunch hour at 1100
am and drive for 20 minutes from downtown, Port
of Spain (capital) to St James (suburbs). When I
arrive there, he is usually hungry and looking
out for me, so I breastfeed him immediately I
eat the lunch I have brought with me and drive
back to work, getting there by 1230 pm (Helen
Ross, t.i.b.s NEWS April//June 2004 1-2).
12
CASE STUDY 1 - COPING WITH WORK BREASTFEEDING
  • HR BREASTFEEDS HER 3 ½ MONTH OLD SON AT LUNCH
    TIME -
  • Leaves her office downtown at 1100 am,
  • Drives herself and takes 20 minutes to arrive at
    the daycare in St. James.
  • Breastfeeds him
  • Eats her lunch
  • Returns to work at 1230 pm.

13
Trends in Family and Household Organisation
Family and the Sexual Division of Labour Contd
  • Women continue to have major responsibilities for
    housework and child care
  • Some men have become more sensitized and share
    responsibilities mainly in transporting children
    to and from school, supervising homework and
    grooming children
  • Women reported difficulties in assigning
    housework to family members including children.

14
Trends in Family and Household Organisation
Family and the Sexual Division of Labour Contd
  • Mrs D, is a 51 year old hotel-worker, and head of
    a threegeneration household of seven persons,
    Her daughter and three granddaughters, 16, 14, 10
    years live with her. She copes by giving her
    daughter and grandchildren responsibilities for
    domestic tasks. Her husband, who is a builder,
    primarily does repairs to the house and yard
    work. She spends her time organizing and
    coordinating responsibilities

15
CASE STUDY 3 -COPING THROUGH DIVISION OF LABOUR
  • Mrs. D, hotel-worker, Tobago is head of a
    3-generation household.
  • Her daughter and 3 grand-daughters share
    responsibilities for domestic tasks.
  • Her husband does house and yard tasks.
  • This system barely enables her to go regularly to
    her job, while she has to coordinate family
    responsibilities.

16
ASSESSMENT (1)
  • NEW FORMS OF WORK-FAMILY CONFLICT ARE FOUND IN
  • Difficulties of transportation and commuting.
    Traffic congestion and poor and unreliable public
    transportation including absence of a School Bus
    Service
  • Mrs C. leaves Palmiste (South Trinidad) for her
    job in the capital city, Port of Spain at 515 am
    and arrives at work at 600 am. Her seven year
    old son travels to school a few miles away in a
    carpool. When his father is not at work, he takes
    him to school. She leaves work between 400 and
    500 pm and arrives home between 630 and 800 pm
    in the evening. She notes that quality time with
    her son on a daily basis is reduced to merely an
    hour or less, as she sees him go to bed, and
    perhaps reads to him.

17
CASE STUDY 2 - COPING WITH TRANSPORTATION AND
SECURITY
  • Mr. J., Taxi-driver, shuttles his 3 children to
    school and back home.
  • Two kids are at a school in Maraval and the other
    is downtown.
  • This reduces his earnings during peak hours.

18
Assessment 1 Contd
  • Rapid Industrialization and Urbanization
  • Families and households have had to respond to
    the quick pace of social and technological
    change, and the attendant social dislocation
  • Increasing work demands
  • Womens insistence, generally, for a life beyond
    the household
  • Absence of family members for support due to
    migration increasing employment of women
    grandmothers no longer always available.

19
ASSESSMENT (3)
  • Work hours and school hours are not synchronized
  • Work hours differ from the school hours and this
    is often a cause of much stress.
  • Schools may end at 12.15, 1.30, 2.00, 2.30, 3.00
    or 5.15 p.m.
  • This stress has been heightened with the increase
    in violent crime causing discomfort for parents
    and children.

20
FINDINGS (1)
  • Female parents make a valid attempt to combine
    their need for career fulfillment and economic
    autonomy but few support systems exist for them
  • This was especially so for poor working-class
    mothers who may have to work when their children
    return home from school and during school
    vacations.

21
FINDINGS (2)
  • Neither the Employers Consultative Association
    nor the Trade Union Movement have systems in
    place to address this issue
  • Little effort by the State as well to address the
    compatibility between workers rights and their
    family responsibilities.
  • Efforts aimed at providing childcare services in
    work vicinities such as office complexes,
    industrial estates need to be accelerated.

.
22
FINDINGS (3)
  • Increasingly citizens primary concerns are
    related to school transportation and school
    locations.
  • The business sector has given much less priority
    to the reduction of work-family conflict.
  • The state sector has indirectly addressed some
    aspects with initiatives like early childhood
    education services and the School Nutrition
    Programme.

23
FINDINGS (4)
  • YET, CITIZENS STILL RELY STRONGLY ON PERSONAL
    STRATEGIES TO COPE.

24
RECOMMENDATIONS (1) THE STATE (Selected)
  • Establishment of a multidisciplinary task force
    to examine the recommendations of this study and
    recommend legislative and other changes
  • Develop a pilot project of one Family-Friendly
    Government Ministry to include a crèche,
    breast-feeding breaks, after school care centre,
    vacation programme etc.
  • Review the draft National Gender Policy and
    implement relevant recommendations
  • Reintroduction of the Basic Conditions of Work
    Bill
  • Review the National Transportation Plan with a
    focus on school transport

25
RECOMMENDATIONS (1)THE STATE (Selected)
  • The strengthening of the Ministry of Labour to
    better monitor conditions of work in the low-wage
    sections of the public and private sector
  • Rationalization of school opening and closing
    hours
  • Greater decentralization of essential services
    and public offices to main towns and Tobago to
    prevent time lost in transacting personal
    business e.g. passports, ID cards, motor vehicle
    licences, taxation related matters etc.
  • Consider offering tax incentives to firms that
    implement practices that address work-family
    conflict.

26
RECOMMENDATIONS (2) PRIVATE SECTOR (Selected)
  • Develop a workplace culture to encourage workers
    contribution to work-family compatibility
    policies
  • Implement flexitime arrangements
  • Develop collectively funded solutions, e.g.
    homework centres, crèches, and so on at the
    workplace.
  • Document and Publicize Best Practices

27

RECOMMENDATIONS (3)TRADE UNIONS (Selected)
  • Introduce measures aimed at addressing
    work-family conflict into collective bargaining
  • Implement sensitivity and awareness programmes on
    work-family reconciliation
  • Facilitate gender sensitivity training for all
    trade union personnel male and female
  • Develop a public education campaign on this issue
    and its impact on parenting, youth criminality
    worker commitment etc..

28
CONCLUSION
  • THE CREATION OF
  • FAMILY-FRIENDLY WORK SITUATIONS DEMANDS A CHANGE
    IN THE MINDSET WHICH SEPARATES INCOME-EARNING
    WORK FROM FAMILY AND HOUSEHOLD.
  • IT CHALLENGES ALL SECTORS, HOWEVER, IT REQUIRES
    CREATIVITY AND LONG-TERM COMMITMENT.

29
THANK YOU!
About PowerShow.com