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35'069 Swine Production

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able to see behind them without turning their heads ... stored frequently used in a fire retardant compartment ... choose the appropriate rubber glove for the task ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 35'069 Swine Production


1
35.069Swine Production Management
Working Safely With Hogs
2
35.069Swine Production Management
Working Safely With Hogs
3
Handling Swine
  • Understand behavioral characteristics of pigs for
    easy handling
  • Pigs angle vision is gt300 degrees
  • able to see behind them without turning their
    heads
  • Pigs are sensitive to sharp contrasts in light
    and dark
  • Pigs will balk or be reluctant to move if
  • encounter shades
  • puddles
  • bright spots
  • change in flooring type or texture
  • metal grates
  • flapping objects

4
Moving Hogs
  • Loading from inside a building
  • Line hogs single file or in pairs before going
    outside
  • Lights inside a building or truck will attracts
    them
  • tendency to move from a darker to a bright area
  • Pigs stops at solid barriers placed in front of
    them
  • Use a small portable panel to efficiently move
    and sort them
  • wood, plastic or light aluminum
  • block the hogs view
  • prevents hogs from going in to the wrong
    direction
  • Sorting panels should be the same wide of the
    alley or shute (minus an inch) and 36-42 inches
    high

5
Moving Hogs
  • Alleys should have solid sides and gradual
    corners
  • open sides distract hogs
  • blind corners confuse them
  • Loading shutes are usually wide enough for one
    hog
  • work better if they are wider for two hogs to
    walk side by side
  • Squeeze pen located between the alley and the
    shute or truck makes loading easier
  • should hold 10 to 20 hogs
  • circular design is preferred

6
Herdsmanship
  • Know where to tap a hog to direct its motion
  • Moving the hog forward
  • tap him with your hand on top of its back
  • just in front of its tail
  • use a firm tap, but dont hit the pig - a love
    tap
  • To turn the hog direction
  • tap should be placed just behind the hogs ear
  • to turn left
  • tap behind the hogs right ear
  • to turn right
  • tap behind the hogs left ear
  • Hollering is very useful
  • not screaming, not cursinghollering
  • hey or whew
  • hogs dont like it when humans holler

7
Hazards in Animal Housing
  • Air Pollutants in Animal Housing
  • Dust and Other Aerosols
  • Ammonia
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Other Gases
  • Odors
  • Air Quality Control and Management
  • Mechanical Hazards
  • Electrical Hazards
  • Noise
  • Fire
  • Children in Buildings
  • Safety Signs

8
Air Pollutants in Animal Housing
  • Dust and Other Aerosols
  • Dust found in animal housing is primarily
    composed of
  • Feed components
  • Dry fecal material
  • Dander (hair and skin cells)
  • Molds
  • Pollen
  • Grains
  • Insect parts
  • Mineral ash
  • some components may cause allergic responses
  • an important air quality problem in poultry and
    livestock housing

9
Dust Control
  • Proper waste management and ventilation
  • Minimize poor indoor quality - animals and
    workers
  • workers are required to wear appropriate personal
    protective equipment when entering these
    facilities
  • particularly mask or respirators
  • Several methods of reducing dust are under
    evaluation
  • Wet , electrostatic, cyclonic and dry dust
    filters
  • Oil sprays
  • spraying vegetable oil
  • bind up the dust particles and keep them out of
    suspension

10
Oil Sprinkling
  • Oil concentration in the oil-water mixture -
    should be gt 20
  • Droplet sizes should be gt 150 µm (microns) to
    achieve rapid deposition of droplets on available
    surface
  • Things to considered when choosing a vegetable
    oil (VO)
  • It is not necessary to use refined VO
  • oil should be free of particles
  • VO with strong odor are not suitable
  • potential effect of the oil affects animal
    behavior
  • Use VO with low iodine value
  • in respect to the risk of self-ignition
  • Dust binding effect of oil remains for many days
  • consider designing spraying strategies accordingly

11
Results of Oil Sprinkling
  • Several methods for reduction of aerial dust in
    pig houses have been examined over the last 20
    years
  • To date the most promising method appears to be
    Oil Sprinkling
  • Sprinkling undiluted Canola Oil in a
    grower-finisher room
  • Reduced dust by 79
  • Respirable dust particle - reduced by 73
  • Inhalable dust particle - reduced by 80

12
Ammonia ( NH3 )
  • Ammonia is produced by bacterial action on urine
    and feces during decomposition
  • Comes off of the floors and from the manure pits
  • Levels in animal buildings can be sufficiently
    high to affect human health
  • Ammonia control
  • Frequent removal of waste
  • Management of indoor moisture
  • Adequate ventilation
  • ventilation dilutes ammonia concentration and
    tends to dry floors and litter
  • reduces the rate of ammonia release

13
Hydrogen Sulfide ( HS )
  • Is an acutely toxic gas produced by the
    decomposition of animal manure
  • Often released into the air when liquid manure is
    agitated
  • Its odor is not an indication of its
    concentration
  • Above 6 ppm the odor increases as concentration
    also increases
  • The OSHA limits exposure to 10 ppm for an 8 hour,
    5 day exposure
  • At levels above 50 ppm human evacuation is
    recommended
  • Levels increase to 1500 ppm when swine pit manure
    is agitated
  • Levels above 500 ppm cause unconsciousness and
    death

14
Hydrogen Sulfide ( HS )(continued)
  • Workers should wear a self contained respirator
    if exposure to HS is expected
  • Hazards created during manure agitation can be
    controlled by
  • Providing ventilation during manure pumping
  • Removing the manure
  • Preferable when
  • people and animals are absent from the building

15
Other Gases
  • Methane ( CH4 )
  • A natural product of manure decomposition
  • nontoxic
  • High concentrations produces
  • dizziness and even asphyxiation
  • Flammability of methane Main Safety Concern
  • CH4 can be explosive at concentrations over
    50,000 ppm
  • valuable as an energy source
  • NIOSH (National Institute of Occupational Safety
    and Health) recommended Daily exposure
  • 1,000 ppm per 8 hour work period
  • Control
  • proper ventilation generally dissipates methane
    from animal housings

16
  • Carbon Dioxide ( CO2 )
  • Produced by manure decomposition and animal
    respiration
  • nontoxic gas
  • High concentrations can cause
  • asphyxiation by reducing available oxygen
  • Concentrations in well ventilated buildings can
    range
  • 1,000 ppm during summer
  • 10,000 ppm during winter
  • OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health
    Administration) permissible exposure level for
    CO2
  • 10,000 and 30,000 ppm respectively per 8 hour
    and 15 minutes work period
  • Control
  • proper ventilation
  • CO2 control is important in cold climates

17
  • Carbon Monoxide ( CO )
  • Product of the incomplete combustion of
    hydrocarbons
  • its colorless, odorless, and has nearly the same
    density as air
  • CO hazards in animal production operations caused
    by
  • combustion heaters malfunction
  • operational heaters or internal combustion
    engines
  • without venting the combustion products outdoors
  • Winter Most dangerous period
  • buildings are usually closed and ventilation
    rates are at its lowest
  • OSHA and NIOSH recommended threshold limit values
  • 40mg/m3 or 35 ppm for an 8 hour work period
  • Control
  • combustion heaters and engines should always be
    vented to the outside

18
Odors
  • Air Quality Control and Management
  • Unpleasant odors have long been associated with
    domestic animal production
  • Installation and operation of a well-designed
    ventilation system is the producers best
    assurance of adequate indoor quality
  • provides thorough air mixing
  • eliminates dead spaces having stagnant air
  • moves fresh air through the housing facility
  • Ventilation vents should open enough to provide
    high velocity jets to ensure thorough air mixing
  • Summer months
  • evaporative cooling is needed using misting
    systems to reduce the indoor air temperature
  • Winter moths
  • supplemental mixing fans are needed because
    ventilation rates are reduced to a minimum

19
Air Quality Control and Management(continued)
  • Prevention and early detection of toxic gas
    levels reduces health risks
  • installs CO detectors near combustion heaters
  • the heater should be vented to the outside
  • clean the heater thoroughly at the beginning of
    each heating season
  • while in use, monitor the heaters daily to ensure
    that they burn efficiently and produce minimal
    levels of CO
  • Use extreme caution during manure removal
  • manure slurries will release hydrogen sulfide
    rotten eggs
  • cause for concern
  • HS can quickly inure the sense of smell as
    concentrations increase and become deadly
  • Control dusts
  • during cold weather, use feed additives (oil,
    fat, and lecithin) to help reduce dust emission
    from feed meals.

20
Mechanical Hazards
  • Fans
  • unguarded fans are dangerous, must have guards or
    screens so people cannot touch any moving parts
  • Winches
  • workers operating winches must be careful to
    avoid releasing the winch before the object is
    fully raised or lowered
  • accidentally striking a winch under tension can
    cause it to release
  • Augers
  • must be properly guarded
  • before any maintenance the equipment must be
    unplugged, or switch off at the control and
    breaker box
  • Steel Cables
  • worn or frayed could produce gashes and puncture
    wounds on hands
  • wear a sturdy pair of work gloves to prevent
    these wounds
  • Housing Floors
  • can be slippery and obstructed by equipment and
    railings
  • use a good pair of work boots to prevent falls
    and foot injuries

21
Electrical Hazards
  • Due to faulty electrical wiring
  • Risk of shock
  • Potential for fire
  • Destruction of good equipment
  • motors and pumps
  • Use wiring practices that protects electrical
    cable and system components
  • from abuse by livestock and rodents
  • avoid exposure to tractors and feeding equipment
  • Appropriate design and reliable installation of
    electrical systems are crucial to
  • use electricity efficiently
  • provide a safe environment for workers and
    animals
  • minimize the potential for fire loss

22
Noise
  • Sound levels are measured in decibels (dB)
  • Soft whisper is about 30 dB while a 120 dB will
    cause pain
  • OSHA limits noise exposure to 90 dB over an 8
    hour shift
  • Tractors and other farm machinery cause the most
    noise
  • in livestock housing - animals and machinery
    produce significant noise
  • swine buildings - at feeding time 115 dB can be
    reached

23
Fire
  • Factors that facilitate fire in livestock
    buildings
  • Poor management and maintenance, improper storage
    of combustibles, unsafe electrical wiring and
    lightning
  • Reduce fire incidents
  • Construct building with fire retardant materials
  • Combustibles - discard from building those not
    frequently used
  • stored frequently used in a fire retardant
    compartment
  • Use wiring material and equipment meeting the
    requirements of the National Electric Code
  • Electrical equipment should be installed
    according to manufacturers specifications
  • All electrical equipment (fuses, junctions, and
    outlet boxes) should be kept free of grease and
    dust
  • Place 10 lb ABC type fire extinguishers in all
    major buildings near exits

24
Children in Buildings
  • Animal production facilities are attractive
    playground to children
  • Because of their complexity and potential for
    danger
  • no one should treat animal production facilities
    as play areas
  • lack of experience
  • makes children vulnerable to injuries in
    agricultural environments
  • young children visiting these facilities
  • should be supervised by trained production
    personnel
  • older children should be allowed to work in these
    environments
  • providing adequate training and with parental
    supervision

25
Safety SignsClassified according to the use
hazards and risk involved
The categories of hazard are Toxicity /
Poison Explosive Potential Flammability
Corrosive The categories of risks are
Danger Warning Caution
26
Personal Protective Equipment
  • Head Protection
  • Eye Safety
  • Respiratory Protection
  • Hearing Protection
  • Hand Protection
  • Body Coverings
  • Foot Protection
  • First Aid

27
  • Head Protection Hard hats
  • from impacts or flying or falling objects
  • machinery maintenance
  • construction (electrical work, demolition)
  • horse back riding
  • enclosed spaces with low ceilings
  • chemical splashes
  • Eye Safety Safety glasses, goggles, face
    shields
  • when handling or applying pesticides
  • when working in dust, chaff or other flying
    particles
  • when working around trees
  • particularly under low-hanging branches

28
  • Hearing Protection Earmuffs and Ear plugs
  • from noise produced from farm machinery and hogs
  • tractors, combines, augers, blowers, chainsaws
  • hogs screaming at feeding time
  • Sound - measured in decibels (dB) 85 dB is the
    loudest sound workers should be exposed to for 8
    hours or more.
  • Examples Normal conversation 60 dB
  • John Deer Tractor 8560 tractor 76 dB
  • Massey Ferguson 750 combine 90 dB
  • Swine confinement at feeding 133 dB
  • Reduce indoor noise levels
  • install low noise fans, rubber fan mounts
  • use automated feeding systems
  • reduce animal produced noise by feeding all the
    animals at once
  • Wear protective equipment
  • disposable foam or reusable rubber earplugs
  • hearing protector earmuffs

29
  • Respiratory Protection Masks and Respirators
  • From dust and chaff
  • Toxic gases and chemicals
  • Welding fumes and low oxygen atmospheres
  • Silos and animal confinements
  • large livestock waste and manure dust
  • Effective respiratory hazard control in animal
    housings
  • Use NIOSH approved respiratory protection
    appropriate for the situation
  • Implement a respiratory control program that
    includes
  • evaluation of workers ability to work with the
    respirator
  • regular training of personnel
  • routinely monitoring air quality
  • selection of appropriate NIOSH approved
    respirators
  • respirator fit testing
  • medical evaluations
  • maintenance, cleaning and storage of respirators

30
Respirators used in animal housing facilities
  • Disposable dust / mist masks
  • Reusable dust / mist masks
  • Chemical cartridge respirators
  • which can include particulate matter prefilters
  • Powered air-purifying respirators
  • provide eye protection as well
  • Self-contain respirators
  • for dangerous gases - hydrogen sulfide or carbon
    monoxide

31
  • Hand Protection Gloves - fabric, leather,
    rubber, cut resistant
  • fabric protects from minor cuts and scrapes
  • inexpensive
  • could be laundered to extend its life
  • leather best choice for protection, cuts,
    scrapes, friction
  • inexpensive, breathable, tough and flexible
  • treat with leather care product to extend its
    life
  • rubber protects from the use of chemicals
  • choose the appropriate rubber glove for the task
  • while still on, wash with warm water and soap,
    hang to dry
  • cut resistant protects from handling glass and
    sharp objects

32
  • Body Covering Aprons (leather and rubber),
    chemical resistant coveralls and chainsaw safety
    chaps
  • leather aprons used when welding
  • protects from burns from splattering molten
    metals and slag
  • rubber aprons needed when handling liquids or
    concentrated chemicals
  • protects the groin area from chemical splashes
  • this area absorbs chemical 10x faster than
    through the forearm
  • chemical resistant coveralls excellent
    protection from pesticide dusts and mists
  • chainsaw safety chaps minimize the risk of
    cutting the legs
  • when handling square bales
  • reduce scratches and scrapes on the legs

33
  • Foot Protection Steel toe safety shoes and boots
    (rubber or leather) with puncture resistant soles
  • from sharp objects
  • dropped heavy objects
  • heavy livestock stepping on your feet
  • chemical hazards (steel toe safety rubber boots)
  • First Aid (FA) all vehicles and buildings
    should have a first aid kit
  • get appropriate first aid training
  • in your FA kit include emergency numbers
  • check FA kit content every three months
  • label all FA kits
  • include flares and flash light in your FA kit
  • emergency signals -extra help

34
What to pack in your first aid kit?
For more information visit the NASD (National Ag
Safety Database) (National Ag Safety
Database) http//www.cdc.gov/nasd/menu/topic/first
aid.html For emergencies call 911 Poison
Control Center Winnipeg (204) 787-2591
Regina (306) 766-4545 Toll free
1-800-667-4545 Manitoba Environment Spills
944-4888
35
CSA approved safety equipment could be purchase
at
1. Implement dealerships 2. Farm supply
stores 3. Safety supply companies 4. Pharmacies
5. Agriculture chemical dealers 6. Hardware
stores
Check the yellow pages under SAFETY EQUIP
CLOTHING
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