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Energy Supply in the EU. A presentation ... 1957: European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) ECSC-countries ... Means to lower the risk of an energy shortage: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Folie 1


1
Energy Supply in the European Union
Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Helsinki, 5th October 2005
2
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Introduction
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • 1951 European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)
  • Belgium, West Germany, France, Italy,
    Luxembourg, Netherlands
  • First step of European integration
  • 1957 European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom)
  • ECSC-countries
  • Article 1 of the treaty It shall be the task
    of the Community to contribute to the raising of
    the standard of living in the Member States and
    to the development of relations with the other
    countries by creating the conditions necessary
    for the speedy establishment and growth of
    nuclear industries.

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
3
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
EU Energy Policy
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • No common European responsibility except from
    ECSC and Euratom
  • Impacts of other policies on energy sector
  • Obstacles for a common energy policy
  • Different availability of energy sources
  • The use of nuclear energy
  • The degree of federal control over energy
    supply
  • Crucial importance ? Green Paper

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
4
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy sources
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
EU primary energy balance (1998)
Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Source European Commission, 2002.
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
5
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Oil
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Reserves
  • Europe (incl. Norway) lt 2 of the worlds oil
    reserves
  • Production
  • Demand cant be covered by production in the
    Northern Sea
  • Cost-intensive production
  • Demand
  • Rise in the last decades
  • Transportation sector 100 dependence on oil
  • Trend to replacement by alternative fuels
  • Imports
  • 80 of oil demand imported share is expected to
    grow
  • Weak position, high dependence
  • Main suppliers OPEC countries, Russia, Norway

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
6
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Oil
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
Origin of oil imports in the EU
Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Source European Commission, 2005.
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
7
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Natural Gas
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Compared to coal/oil High effectiveness,
    environment-friendly
  • Reserves
  • EU or close to it 80 of the worlds oil
    reserves
  • Production
  • Rising world wide, declining in the EU ?
    dependence rises
  • Prices are expected to increase (transportation
    costs)
  • Demand
  • Imports
  • Main suppliers Russia, Norway, Algeria
  • Further suppliers have to be found ? Higher
    prices

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Own diagram Data source European Commission
(undated).
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
8
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Solid Fuels
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Reserves
  • Huge reserves ? important for supply security

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Source Euracoal, 2005.
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
9
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Solid Fuels
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Production
  • Rising world wide, declining in the EU
  • Low productivity in Europe (mining in big
    depths)
  • Price level above world market price
  • Regain of attractivenews by new
    environment-friendly technologies
  • Demand
  • Demand decreasing
  • Replacement by other energy sources in
    households
  • Steel industry dropped its demand
  • Medium term Increase in demand possible after
    2010
  • Imports
  • Imported coal is cheaper
  • Main exporters to the EU Australia, Canada, USA

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
10
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Nuclear Energy
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Production
  • 1/3 of electricity consumption produced by
    nuclear energy
  • France 75 of electricity produced by nuclear
    energy
  • Important for many new Member States
  • Finland is planning to build a new nuclear power
    station

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Source Microsoft Corporation, 2005.
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
11
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Nuclear Energy
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Reserves
  • Uranium reserves spread all over the world
  • Long term production assured (extensive amounts
    of secondary sources)
  • Demand
  • EU demand is stable at 20.000 tons p.a.
  • Future demand depends on development of
    renewable energy sources
  • Imports
  • In the short run limited quantities in the EU
  • In the long run more imports required
  • Largest suppliers Russia, Niger, Australia,
    Canada
  • Some Member States have taken the political
    decision to replace nuclear energy by
    alternative energy sources
  • Reasons storing of nuclear waste possible
    accidents (cf. Chernobyl)
  • But alternative fuels are not easily available
    cause higher pollution emissions

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
12
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Renewable Energy Sources (RES)
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Major sectors wind, solar thermal, hydro and
    biomass
  • Advantages
  • Naturally available or quickly replacable
  • No imports needed
  • Less damaging to the environment
  • Unequal and insufficent use in the EU
  • EU Commission 12 (instead of 6) of energy
    demand covered by RES in 2010
  • Early stadium of development ?
    Incentives/Support required

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
13
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Energy Sources Renewable Energy Sources (RES)
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Hydropower
  • 90 of total production out of RES
  • 14 of electricity demand covered by hydropower
  • Potential almost tapped
  • Wind
  • Fast growing technology
  • Potential covering 30 of electricity demand
  • Problems stable production, efficient saving,
    visual landscape pollution
  • Solar Thermal
  • Often used in heating building and water
  • Problems high investment costs and seasonal
    fluctuations
  • Biomass
  • Agriculture as the main source
  • Potential covering 20 of current energy demand

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
14
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Supply Security
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Several risks political crises, technical
    incidents ? supply interruptions
  • Impacts on economy, society and living standard
    (cf. oil crises in 1970ies)
  • Means to lower the risk of an energy shortage
  • Economically mechanisms of pricing and tax law
    ? decrease demand
  • Technically use of other energy sources to
    close the supply gap
  • Politically campaigns for energy saving or use
    of existing reserves
  • Reserves
  • Reserves for gt 1 year recommended in the nuclear
    sector (Euratom)
  • Harder competition and common market leads to a
    reduction of reserves
  • Risk Reduction
  • Dependence on a single sector has decreased
    (oil 60 to 40)
  • Growing transport sector high dependence on
    oil, intensive research on new technologies
  • New networks and decentralised production
  • Diversify energy sources and suppliers

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
15
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Reduction of Dependence
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
Energy balance of the EU-30
Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Source European Commission, 2005.
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
16
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Reduction of Dependence Saving energy
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • Lower consumption ? smaller dependence on
    imports
  • Global energy efficiency just 25
  • European Commission improve energy efficiency
    by 1 p.a. till 2010
  • gt 40 of energy consumption is used in
    buildings ? reduction by 22 till 2010
    possible
  • Lighting 30 50 could be saved by energy
    saving bulbs
  • Better balance of means of transport ? shift
    from road to rail

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
17
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Reduction of Dependence Saving energy
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
Source European Commission, 2005.
18
Energy Supply in the EU
A presentation by Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Introduction
Reduction of Dependence Alternative Sources
EU Energy Policy
Energy Sources
  • RES are safe, clean, affordable, not threatened
    by interruptions or depletion
  • Aim of EU Commission double the share of RES
    from 6 to 12 till 2010
  • Problems technical and practical obstacles,
    high costs
  • Subventions or taxes on externalities of
    conventional energy sources required
  • With suitable investments (RD, marketing), RES
    can contribute to solve many economical and
    ecological problems!

Oil
Natural Gas
Solid Fuels
Nuclear Energy
Renewable Energy Sources
Supply Security
Reduction of Dependence
Saving energy
Alternative Sources
Helsinki, October 5, 2005
19
Thanks for your attention! Any questions?
Daniel Erni and Stefan Horlacher
Helsinki, 5th October 2005
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