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Common Foreign Policy CFP and European Security and Defence Policy ESDP


FSP account to high politics' which are central to the notions of power, ... 3. Endeavour to jointly formulate & implement foreign policy. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Common Foreign Policy CFP and European Security and Defence Policy ESDP

Common Foreign Policy (CFP) and European Security
and Defence Policy (ESDP)
Lec 18
Why strong CCP and weak CFSP?
  • Globalization pressures the EU for a CCP
  • FSP account to high politics which are central
    to the notions of power, sovereignty,
    self-defence and identity
  • Considerable differences among member states in
    FP with regard to special relationships
  • National FSP still offers manoeuvrability in IR
  • Therefore
  • No reference to FSP in founding treaties
  • EU has no sovereign rights over ground, water and
  • EU has no historical/traditional basis where to
    build a CFSP upon
  • No police, army, security intelligence
  • However, Economic interests drive security
    interests (liberalism)

An economic giant and political and military
EPC development (1970s)
  • Failure of EDC and EPC (1954)
  • Failure of Fouchet Plan (1962)
  • Luxembourg Copenhagen Reports (1970)
  • co-operation should be extended at a number of
  • Through European Summits
  • Foreign Ministers meetings
  • Meetings of senior officials
  • Mid and junior level officials

Progress in EPC until 1980
  • EPC intergovernmental process outside EC
  • Different security philosophies Atlanticists
    (GB, NL), Europeanists (F, B), undecided (G) and
    neutrals (Irl)
  • EPC-promoters against opponents
  • Failures to adopt common positions about Israel
    (1973), Afghanistan (1979), Poland (1980) and
    South Africa (1980)

Single European Act
  • SEA (Art 30) provided for member states to
    obligations to
  • 1. Inform consult on foreign policy
  • 2. Imposed an obligation to take full account of
    others positions
  • 3. Endeavour to jointly formulate implement
    foreign policy.
  • rather diplomatic than military structure

The 1990 political earthquake
  • Collapse of Communist system
  • Unification of Germany
  • Official end of Cold War
  • US withdraw security shield from Europe
  • Power vacuum in CEE and Russia
  • Lack of political, military and security
    structures in EU
  • War in Yugoslavia

21st century A new world order?
  • USA strive for mono-polar world order
  • Russia, China, France and Britain search for
    strategic role
  • EU civil power?
  • problem heterogeneous interests, lack of common
    interest and equipment
  • expectation-capabilities gap
  • New clusters with Eastern Enlargement

CFSP Development
  • Political Union Inter-governmental pillar of TEU
  • Provides for Joint Actions based on unanimity
    but implementation by QMV
  • Provides for all questions of security including
    measures to lead to an eventual common European
  • Role of WEU bridge (between NATO and EU) or
    ferry (from NATO to EU)?

Western European Union - relaunch
  • 1992 Petersberg tasks
  • Collective defence
  • Humanitarian rescue tasks
  • Peacekeeping tasks
  • Tasks of combat forces in crisis management,
    including peacemaking

Amsterdam and Nice
  • Future inclusion of WEU structure in TEU
  • Common positions on foreign policy matters
  • Common strategies (positions actions)
  • closer cooperation (Pillar 1 and 3) and
    constructive abstention in (CFSP)
  • c.a. does not block unanimity
  • MS not obliged to support but most not hinder
  • Cc Subset of MS may make use of EU institutions

Amsterdam and Nice
  • Nice An enhanced cooperation procedure which
    allows a number of Member States to proceed to
    more rapid integration (min. 8) and closer
    cooperation in (CFSP)
  • ,High Representative for CFSP (coordination,
    representation and continuity)

Towards ESDP
  • St. Malo British-French initiative (1998)
    strategic air, satellite and reconnaissance
    capabilities, Early warning unit, military
  • European Rapid Reaction Force (50-60,000
    personnel, deployable within 60 days and
    sustainable for 1 year) - failed
  • Nice
  • Establishment of Political and Security Committee
  • WEU structure included in Pillar II EU military
    committee (Mil Reps)
  • EU Military Staff (old WEU elements)
  • In summary, WEU effectively absorbed into EU

St. Malo wait a second!
  • UK and France almost opposite positions on EU
    defence WHY?
  • Success in Bosnia
  • Irritation about US role in Balkan
  • Blairs frustration EU (2/3 of US defence
    budget) can only deploy 10 troops compared to US
  • UK wanted to play an active role in the process
  • Initiative came to nothing or maybe not?

CFSP in practice
  • Common positions
  • define the approach of the Union to a
    particular matter of a geographical or thematic
  • Joint actions
  • address situations where operational action
    is deemed required
  • Common strategies
  • to be implemented by the Union in areas where
    the member states have important interests in

Decisions in CFSP
  • Decisions are reached by unanimity, but
    abstentions do not count ( constructive
    abstentions )
  • Qualified majority is sufficient for
  • when adopting joint actions, common positions
    or taking any other decision on the basis of a
    common strategy
  • when adopting any decision implementing a joint
    action or a common position.

Examples of common positions
  • Sanctions against Burma (1997)
  • Positions on former Yugoslavia (1997)
  • Prohibition of new investment in Serbia (1998)
  • Freezing of funds and economic resources of
    certain persons, groups and entities with a view
    to combating terrorism (2001)

Examples of joint actions
  • European Stability Pact (Balladur Plan) promoting
    relations with Central and East European
    countries (1994)
  • Reconstruction of Mostar, Bosnia (1995)
  • Middle East process (1997) Support of Government
    of Montenegro (1998)
  • Police and military operations in Bosnia and
    Macedonia (2003-04)

Examples of common strategies
  • Common Strategy of the European Union on Russia
  • Common Strategy of the European Union on Ukraine
  • Common Strategy of the European Union on the
    Mediterranean Region (2000)
  • EU common security strategy (2003)

New security threats
  • International terrorism (9-11)
  • economic security
  • organised crime
  • environmental security
  • societal security (social order)
  • political security (institutions and practices)
  • cyber-warfare
  • Rather pillar I III than CFSP problems?

ESDP expectation-capabilities gap
  • Limited
  • Airlift/sealift resources,
  • satellite system,
  • cyber war,
  • experience in conflict intervention
  • Dependent on US support
  • Dependent on political will and domestic issues
  • NATO framework inevitable

Action radius
ESDP Mission impossible?
  • US do not accept EU as partner, but rather
    consults member states
  • US seek to undermine a strengthening of CFSP
  • US three nos
  • No decoupling of US from Europe
  • No duplication of US forces by EU
  • No discrimination against the US,
  • including arms purchases

ESDP Mission impossible?
  • EU-NATO relation unclear
  • Support for US Iraq intervention Britain, Spain,
    Portugal, Italy, Denmark, Poland, Hungary, Czech
  • Against Germany, France
  • The main problem(s)
  • Lack of trust?
  • Divergent strategies?
  • Divergent interests?

Latest Developments
  • EU Judical-/Police-/Peacekeeping Missions since
  • (Temporary EUFOR missions)

Latest developments
  • Frustration about Rapid Reaction Force
  • UK, D, F to set up own battle groups of ca. 1,500
  • Plus multinational groups
  • Since 2007, a total of 15 groups
  • 2 battle groups on standby, can be deployed
    within 15 days
  • Rotation every six months
  • At the moment, Nordic Battlegroup and Spanish-led
    Battlegroup on standby

Latest developments
  • European Defence Agency (2004)
  • Defence budget possible (200m Euro for research)
  • Helsinki Headline Goal 60,000 troops
    deployable for a year, within 2-3 months
  • EU constitution An EU foreign minister?
  • UN an EU seat in the security council?
  • Cooperation between small groups of member states
  • European Gendarmerie (800)
  • Eurocorps (F, G, BE, ES, LU since 1992 60,000)

The concept of flexibility
Concentric circles
Hard-core EU
Europe a la carte
Two-speed Europe
Closer cooperation
Variable geometry
Enhanced cooperation
Models of flexibility
Flexibility as practice
  • Different speeds at economic, political and
    social level
  • Flexibility as response to Enlargement problems
    (transition periods, opt-outs)
  • Legal harmonisation unequal (directives)
  • Maastricht three-pillar structure
  • Schengen outside treaty basis
  • EMU a la Carte (?)

Flexibility as a principle
  • Until 1999 Community method principle
  • Tindemans-Report (1976) proposes multi-speed
  • Amsterdam closer cooperation (Pillar 1 and 3)
    and constructive abstention in (CFSP)
  • Nice An enhanced cooperation procedure which
    allows a number of Member States to proceed to
    more rapid integration (min. 8) and closer
  • Towards a multi-speed Europe?

  • Member States still reluctant to give up
    sovereignty in core domains (security, identity,
    foreign relations)
  • But relatively rapid changes since 1990
  • Even more obviously so in the field of JHA

Class Questions
  • What contribution can the EU make to stability in
    the new security order?
  • What are the main obstacles of a common foreign
    policy and defence structure?
  • How likely are they to overcome?
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