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Ch' 17 The Gilded Age: An Industrial Order Emerges, 18651880

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Economic cycle periods: expansion, contraction, recession/depression. Andrew Carnegie--steel and vertical integration. Jay ... Domesticity & Separate Sphere ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch' 17 The Gilded Age: An Industrial Order Emerges, 18651880


1
Ch. 17 The Gilded Age An Industrial Order
Emerges, 1865-1880
  • Entrepreneur
  • Protective tariff
  • Economic cycle periods expansion, contraction,
    recession/depression
  • Andrew Carnegie--steel and vertical integration
  • Jay Gould--the railroads and pools

2
Standard Oil cartoon with octupus
3
Social Darwinism and the Gospel of Wealth
  • Social Darwinism
  • Andrew Carnegie The Gospel of Wealth and
    philanthropy
  • Racism was a key component of social Darwinist
    ideology
  • Robber baron
  • laissez-faire

4
Portrayal of Robber Barons of the Gilded Age
5
Labor Organizing and Political Corruption of
Gilded Age
  • Craft/Trade Union
  • Prohibition
  • Spoils System and the Tweed Ring
  • Crédit Mobilier
  • Grange Granger Laws

6
1870s Political Debate Over Use of Silver Currency
  • Increase of the money supply with silver dollars
    to provide financial relief.
  • In 1873, Congress voted to stop buying and
    minting silver
  • Crime of 73
  • Bland-Allison Act of 1878

7
Labor Unrest on Americas Railroads
  • Great Railroad Strike of 1877
  • After 8 days, federal troops were dispatched to
    subdue the Strike, which ended after three weeks.
  • The Strike caused widespread panic in the nation.

8
The Great Railroad Strike of 1877
9
Ch. 18 Becoming an Urban Industrial Society
1880-1890
  • John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Company Model
    for monopoly
  • The trust (1882)
  • Journalist Ida B. Tarbell--McClures Magazine
    (1902-1905)
  • Horizontal Integration
  • Monopoly

10
From Competition to Consolidation
  • Who was J. P. Morgan?
  • Morgans management style focused on short-term
    profit.
  • In 1898, Morgan moved into the steel industry,
    directly challenging Andrew Carnegie specialized
    in corporate consolidation.

11
Organized Labor Knights of Labor and the
American Federation of Labor
  • Knights of Laborfirst mass organization of
    Americas working class.
  • In 1878, organization sought to organize workers
    regardless of skill, gender, race or nationality.
  • Organization favored arbitration and boycotts.
  • American Federation of Labor (Samuel Gompers)

12
Haymarket Riot and Labor Radicalism
  • Haymarket Riot--incited by radical socialists and
    anarchists
  • Strike dateMay 1, 1886 in Chicago
  • May 3--six protestors were killed by police
    outside McCormick Works.
  • Rally organized on May 4 at Haymarket
    Squaredeath of 7 policemen and a few others.

13
Haymarket Riot (1886)
McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.
14
New Urban America Rise of the Cities
  • Movement from rural areas to city attracts
    millions of immigrants.
  • 1870srailroad and steamship aid in mobility of
    people and raw goods to cities.
  • Changing European immigration pattern Before
    1880? northern and western Europe After
    1880?southern and eastern Europe.
  • Immigrants left their homelands due to bad
    economic conditions, religious and political
    persecution, and to work.

15
Immigrant entry into Ellis Island, New York Harbor
16
Social Geography of the City
  • Invention and usage of the electric
    streetcar/elevated rail line
  • Urban poor resided close to their workplace
    residential segregation evident according to
    racial and class status.
  • Jacob Riis, author of How the Other Half Lives.
  • 1 of wealthy owned more than half the property
    in America.

17
PHOTOGRAPHER JACOB RIIS CAPTURED IMAGES OF THE
CITY
18
Five Cents Lodging, Bayard Street, c. 1889
19
Jacob Riis
20
Jacob Riis
21
Family Economy Women and Children
  • Domesticity Separate Sphere
  • Racial minorities, immigrants and women were paid
    less in American labor market.
  • Child labor increased steadily attempts to
    abolish such labor and reduce of working hours
    failed.
  • Women employed in the work force domestic
    service (housekeepers) ? factory work ? office
    work.

22
Presidential Politics in the Gilded Age
  • Civil service reform
  • Republicans nominated James A. Garfield and
    stalwart Chester A. Arthur as candidates in
    1880 presidential election.
  • Assassination of President James A. Garfield
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • Election of 1884

23
The Railroads and the Federal Government
  • Interstate Commerce Act (1887)-Federal regulation
    of railroads and trusts established ICC

24
Womens Politics
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Temperance Movement
  • American Woman Suffrage Association (1869)
  • National Woman Suffrage Association--highlighted
    womens roles in politics (1869)
  • Womens Crusade spotlighted the issue of
    temperance--formation of the Womans Christian
    Temperance Union in 1874
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