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INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT AND FARMERS PARTICIPATION IN EGYPT

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HAD Reservoir , Conveyance, On Farm. Irrigation Improvement Projects ... INCREASE OF CONVEYANCE EFFICIENCY OF MESQAS AND BRANCH CANALS. EQUITY OF DISTRIBUTION ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENT AND FARMERS PARTICIPATION IN EGYPT


1
INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMENTAND FARMERS
PARTICIPATION IN EGYPT
Dr. Dia El-Quosy LMEWP_at_MENANET.NET
Giza November 2005
2
PART ONE
  • INTEGREATED WATER MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT

3
Water Use
  • Domestic Potable
  • Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Navigation
  • Fishfarming
  • Power Generation
  • Recreation
  • Environment
  • Protection from Sea Water Intrusion

4
Water Resources
  • Nile
  • Rain
  • Groundwater
  • Flash Floods
  • Desalination
  • Cloud Seeding
  • Dew Harvesting

5
Recycling
  • Land Drainage
  • Treated Sewage
  • Treated Industrial Effluent
  • Artificial Recharge

6
Irrigation System In Egypt
  • Supply Management
  • Rotation
  • Reuse of Drainage Water
  • HAD Reservoir , Conveyance, On Farm
  • Irrigation Improvement Projects
  • Drainage Projects

7
Constraints
  • Mismatch Between Supply and Demand
  • Land Encroachment
  • Precise Estimation of Cultivated Land
  • Over Irrigation of Water Consuming Crops
  • Inequitable Distribution
  • Adequacy of Supply
  • Increasing Losses
  • Pollution
  • Change to Gravity Systems in New Lands

8
Definitions
  • Water Resources Management
  • The whole set of technical, institutional,
    managerial, legal and operational activities
    required to plan, develop, operate and mange
    water resources for sustainable use.
  • Water Resources Management can be considered as
    a process including all activities of planning,
    design, construction and operation of water
    resources systems.

9
Definitions
  • Integrated Water Resources Management
  • Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM)
    takes account of
  • All natural aspects of the water resources
  • All sectoral interests and stakeholders
  • The spatial variation of resources and demands
  • Relevant policy frameworks (national objectives
    and constraints)
  • All institutional levels.
  • Hence, it has three main dimensions the time
    dimension and a number of cross-cutting issues.

10
Other non- consumptive
salt
brackish
fisheries
The Water Users
The Resources
ecosystems
green
agriculture
blue
industries
fossil
Households
International
River Basin
National
Sub- catchment
Provincial
Water Shed
Local
Representation Of interests
Cross-cutting Issues
  • Sustainability
  • Public Sector Interests

11
Integrated Water Management
  • Integrated Resources
  • Integrated Activities
  • Stakeholders Participation
  • Political Will
  • Institutional Reform
  • Change of Behavior

12
Closing Statement
  • Integrated Water Management is meant for the
    integration of resources (water, soil, crops),
    the integration of water sources (surface,
    ground, rain, recycled, desalinated, . Etc),
    integration of quantity and quality and
    integration of activities (domestic, agriculture,
    industry, power generation, fishfarming,
    navigation).
  • The objective of Integrated Water Management is
    to maximize water use efficiency and to get the
    maximum financial return of unit water volume,
    this does not exclude the importance of the
    social value of Water as an important element in
    maintaining food security and national stability.

13
PART TWO
  • FARMERS PARTICIPATIONS

14
I - HISTORY OF FARMERS PARTICIPATION
1- MONAWABA AND MOTARFA
15
MONAWABA AND MOTARFA
  • RAIS EL MONAWABA AND/OR EL MOTRAFA LEADER
  • FIXED WATER DELIVERY SCHEDULE FROM YEAR TO YEAR
    AND FROM GENERATION TO GENERATION.
  • MESQA IS A COMMON PROPERTY OF USER FARMERS
  • IN THE OASIS IT IS NOT IMPORTANT TO OWN LAND,
    MORE IMPORTANT TO OWN A SHARE IN THE WATER SOURCE
    (WELL), BUYING, SELLING AND RENTING NOT BY AREA
    BUT BY TREE (MAINLY OLIVES DATEPALM).

16
2- 1950'S BELOW GRADE SYSTEM
  • WATER LEVELS IN PRIVATE MESQAS BELOW GROUND
    SURFACE IN ORDER TO REDUCE OVERIRRIGATION
  • LIFTING DEVICES MAINLY SAQIA RING (ANIMAL
    POWERED WATER WHEEL).
  • MEMBERS PURCHASED SHARES ACCORDING TO AREA,
    REPAIR AND MAINTAIN THE SAQIA AND ALLOCATE WATER
  • SAQIA LEADER BEING WELL-OFF, HONEST, ELDERLY,
    LIVES NEAR THE SAQIA, EXPERIENCE WITH SIMPLE
    MATHEMATICS AND DEALING WITH ANIMALS.
  • HAQ EL ARAB LOCAL LAW FOR MAINTAINING SOCIAL
    PEACE AND IMMEDIATE CONFLICT RESOLUTION.
  • MAIN CRITERIA ADEQUACY (OR PROPORTIONAL
    DISTRIBUTION), EQUITY AND FLEXIBILITY (DAY
    NIGHT IRRIGATION).

17
3- 1970'S 1980'S
  • WITHDRAWAL OF SAQIAS IN FAVOR OF SMALL DIESEL
    PUMPS, RETREAT OF PARTICIPATORY APPROACH IN FAVOR
    OF INDIVIDUALISM.

18
4- EGYPT WATER USE AND MANAGEMENT PROJECT (EWUP),
1977-1984
  • A PACKAGE OF REFORM ACTIONS TO IMPROVE WATER USE
    EFFICIENCY AND IMPROVE WATER PRODUCTIVITY ON THE
    FARM SCALE IN UPPER AND LOWER EGYPT
  • WATER USER ASSOCIATIONS (WUA'S)
  • IRRIGATION ADVISORY SERVICES (IAS)
  • INTRODUCTION OF CONTINUOUS FLOW, DOWNSTREAM
    CONTROL, ELEVATED MESQAS AND ONE POINT LIFT.

19
5- IRRIGATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (IIP)
  • PILOTING IN 125.000 FEDDAN.
  • 3100 WUA'S
  • 67 FEDERATIONS OF MESQA TEAM LEADERS TO MONITOR
    DELIVERY FROM BRANCH CANALS TO MESQAS

20
5- IRRIGATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (IIP)
  • IMPACTS OF IIP
  • INCREASE OF CONVEYANCE EFFICIENCY OF MESQAS AND
    BRANCH CANALS
  • EQUITY OF DISTRIBUTION
  • REDUCTION OF IRRIGATION TIME
  • LAND SAVING
  • INCREASED CROP YIELDS
  • POSITIVE IMPACT ON PUBLIC HEALTH
  • LEGISLATION (LAW 12 213 AND BY LAWS)

21
5- IRRIGATION IMPROVEMENT PROJECT (IIP)
  • FUNCTIONS OF WUA'S
  • PARTICIPATION IN PLANNING, DESIGN CONSTRUCTION
  • OPERATION MAINTENANCE
  • DISTRIBUTION
  • CO-ORDINATION WITH IRRIGATION AGRICULTURE
    OFFICIALS
  • COST SHARING AMONG MEMBERS
  • CONSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEVEL FEDERATIONS.

22
6- BRANCH CANAL WATER USER ASSOCIATIONS (BCWUA's)
  • MONITORING IRRIGATION DRAINAGE PERFORMANCE
  • JOINT REVIEW OF PROBLEMS WITH OFFICIALS
  • SCHEDULING OF WATER DELIVERY BETWEEN MESQAS
  • CLEANING OF AQUATIC WEEDS
  • SUPPORT OF ESTABLISHMNET OF WUA's
  • MANAGEMENT OF FINANCE
  • FOLOW UP ON CROPPING PLANS TO REDUCE MISMATCH
    BETWEEN SUPPLY DEMAND

23
7- FAYOUM WATER MANAGEMENT PROJECT (FWMP)
  • JOINT PLANNING AND MONITORING OF CONSTRUCTION,
    REHABILIATION AND MAINTENANCE
  • CHANNEL MAINTENANCE
  • WATER BOARDS (WB'S) IN 32 PILOT AREAS MAINLY IN
    SENNOURIS

24
8- THE WATER BOARDS PROJECT (WBP)
  • EQUITABLE, MORE EFFICIENT, QUANTITATIVE AND
    ECONOMIC DISTRIBUTION OF WATER
  • PREVENT AND RESOLVE CONFLICTS
  • IMPROVED MAINTENANCE, PARTICIPATORY MANNER
  • REDUCE POLLUTION OF WATER ENVIRONMENT
  • INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
  • ON SECONDARY CANALS (10 NUMBER)

25
8- THE WATER BOARDS PROJECT (WBP)
  • TRAINING OF MINISTRY STAFF
  • FORMULATION OF LEGISATIVE AMENDMENTS
  • CONSULTATION, PARTICIPATORY MANAGEMENT,
    TRANCFERED MANAGEMENT MODELS
  • PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

26
9- COLLECTOR DRAIN USER'S ASSOCIATIONS
  • REGULAR MAINTENANCE OF MANHOLES AND LATERAL DRAIN
  • SPECIAL MACHINARY FOR FLUSHING IS A CONSTRAINT
  • DRAINAGE CATCHMENT DOES NOT COINCIDE WITH
    IRRIGATION COMMAND
  • NO LEGAL RECOGNITION
  • RESPONSIBILITIES INCORPORATED IN WB'S

27
II - FUTURE VISION OF FARMERS PARTICIPATION
  • 1- LONG TERM VISION
  • DECENTRALIZATION MANAGEMENT TRANFERE
  • GRADUAL WITHDRAWAL TO HIGHER LEVELS
  • INFRASTRUCTURE REMAINS STATE PROPERTY
  • MWRI ARBITRATION, RETAIN QAULITY, EQUITY,
    ENVIRONMENT, REGULATION LEGISTLATION

28
II FUTURE VISION OF FARMERS PARTICIPATION
  • 2- MEDIUM SHORT TERM VISION

a- INSTITUTIONAL REFORM
  • CO-ORDINATE ACTIVITIES AT THE STRATEGY
    OPERATIONAL LEVELS
  • IMPROVE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL AWARENCE
  • ASSESS ORGANIZATIONAL EFFECTS
  • STIMULATE DECENTRALIZATION, PRIVATE PARTICIPATION
    AND PRIVATIZATION

29
II FUTURE VISION OF FARMERS PARTICIPATION
  • 2- MEDIUM SHORT TERM VISION

b- INTEGRATED IRRIGATION IMPROVEMENT AND
MANAGMENET PROJECT (IIIMP)
  • PHYSICAL IMPROVEMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURE
  • IMPROVEMENT OF OPERATIONAL MANAGMENT
  • INSTITUTIONAL REFORM
  • UPSCALING OF WUA'S TO BRANCH CANAL LEVEL AND
    INCORPORATION IN WB'S AT DISTRICT LEVEL

30
II FUTURE VISION OF FARMERS PARTICIPATION
  • 2- MEDIUM SHORT TERM VISION

c- INTEGRATED WATER MANAGEMNET DISTRICT (IWMD)
  • INTIGRATE ALL WATER MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS AT
    DISTRICT LEVEL (IRRIGATION, DRAINAGE
    GROUNDWATER)
  • WATER USERS REPRESENTED BY DISTRICT ADVISORY
    COMMITTEE
  • IWMD PART OF IIIMP

31
II FUTURE VISION OF FARMERS PARTICIPATION
  • 2- MEDIUM SHORT TERM VISION

d- LEGAL REFORM
  • FUTURE LEGAL REGULATORY FRAMEWORK
  • AMENDENT OF PESENT IRRIGATION DRAINAGE LAWS
    (LAW 12 AND LAW 213 BYLAWS).

32
  • Thank you
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