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Finland and WWII: Three Wars

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The Continuation War. Finland allowed Germans to attack via Finland ... Military service in Continuation War (machine-gun platoon) Author, first work in 1947 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Finland and WWII: Three Wars


1
Finland and WWIIThree Wars
  • History of Finland
  • The Winter War, 1939-40
  • The Continuation War, 1941-44
  • Lapland War, 1944 - 1945

2
Brief History of Finland
  • 1155 A.D. Finland under Kingdom of Sweden
  • 1808 Czarist Russia invades Finland
  • 1809 Sweden surrenders Finland
  • Grand Duchy of Russia
  • Independence declared, 1917
  • (Bolshevik Revolution)
  • Civil War in Finland, 1918
  • Republic of Finland established, 1919
  • Constitution adopted

3
Finland The Winter War
  • Soviet-German Non-Agression Pact, 1939
  • Invasion by Soviet Russia
  • Nov 1939-March 1940
  • Valiant effort with little support
  • Peace treaty, Finland forced to cede territories
    (10) to USSR

4
Aspects of The Winter War
  • Finnish forces were ill-equipped, but skillful
  • Soviet attack stalled and even thrown back in
    some areas
  • USSR used air superiority, tanks, greater,
    man-power to wear down Finnish defense
  • Winter War drew world attention

5
The Continuation War June 24, 1941- September 4,
1944
  • Finland co-belligerent of Nazi Germany in
    Operation Barbarossa (German attack on USSR)
  • Contested theories regarding reasons for
    alliance, including
  • Finlands security viewed as dependent on
    collaboration with Germany (distrust of USSR)
  • Opportunity to win back territories lost in WW
  • Belief that Germany would win war.

6
The Continuation War
  • Finland allowed Germans to attack via Finland
  • Declared war on USSR after bombing of Finnish
    Cities
  • Recaptured areas lost in Winter War
  • Refused to join in attack on Leningrad

7
The Continuation WarMannerheim President of
Finland, August 1944 -
  • War in Static phase 1941 -summer 1944
  • June 9, 1944 Soviets attacked Finnish Front
    (Karelian Isthmus)
  • Nordic Historys largest battle fought June
    25-July 6, 1944
  • Armistice (USSR Finland, signed Sept. 1944

8
The Lapland War Sept. 27, 1944 - April 27, 1945
  • War fought against Germany, after signing of
    armistice with USSR.
  • Fighting in Northern Finland (Lapland)
  • Finland under pressure from Allies and USSR
  • Finns to disarm German troops and drive out of
    Finland
  • Finland required to withdraw to 1940-lines
  • Finland to pay war indemnity to USSR

9
Results of Wars
  • Loss of 85,000 Finnish lives 1939-1945
  • Finland sole country among defeated nations, not
    occupied by foreign troops
  • Finland saved its independence (the Baltic States
    annexed July 1940 by USSR)
  • Continued development under democratic government
    after Wars.

10
Väinö Linna (1920-1992)
  • Self-taught factory worker
  • Military service in Continuation War (machine-gun
    platoon)
  • Author, first work in 1947
  • Unknown soldier, 1954
  • Historical Epic
  • Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)
  • Backwoods Realism
  • Working mans perspective
  • Regional types Dialects
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