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Motivating Children To Learn State Standards

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Title: Motivating Children To Learn State Standards


1
Motivating Children To Learn State Standards
  • Presented by Kristen Gray
  • CEP 841
  • Summer 2005
  • Instructor Emily Bouck

2
Problem Statement
  • Why motivation?
  • Why do teachers, administrators, support staff,
    and parents need to know this information?

3
Problem Statement
  • 1. Numerous books, articles, and conversations
    allude to the fact that many children, regardless
    of gender, culture, socioeconomic status, or
    background, do not seem motivated to perform
    those tasks required of them in school. As Tom
    Savage points out in his book, Teaching
    Self-Control Through Management and Discipline on
    page 42, There is really no such thing as an
    unmotivated person. Everyone is motivated to do
    somethingit is the teachers task to discover,
    initiate, sustain, and direct it towards school
    tasks (1999).

4
2. Heres a generalized conclusion of why we
need to concern ourselves with finding ways to
get our children motivated
Problem Statement
5
Description of Condition
  • All people may experience difficulties in
    wanting to learn something, performing a task, or
    just paying attention. Our interests oftentimes
    dictate what we choose to do. Children are no
    different.
  • However, children with special needs are even
    more susceptible to losing interest in a given
    task or objective. When ones rate of success in
    past experiences is lower than others, it is
    natural to shut down sooner. This is what
    happens with many of our students. They dont
    think they can succeed, so they dont try. They
    havent had success in the past, so why should
    they think they will experience it now?

6
Facts, Statistics, Incidence
  • As Professor Tom Daly points out on his website
    for his book, The ADHD Solution for Teachers
    How to Turn any Disruptive Child Into Your Best
    Student, On average, there are at least one to
    three children who have ADHD in every classroom
    of 30 students.
  • This means that there are roughly the same
    number of children with motivational difficulties.

Click button to visit website
7
Facts, Statistics, Incidence
  • Motivation and Middle School Students
  • 3 Theories
  • Presented by Lynley Hicks Anderman and Carol
    Midgley
  • Click on button to read entire article

8
Attribution Theory
  • Teachers must understand what students believe
    about the reasons for their academic performance
    Students who believe that their poor
    performance is caused by factors out of their
    control (external locus of control) are unlikely
    to see any reason to hope for an improvement. In
    contrast, if students attribute their poor
    performance to a lack of important skills or to
    poor study habits, they are more likely to
    persist in the future.

9
Goal Theory
  • This theory focuses on the reasons or purposes
    the students perceive for achieving.
  • Task goals purpose of achieving is personal
    improvement and understanding focus on own
    progress of mastering skills and knowledge
    success is defined in those terms
  • Ability goals purpose of achieving is the
    demonstration of ability (or concealment of a
    lack of ability) focus on appearing competent,
    often in comparison to others
  • Studies have shown that students with task goals
    use more effective cognitive strategies, are more
    willing to seek help when needed, and have more
    positive feelings about school and oneself.

10
Goal Theory
  • To move our students towards a task goal focus,
    schools need to do more
  • Frequent reformation of groups based on interests
    and student choice
  • Cooperative learning not competition between
    students
  • Using test data for diagnosis, not as a basis for
    comparison alternative testing, like portfolios
  • Grading for progress and involving students in
    determining their grades
  • Recognition of progress improvement and emphasis
    on learning for its own sake
  • Opportunities for choice and student decision
    making and self-regulation
  • thematic approaches to curriculum viewing
    mistakes as a part of learning allowing students
    to redo work
  • Providing engaging, real world applicable work
    encouraging problem solving and comprehension
  • Cross-age tutoring, peer tutoring, or enrichment

11
Self-Determination Theory
  • This theory is especially important for
    middle-school aged children. It focuses on the
    three categories of needs
  • Sense of competence involves understanding how
    to and believing that one can achieve various
    outcomes
  • Relatedness involves developing satisfactory
    connections to others in the peer group
  • Autonomy involves initiating and regulating
    ones own actions

12
Self-Determination Theory
  • Autonomy This is the most researched aspect of
    this theory. In the classroom, autonomy needs
    can be met through student choices and input on
    classroom decision making.
  • Extrinsic rewards, deadlines, and emphasis on
    evaluations detract from feelings of
    self-determination and lead to a decrease in
    intrinsic motivation.

13
Applications for Classrooms, Parents, and
Buildings
  • Some Ideas for Motivating Students
  • By Robert Harris
  • This article has some outstanding concrete ways
    for teachers and parents to help motivate
    children like explain, reward, care, increase
    student participation, teach inductively, satisfy
    students needs, make learning visual, use
    positive emotions to enhance learning and
    motivation, and remember that energy sells.

Click this button to visit the site
14
Applications for Classrooms, Parents, and
Buildings Some Ideas for Motivating StudentsBy
Robert Harris
  • Included in the article is a wonderful analogy
    between motivation for baseball and motivation in
    the classroom. If youve ever been frustrated
    with a student who was motivated to play a sport,
    but did nothing in class, this is for you.

15
Applications for Classrooms, Parents, and
BuildingsSome Ideas for Motivating StudentsBy
Robert Harris
  • NOTE The ideas discussed in this article are
    found in countless other articles, books, and
    websites. I highly recommend visiting his site,
    as Mr. Harris details each strategy and gives
    excellent examples for each one.

Click on this button if you missed it the first
time
16
Applications for Classrooms, Parents, and
Buildings A Big Picture Plan for Personal
Applications
17
Applications for Classrooms, Parents, and
Buildings
  • Methods to use to collect specific data on target
    students include
  • Teacher journal of anecdotal records
  • What DOES the student seem to like?
  • Who does the student best relate to?
  • What are the students strengths and weaknesses
    (how can I use them to their advantage?)
  • What strategy is being used? How is it
    working???
  • Official student records
  • Is there a history of low achievement?
  • Has the child been tested for anything?
  • Is there anything in the childs academic past
    that may be a red flag for whats causing the
    trouble?
  • Conferencing with student
  • Generalized methods dont always work with
    individual students. We need to truly know the
    student in order to find out how to motivate
    him/her.
  • Parental contact and interviews
  • is parents behavior enabling the childs?
  • has something happened in the home environment

18
SummaryPoints to Consider When Faced With A
Student Who Seems Unmotivated
  • What is the students locus of control?
  • Are the physiological needs being met?
  • What is the probability of success for this task?
  • Is the student unmotivated to learn everything or
    just certain topics?
  • What needs that I can control are NOT being met?
    (environmental, teaching style)
  • Where is the student in reference to the levels
    of reinforcement? Does the child respond to
    edible rewards? Although the idea is to aim for
    the highest level, children with poor self-esteem
    may need to start a little lower on the continuum.

19
Summary, continued
  • All students are motivated. The key for the
    teacher, parent, administrator, or support worker
    is to find out what motivates these children and
    build on that.

20
Summary
  • You can lead a horse to water, but you cannot
    make it drink. That is true, but if the water is
    made appetizing, then the horse is more likely to
    drink.
  • Our challenge is to make the state-mandated
    standards appetizing for our children so they
    WANT TO DRINK!

21
Additional ResourcesBooks
  • Brophy, J. (2004). Motivating Students to Learn.
    Second Edition. Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Daly, Tom. (2003). The ADHD Solution for
    Teachers How to Turn Any Disruptive Child Into
    Your Best Student. San Diego, California
    Smarty Pants Publications.
  • Kohl, H. (1994). I Wont Learn From You. New
    York New Press.
  • Larrivee, B. (2005). Authentic Classroom
    Management, Creating a Learning Community and
    Building Reflective Practice. Boston Pearson.
  • Raffini, J. (1993). Winners Without Losers
    Structures and Strategies for Increasing Student
    Motivation to Learn. Boston Allyn and Bacon.
  • Savage, T. (1999). Teaching Self-Control Through
    Management and Discipline. Boston Allyn and
    Bacon.
  • Stipek, D. (1988) Motivation to Learn From
    Theory To Practice. Englewood Cliffs, New
    Jersey Prentice Hall.

22
Additional ResourcesJournal Articles
  • Anderman, L. Midgley, C. (1999) Motivation
    and Middle School Students. ERIC Digest.
    Retrieved July 20, 2005, from http//www.ericdiges
    ts.org/1999-1/motivation.html
  • Brophy, J. (1986). On Motivating Students.
    Occasional Paper No. 101. East Lansing,
    Michigan Institute for Research on Teaching,
    Michigan State University.
  • Lumsden, L. (1994). Student Motivation to
    Learn. Oregon Clearinghouse on Educational
    Policy and Management. (ERIC Document
    Reproduction Service No. 92). Retrieved July 1,
    2005, from http//eric.uoregon.edu/publications.di
    gests/digest092.html

23
Additional ResourcesWeb Sites
  • Brewster, C. Fager, J. (2000). Increasing
    Student Engagement and Motivation From
    Time-On-Task to Homework. Northwest Regional
    Educational Laboratory. Retrieved July 25, 2005
    from http//www.nwrel.org/request/oct00/textonly.h
    tml
  • General Principles of Motivation. Retrieved June
    26, 2005, from http//wwhonolulu.hawaii.edu/intran
    et.committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip.motivatio
    n
  • Hunter, Max. Levels of Reinforcement. Retrieved
    July 3, 2005 from http//maxweber.hunter.cuny.edu/
    pub/eres/EDSPC715_MCINTYRE/Reinforcement.htm

24
Additional ResourcesGroups or Organizations
  • NOTE I had some difficulty finding National
    Groups,, but the following conference, and group
    sites have information specific to motivation.
  • IDEA Seminar Motivating Students to Learn
    February 26-28, 2006, Savannah, GA. Information
    retrieved July 24, 2005 from http//ceps.georgiaso
    uthern.edu/conted/idea.html
  • What Kids Can Do Student Work and Voice.
    Retrieved July 24, 2005 from http//www.whatkidsca
    ndo.org (website with tips for adults from
    children/young adults)
  • YouthLight, Inc. Retrieved July 24, 2005 from
    http//www.youthlightbooks.com/history.html
    (group of school workers developing and providing
    educational materials for adults working with
    youth)
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