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Ways to study and research urban, architectural and technical design

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Method originates from old Greek meta hodos' (meta ?odos), the way along ... Composers like Chopin, painters like Rembrandt and architects like Le Corbusier ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ways to study and research urban, architectural and technical design


1
Ways to study and researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • Prof.dr.ir. A.C.J.M. Eekhout
  • Prof.dr.ir. T. M. de Jong
  • Dr. D.J.M. van der Voordt

2
Method and study
  • Method originates from old Greek meta hodos
    (meta ?odos), the way along which or the way
    to.
  • Thats why we gave our methodology book the name
    Ways to Study. Study encloses search, research,
    inquiry, investigation, examination and so on.

3
Research, a special kind of study
  • We do not use the popular but more limited word
    research, because it has a strictly empirical
    connotation. It concerns existing cases. It does
    not enclose all design related forms of study
    like design itself.

4
Composition, an other kind of study
  • Composers like Chopin, painters like Rembrandt
    and architects like Le Corbusier made studies
    as well they did not re-search, they searched by
    creation (leaving out at least one assumption
    supposed to be self-evident until then).

5
Negating existing cases
  • Inventors, composers try to find new examples,
    prototypes, negating existing cases, avoiding the
    clichés, the very well known examples tacitly
    supposed by their contemporaries.

6
48 Authors from 1 faculty
There are more methods of design, study and
research than there are designers and scientists.
7
Ways to Study and Researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • Naming and describing
  • Design research and typology
  • Evaluating
  • Modelling
  • Programming and optimising
  • Technical Study 
  • Design Study
  • Study by design
  • Epilogue

Empirical research
Study by design
8
Introduction
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  • Preface (Fokkema)
  • Introduction (Jong Voordt)
  • Languages (Dijkhuis)
  • Criteria for scientific research, study and
    design (Jong, Voordt)

Science equals any collection of statements that
features a reliable relationship to reality, a
valid mutual relationship and a critical
potential with regard to other statements in the
same domain.
9
Domains according to Van der Voordt
10
Domains according De Jong
11
Classical empirical research proposals
  • problem statement (problem isolation)
  • clear aim
  • reference
  • starting points
  • hypothesis
  • variables
  • data
  • method
  • content
  • publish

12
Design related study orempirical research
  • Research produces probabilities by causes
  • Design produces possibilities by conditions

13
Ways to Study and Researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • Naming and describing
  • Design research and typology
  • Evaluating
  • Modelling
  • Programming and optimising
  • Technical Study 
  • Design Study
  • Study by design
  • Epilogue

Empirical research
Study by design
14
Probable futures
There are more and less probable futures
15
Probability
s 68, 2s 95, 3s 99.7 chance
16
Possible futures
Anything probable is per definition possible but
not everything possible is also probable. The
probable future could be predicted. The
improbable possibilities cannot be predicted. You
only can explore them by design.
17
Possibility
Not every condition is a cause, but every cause
is a condition for something to happen
18
Desirable futures
Ir. Drs. Mr.
19
Obvious and impossible futures
20
Problems and aims
21
Undesired, improbable possibilities
Are they relevant as long as nobody wants them?
22
Unexpected inventions
Yes
23
Changing desires
24
Field of problems and aims
  • Problems probable, but not desirable futures
  • Aims desirable, but not probable futures

25
Design related study
  • can not isolate problems from a coherent field of
    problems
  • brings aims together in a field of aims, a
    concept
  • has many references, not only written text but
    especially images forms, types, models,
    concepts, programmes
  • has many starting points
  • has designs as hypothesis stating This will
    work
  • has many context variables (parameters)
  • while the object still varies in your head
  • has many ways to study (in a book with 10 000 key
    words)
  • content grows drawing, calculating and writing
  • publishes with the medium as a message

26
How to limitate, concentrate
  • give way to fascinations (motivated
    concentrations)
  • choose a scale (frame and grain) before an object
  • publish your portfolio evaluating it as field of
    abilities
  • decide to improve or to extend them in your
    proposal
  • publish images that fascinate you as a field of
    means
  • look at them as a professional which concepts,
    types, models programmes could you harvest?
  • make your assumptions about the future explicit
  • imagine the impacts your study could have
  • cash your dreams

27
Make probable by causes Make possible by
conditions
Not every condition is a cause, but every cause
is a condition for something to happen
28
Unravelling condition and cause
29
Domains of future
30
Domainsin design science
31
Ways to Study and Researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • Naming and describing
  • Design research and typology
  • Evaluating
  • Modelling
  • Programming and optimising
  • Technical Study 
  • Design Study
  • Study by design
  • Epilogue

Empirical research
Study by design
32
A. Naming anddescribing
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Naming components and concepts (Jong Rosemann)
  2. Retrieval and reference (Jong Voordt)
  3. Descriptive research (Lans Voordt)
  4. Historical research (Macel)
  5. Map study (Moens)
  6. Casuistry resulting in laws (Hobma Schutte)

33
B. Design researchand typology
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Design research (Jong Duin)
  2. Designerly enquiry (Breen)
  3. Typological Research (Jong Engel)
  4. Concept and Type (Leupen)
  5. Analysis of buildings (Molema)
  6. Plan analysis (Meyer)
  7. Design driven research (Breen)

34
Plan analysis
  • Plan analysis originates from both Latin and old
    Greek. Planum is Latin for surface or map.
    Analysis (ana lusis) means loosening up. In the
    same way precedent analysis means loosening up
    pre-cedents, preceding (historical) examples. So,
    it is a kind of re-search design research as
    Ways to Study names the intended kind of study.

35
Precendents
  • However, precedent is a juridical term to
    indicate avoidable cases.
  • Laws are made to avoid bad cases, precedents.
  • The Watergate case made President Nixon an
    avoidable case. Newspapers called him the
    Precedent of the United States.
  • By such background it became part of contemporary
    everyday speech.

36
Architectural precedents
  • On the other hand, architectural precedents are
    analysed to learn designers possibilities, not to
    imitate them, but to combine well-known parts
    into their own new syntheses, wholes,
    conceptions, types, programmes, models,
    applicable in always unique other contexts.

37
From analysis into synthesis
  • It supposes such associations can help creating
    new syntheses. However, within that supposition
    there are more suppositions hided.
  • For example it supposes designing as a way of
    outward thinking from parts into a whole
    (syn-theses, sun-?esis means putting together).

38
Outward from part to whole
  • Synthesis is not the opposite of analysis, it
    follows analysis being its ultimate aim. Both
    operations together (induction followed by
    deduction) are a method opposite to an inward
    holistic approach.

39
Inward from whole to part
  • The holistic approach articulates and details the
    whole into recognizable parts like a sculptor
    does with a piece of wood or stone, or an urban
    designer starting with an urban context to define
    the identity of a smaller location within that
    whole.

40
C.Evaluating
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Ex post evaluation of buildings (Voordt Wegen)
  2. Ex ante research (Hulsbergen Schaaf)
  3. Ex ante performance evaluation of housing
    (Thomsen)
  4. Evaluating prototypes
  5. Comparing and evaluating drawings (De Jong)

41
D. Modelling
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Modelling reality (Klaasen)
  2. Verbal Models (Jong)
  3. Mathematical Models (Jong Graaf)
  4. Visualisation and architecture (Koutamanis)
  5. The empirical cycle (Priemus)
  6. Forecasting and Problem Spotting (Jong Priemus)

42
Example Mathematical models
  • De Jong en De Graaf
  • Origins
  • The mathematical model is no reality
  • Mathematics is a language
  • Numbering
  • Counting
  • Values and variables
  • Combinatorics
  • Taming the combinatorial explosion
  • Program of a site
  • The resolution of a medium
  • The tolerance of production
  • Nominal size systems
  1. Geometry
  2. Graphs
  3. Probability
  4. Linear Programming (LP)
  5. Matrix calculation
  6. The Simplex method
  7. Functions
  8. Fractals
  9. Differentiation
  10. Integration
  11. Differential equations
  12. Systems modelling

43
A mathematical model
44
E. Programming and optimising
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Urban Programming Research (Guyt Hulsbergen)
  2. Programming of buildings (Voordt Wegen)
  3. Programming Building Construction (Eekhout
    Cuperus)
  4. Designing a city hall (Weeber Eldijk Kan)
  5. Design by optimisation (Loon)
  6. Optimisation of performance requirements (Houben)
  7. The environmental maximisation method
    (Duijvestein)

45
F.Technical study 
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Re-design and renovation (Verhoef)
  2. Study of Building Services and Installations
    (Schalkoort)
  3. Methodical design of load-bearing constructions
    (Kamerling)
  4. Classification and combination (Cuperus)
  5. Methodology and component development (Eekhout)
  6. Industrial design methods (Jager)
  7. Future ICT developments (Sariyildiz Stouffs
    Ciftcioglu Tuncer)

46
G. Design study
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Creating space of thought (Hertzberger)
  2. Perceiving and conceiving (Hertzberger)
  3. Formation of the image (Jong Rosemann)
  4. Experience, intuition and conception (Geuze
    Eldijk Kan)
  5. Designing an office (Brouwer Eldijk Kan)
  6. Designing a village (Heeling Eldijk Kan)
  7. Urban design methods (Westrik)
  8. Studying Design (Jong)

There are more design methods than designers.
47
H. Study by design
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Types of study by design (Voordt, Jong)
  2. Designing Naturalis in a changing context
    (Verheijen Eldijk Kan)
  3. Designing a building for art and culture (Röling
    Eldijk Kan)
  4. Contemplations for Copenhagen (Bergh)
  5. Learning from The Bridge project (Breen)
  6. Creating non-orthogonal architecture (Vollers)
  7. Design in Strategy (Frieling)

48
Ways to Study and Researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • Naming and describing
  • Design research and typology
  • Evaluating
  • Modelling
  • Programming and optimising
  • Technical Study 
  • Design Study
  • Study by design
  • Epilogue

Empirical research
Study by design
49
Operational study proposals
  • y(x)
  • landscape( villa)
  • villa( landscape)
  • villa( landscape( water system))
  • urbanity( liveliness, choice)
  • ( liveliness, choice)( density, variety)

50
Nested key words
  • villa(landscape(water-system, history))
  • villa(landscape(water-system(history)))
  • villa(landscape((water-system, occupation)(history
    , spatial dispersion)))
  • )( means a matrix

history spatial dispersion
water-system 1 2
occupation 3 4
useful as a list of contents of your report 1
water-system(history) 2 water-system(spatial
dispersion) 3 occupation(history) 4
occupation(spatial dispersion)
51
Syntactic key words
  • object y as a working (function, action, output,
    result, property) of
  • subject x (independent variabele actor, input,
    condition, cause)
  • y(x)
  • object(subject)
  • Suffering object(subject)
  • impact(condition, cause)
  • aim(means)
  • The verb is replaced by brackets ()
  • Form follows function. form(function)
  • landscape(villa)
  • villa(landscape)

See also index of Ways to Study
52
Operations (functions) y f(x)
  • intuitive f(x) associated with x
  • conditional f(x) possible by x
  • set-theoretical f(x) part of x, encloses x,
    without x ...
  • logical f(x) if x, not x ...
  • mathematical f(x) xx , x2...
  • causal f(x) caused by x
  • temporal f(x) preceded, followed by x
  • spatial(formal) f(x) near to, contiguous to,
    surrounded by x ...
  • structural f(x) connected with x, seperated
    from x ...
  • combinations a box of boards connected by
    nailsbox(boards, nails)

53
Valid, Reliable
54
Propositions
  • Science supposes Art
  • Science equals any collection of statements that
    features a reliable relationship to reality, a
    valid mutual relationship and a critical
    potential with regard to other statements in the
    same domain.
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