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BK8030|40 Ways to study hto schakel September 2005

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Title: BK8030|40 Ways to study hto schakel September 2005


1
BK803040 Ways to study hto schakel September 2005
  • Browse via blackboard or direct to website
    team.bk.tudelft.nl education gt 2005 gt BK803040
  • Tentamen elaborating 20 take home assignments
    on your own website
  • 1 and 2 before September 26st 24h
  • 3-17 before before October 31st 24h
  • other assignments and deadlines follow

2
Make your own website
  • Copy (do not drag!) a Word document as index.htm
  • on your H-disk in the directory internet
  • make links in that document
  • to other .doc, .xls, .htm, .gif, .jpg documents
    copied in that directory

3
Look at your website
  • Look at the webadress with your own studentnumber
  • for example webadress (URL) http//www.bk.tudelft.
    nl/students/b1233408/internet/ On problems ask
    helpdesk or phone 81360

4
BK8040 assignment 1 and 2
  • Publish on your website before September 26th 24h
    an analysis of your building
  • by method Ching
  • by method Clark Pause

5
Handing in your results
  • As soon as you ended assignments 1-2 before 2005
    september 26st 24h
  • mailtoM.E.Wenmeekers-Thomas_at_bk.tudelft.nl
  • your web adress, student number and code BK8030
  • Check your webadress and results
  • If you take exception to publish your marks this
    way, please mailtoM.E.Wenmeekers-Thomas_at_bk.tudelf
    t.nl

6
BK8030 assignments 3-6
  • Publish on your website before October 31st
  • actual and previous own design work
  • making it retrievable for others by at least two
    images, documenting them by key words
  • a computer animation related to your work
  • an organigram describing your own most succesful
    design process

7
Organigram 1
8
Organigram 2
9
BK8030 assignment 7
  • Publish on your website before October 31st
  • a bibliography and iconography of your own
    fascinations

10
A nice bibliography
  • Book
  • Barbieri, Umberto and Cees Boekraad (1982)
    Kritiek en ontwerp (Nijmegen) SUN
  • Ching, F. D. K. (1979) Architecture form, space
    and order (New York) Van Nostrand Reinhold
    Company, Inc.
  • Clark, R. H. and Pause, M. (1985) Precendents in
    Architecture (New York) Van Nostrand Reinhold
    Company, Inc.
  • Guney, Ali (2004) Four ways to plan analysis
    (Delft) Faculty of Architecture
  • Leupen, B. Grafe, C. Körnig, N. Lampe, M. and
    Zeeuw, P.de (1993 or later) Ontwerp en analyse
    (Rotterdam) Uitgeverij 010 ISBN 90-6450-192-0
  • Edited book
  • Jong, T.M. de Voordt, D.J.M. van der eds.
    (2002) Ways to Study and research Urban,
    Architectural and Technical Design (Delft) DUP
    Science.
  • Book section
  • Tzonis, A. (1990) Huts, ships and bottleracks in
    Cross, N. K. Dorst and N. Rosenburg Eds.(1991)
    Research in design thinking (Delft) Delft
    University Press

11
BK8030 assignments 8-10
  • Publish on your website before October 31st
  • at least two reference images fascinating you
    professionally, mentioning their source
  • naming and describing what is readable from these
    pictures in key words
  • comparing them scientifically, naming the ways
    to study available for such a comparison

12
Reference images
  • www.google.nl
  • www.archined.nl
  • www.architectenweb.nl/
  • www.architectenwerk.nl
  • www.archinform.net/
  • www.greatbuildings.com/
  • www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/cas/fnart/arch
  • www.bk.tudelft.nl/agram/
  • iaai.bk.tudelft.nl

13
Choose at least two images
Arjen Weyer 28-5-99
Leon Wielaard 21-1-00     
Compare them to show your field of interest
14
Similarities in design means
Found by Tzonis (1999) figure 42 on page 89
15
Monika Indriasari
Title The fast growing metropolis Source
http//www.jezohare.com
Title The beginning of metropolis Source
http//archnet.org
16
Readable from the images
Jakarta(booming(Central Business District,
settlements(formal, informal)))
Jakarta(contrast(diversity(space, inhabitants)),
segregation(spatial, social, functional))
17
Comparison of the images
  • activities(dispersion(urban transformation))
  • conflict(constraint(urban differentiation(spatial
    , functional, social, economical)))
  • history(urban transformation)

18
Ways to study the images
  • conceptual recording of each image (naming)
  • investigation of the spatial/structural urban
    context over different periods (naming)
  • description of its characteristics (describing)
  • plan analysis (design research)
  • predicting impacts (modelling)
  • critical interpretation (evaluating)
  • formulating intentions for design (programming)
  • design experiments (design study)
  • evaluating ex ante (evaluating)

19
BK8030 assignments 11-14
  • before October 31st publish what kind of
  • types useful for design your comparison could
    produce
  • design concepts you could derive from the objects
    you published
  • models you could make of the objects you
    published
  • programmes you can read from the published images

20
Form types
From section B Design research and typology 10
Design research 12 Typological research
21
Form Types
22
Design concepts
From section B Design research and typology 13
Concept and type
A concept is not a type. Is it a preparametric
sketch? Leupen says No, it is an idea directing
the building team from global design to detail.
23
Models
From section D Modelling 22 Modelling reality 24
Mathematical models 26 The empirical cycle 27
Forecasting and problem spotting
24
Programme of requirements PvE
From section E Programing and Optimising 29.
Programming of buildings 31. Designing a city hall
25
BK8030 assignment 15
  • Publish on your website before October 31st
  • an essay (1 page) concerning at least 10 key
    words from the book Ways to Study
  • given in your personal key word list distributed
    on the lecture
  • not necessarily related to your work

26
BK8030 assignments 16-17
  • Publish on your website before October 31st
  • a scientific study proposal for your graduate
    study
  • a critical review of a website of one of the
    other participants of this course

27
Handing in your results
  • As soon as you ended assignments 3-17 before 2005
    October 31st 24h
  • mailtoM.E.Wenmeekers-Thomas_at_bk.tudelft.nl
  • your web adress, student number and code BK8030
  • Check your webadress and results
  • If you take exception to publish your marks this
    way, please mailtoM.E.Wenmeekers-Thomas_at_bk.tudelf
    t.nl

28
Judging BK803040
29
Imaginable
art
design study
Extending science
empirical research
30
Creativity according toHerman Hertzberger
  • A simple recipe for creativity written by
    architect
  • Herman Hertzberger (1999, 2000, 2002)
  • break off the cliché,
  • collect many images,
  • locate them in another context and
  • start to adapt them.

31
Break off the cliché
Robert Delaunay (1913)
32
Change context (for example museum)
Marcel Duchamps (1917)
33
Combine, leave out, adapt
Pablo Picasso (1942)
34
Adapt reference images
Found by Tzonis (1999) figure 42 on page 89
35
Model them in a composition
  • dividing (verdelen)
  • articulating (geleden)
  • tailoring (tailleren)
  • detailing (detailleren)

36
Dividing, Articulating
37
Tailoring, Detailing
adapting to context
components and connecting details
38
Composition
  • marking out components, their variation and
    characteristic details,
  • connecting details between components,
  • crucial details in the composition,
  • determining striking details.

39
10m
40
30m
41
100m
42
Varying components
43
Composition
44
Larger scale as context(museum, movement)
Marcel Duchamps
45
Limits of scope (object and context)Scale
paradox
46
Unravelling scale
47
Make probable by causes Make possible by
conditions
Not every condition is a cause, but every cause
is a condition for something to happen
48
Unravelling condition and cause
49
Domains of future
50
Domainsin design science
51
Ways to study
52
Ways to study and researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • Prof.dr.ir. A.C.J.M. Eekhout
  • Prof.dr.ir. T. M. de Jong
  • Dr. D.J.M. van der Voordt

53
Method and study
  • Method originates from old Greek meta hodos
    (meta ?odos), the way along which or the way
    to.
  • Thats why we gave our methodology book the name
    Ways to Study. Study encloses search, research,
    inquiry, investigation, examination and so on.

54
Research, a special kind of study
  • We do not use the popular but more limited word
    research, because it has a strictly empirical
    connotation. It concerns existing cases. It does
    not enclose all design related forms of study
    like design itself.

55
Composition, an other kind of study
  • Composers like Chopin, painters like Rembrandt
    and architects like Le Corbusier made studies
    as well they did not re-search, they searched by
    creation (leaving out at least one assumption
    supposed to be self-evident until then).

56
Negating existing cases
  • Inventors, composers try to find new examples,
    prototypes, negating existing cases, avoiding the
    clichés, the very well known examples tacitly
    supposed by their contemporaries.

57
48 Authors from 1 faculty
There are more methods of design, study and
research than there are designers and scientists.
58
Ways to Study and Researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • Naming and describing
  • Design research and typology
  • Evaluating
  • Modelling
  • Programming and optimising
  • Technical Study 
  • Design Study
  • Study by design
  • Epilogue

Empirical research
Study by design
59
Introduction
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  • Preface (Fokkema)
  • Introduction (Jong Voordt)
  • Languages (Dijkhuis)
  • Criteria for scientific research, study and
    design (Jong, Voordt)

Science equals any collection of statements that
features a reliable relationship to reality, a
valid mutual relationship and a critical
potential with regard to other statements in the
same domain.
60
Domains according to Van der Voordt
61
Domains according De Jong
62
Ways to Study and Researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • Naming and describing
  • Design research and typology
  • Evaluating
  • Modelling
  • Programming and optimising
  • Technical Study 
  • Design Study
  • Study by design
  • Epilogue

Empirical research
Study by design
63
A. Naming anddescribing
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Naming components and concepts (Jong Rosemann)
  2. Retrieval and reference (Jong Voordt)
  3. Descriptive research (Lans Voordt)
  4. Historical research (Macel)
  5. Map study (Moens)
  6. Casuistry resulting in laws (Hobma Schutte)

64
B. Design researchand typology
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Design research (Jong Duin)
  2. Designerly enquiry (Breen)
  3. Typological Research (Jong Engel)
  4. Concept and Type (Leupen)
  5. Analysis of buildings (Molema)
  6. Plan analysis (Meyer)
  7. Design driven research (Breen)

65
Plan analysis
  • Plan analysis originates from both Latin and old
    Greek. Planum is Latin for surface or map.
    Analysis (ana lusis) means loosening up. In the
    same way precedent analysis means loosening up
    pre-cedents, preceding (historical) examples. So,
    it is a kind of re-search design research as
    Ways to Study names the intended kind of study.

66
Precendents
  • However, precedent is a juridical term to
    indicate avoidable cases.
  • Laws are made to avoid bad cases, precedents.
  • The Watergate case made President Nixon an
    avoidable case. Newspapers called him the
    Precedent of the United States.
  • By such background it became part of contemporary
    everyday speech.

67
Architectural precedents
  • On the other hand, architectural precedents are
    analysed to learn designers possibilities, not to
    imitate them, but to combine well-known parts
    into their own new syntheses, wholes,
    conceptions, types, programmes, models,
    applicable in always unique other contexts.

68
From analysis into synthesis
  • It supposes such associations can help creating
    new syntheses. However, within that supposition
    there are more suppositions hided.
  • For example it supposes designing as a way of
    outward thinking from parts into a whole
    (syn-theses, sun-?esis means putting together).

69
Outward from part to whole
  • Synthesis is not the opposite of analysis, it
    follows analysis being its ultimate aim. Both
    operations together (induction followed by
    deduction) are a method opposite to an inward
    holistic approach.

70
Inward from whole to part
  • The holistic approach articulates and details the
    whole into recognizable parts like a sculptor
    does with a piece of wood or stone, or an urban
    designer starting with an urban context to define
    the identity of a smaller location within that
    whole.

71
Clark and Pause (2005)
  • On the other hand, analysing architectural
    examples means you draw parts to synthesize new
    wholes by combination later.
  • By doing so, Clark and Pause analyse 104
    examples, typing them by drawing parts
    (reductions, diagrams) of a supposed
    architectural reality.

72
Sources of CP typology
  • site plans
  • floor plans
  • primary horizontal pedestrian circulations
    (vertical ones not emphasised)
  • bearing parts (called structures)

73
Sources of CP typology
  • sections
  • intrusion of natural light
  • sections recognizable in - or related to - floor
    plans (called plan to section)
  • elevations
  • missing material, openings, their dispersion,
    character (entrance and view)
  • globally visible masses (called massing)

74
Sources of CP typology
  • variation of components (uniqueness as a high
    value on that variable equal is low)
  • their dominance in a supposed hierarchy
  • mirrored repetition(called symmetry, balance)
  • additive repetition

75
Sources of CP typology
  • their composition (called unit to a whole)
  • a formal reconstruction by supposed addition or
    subtraction of components
  • geometric proportions between some lengths,
    widths, heights of components
  • a conclusion, a the common divisor of these
    analytical operations, a parti.

76
Design as synthesis
  • Synthetic design is supposed to occur in some
    reverse way, subdividing these analytical
    reductions into formative ideas to conceive a
    new design.

77
Starting synthetic design
  • Then, the parti, now seen as a pre-parametric
    sketch (better to be named a pre-metric or even
    better a measureless sketch) or conception, could
    be the point of departure of a synthetic design
    process by adding formative ideas from any
    example.

78
Sorting examples per idea?
  • So, Clark and Pause (2005) take the formative
    ideas as a starting point to collect examples per
    formative idea in the second part of their book.
  • However, are these formative ideas ideas
    (conceptions) indeed?
  • Or are they types, stimulating the design ideas,
    possible parts of a conception?

79
Sorting examples by type
  • Clark and Pause also claim to unravel designs
    into archetypes by comparison.
  • So, actually a typology emerges.
  • In their first part the categories of types are
    collected per example, in their second part, the
    examples are collected per type.

80
Types, no formative ideas
  • The naming and order of succession in the second
    part is changed, and they are elaborated into
    subcategories.
  • It strengthens the suggestion these names
    represent formative ideas (conceptions) instead
    of what they are categories found by
    generalization, types.

81
Examples of types
  • types of site plans not represented in a
    typology
  • types of floor plans
  • circulation types (called configuration
    patterns) linear use linear circulation
    central use central circulation double centre
    cluster nested, concentric binuclear
  • bearing parts (called structures) not
    represented in a typology

82
Lacking types
  • types of sections
  • intrusion of natural light not represented in a
    typology
  • plan to section equal half analogous
    proportional inverse
  • types of elevations not represented in a
    typology
  • missing material, openings, their dispersion,
    character (entrance and view)
  • globally visible masses (called massing) not
    represented in a typology

83
Varying components
  • types of component variation (called
    progressions)
  • hierarchy
  • mirrored variation (called symmetry, balance)
    symmetrybalance by configurationbalance by
    geometrybalance by positive and negative

84
Varying components
  • additive variation
  • transition transformation mediation
  • repetitive to uniqueunique surrounded by
    repetitiveunique by transformation of
    repetitiveunique in repetitive fieldunique
    added to repetitiveunique defined by repetitive

85
Composition
  • types of composition
  • formal reconstruction by supposed addition or
    subtraction of primary components
  • subtractive additive
  • unit equals whole units contained in whole
    whole greater than sum of units units aggregate
    to form whole units overlap units separate

86
Composition
  • geometric proportions recognizable between some
    lengths, widths, heights
  • basic geometry circle and square rectangle
    overlapped by circle two squares nine-square
    four-square 1.4 and 1.6 rectangles geometric
    derivatives rotated, shifted, overlapped
    pinwheel, radial and spiral grid
  • reduction large plus small reduction part of
    whole reduction

87
Parti
  1. types of partis not represented in a typology

88
Using well-known types in design
  • So, we now can speak about different types of
    buildings linear use type, linear circulation
    type, double centre type and so on.
  • Strengthening a specific typological
    characteristic could be the aim of partial design
    operations.

89
Type transformation in design
  • So, you could try to transform your circular
    drawing into a more linear type, but that means a
    lot of partial transformations, with many kinds
    of side-effects.
  • If you do not want to loose direction, you need a
    conception.

90
What is a conception?
  • The conception of a building is not a type,
    because a conception is unique for a building in
    a unique context.
  • It should coordinate the imagination of all
    participants from context into details.

91
Con-ception
  • It can bring together different types, but also
    characteristic details, a style, a programme, a
    context, an atmosphere, a life style directing
    the whole process of design with many
    participants.
  • Con-ception is Latin for grasping together.

92
C.Evaluating
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Ex post evaluation of buildings (Voordt Wegen)
  2. Ex ante research (Hulsbergen Schaaf)
  3. Ex ante performance evaluation of housing
    (Thomsen)
  4. Evaluating prototypes
  5. Comparing and evaluating drawings (De Jong)

93
D. Modelling
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Modelling reality (Klaasen)
  2. Verbal Models (Jong)
  3. Mathematical Models (Jong Graaf)
  4. Visualisation and architecture (Koutamanis)
  5. The empirical cycle (Priemus)
  6. Forecasting and Problem Spotting (Jong Priemus)

94
Example Mathematical models
  • De Jong en De Graaf
  • Origins
  • The mathematical model is no reality
  • Mathematics is a language
  • Numbering
  • Counting
  • Values and variables
  • Combinatorics
  • Taming the combinatorial explosion
  • Program of a site
  • The resolution of a medium
  • The tolerance of production
  • Nominal size systems
  1. Geometry
  2. Graphs
  3. Probability
  4. Linear Programming (LP)
  5. Matrix calculation
  6. The Simplex method
  7. Functions
  8. Fractals
  9. Differentiation
  10. Integration
  11. Differential equations
  12. Systems modelling

95
A mathematical model
96
E. Programming and optimising
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Urban Programming Research (Guyt Hulsbergen)
  2. Programming of buildings (Voordt Wegen)
  3. Programming Building Construction (Eekhout
    Cuperus)
  4. Designing a city hall (Weeber Eldijk Kan)
  5. Design by optimisation (Loon)
  6. Optimisation of performance requirements (Houben)
  7. The environmental maximisation method
    (Duijvestein)

97
F.Technical study 
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Re-design and renovation (Verhoef)
  2. Study of Building Services and Installations
    (Schalkoort)
  3. Methodical design of load-bearing constructions
    (Kamerling)
  4. Classification and combination (Cuperus)
  5. Methodology and component development (Eekhout)
  6. Industrial design methods (Jager)
  7. Future ICT developments (Sariyildiz Stouffs
    Ciftcioglu Tuncer)

98
G. Design study
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Creating space of thought (Hertzberger)
  2. Perceiving and conceiving (Hertzberger)
  3. Formation of the image (Jong Rosemann)
  4. Experience, intuition and conception (Geuze
    Eldijk Kan)
  5. Designing an office (Brouwer Eldijk Kan)
  6. Designing a village (Heeling Eldijk Kan)
  7. Urban design methods (Westrik)
  8. Studying Design (Jong)

There are more design methods than designers.
99
H. Study by design
CONTENTS Introduction A. Naming and describing B.
Design research and typology C. Evaluating D.
Modelling E. Programming and optimising F.
Technical study  G. Design Study H. Study by
design Epilogue
  1. Types of study by design (Voordt, Jong)
  2. Designing Naturalis in a changing context
    (Verheijen Eldijk Kan)
  3. Designing a building for art and culture (Röling
    Eldijk Kan)
  4. Contemplations for Copenhagen (Bergh)
  5. Learning from The Bridge project (Breen)
  6. Creating non-orthogonal architecture (Vollers)
  7. Design in Strategy (Frieling)

100
Ways to Study and Researchurban, architectural
and technical design
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • Naming and describing
  • Design research and typology
  • Evaluating
  • Modelling
  • Programming and optimising
  • Technical Study 
  • Design Study
  • Study by design
  • Epilogue

Empirical research
Study by design
101
Operational study proposals
  • y(x)
  • landscape( villa)
  • villa( landscape)
  • villa( landscape( water system))
  • urbanity( liveliness, choice)
  • ( liveliness, choice)( density, variety)

102
Nested key words
  • villa(landscape(water-system, history))
  • villa(landscape(water-system(history)))
  • villa(landscape((water-system, occupation)(history
    , spatial dispersion)))
  • )( means a matrix

history spatial dispersion
water-system 1 2
occupation 3 4
useful as a list of contents of your report 1
water-system(history) 2 water-system(spatial
dispersion) 3 occupation(history) 4
occupation(spatial dispersion)
103
Syntactic key words
  • object y as a working (function, action, output,
    result, property) of
  • subject x (independent variabele actor, input,
    condition, cause)
  • y(x)
  • object(subject)
  • Suffering object(subject)
  • impact(condition, cause)
  • aim(means)
  • The verb is replaced by brackets ()
  • Form follows function. form(function)
  • landscape(villa)
  • villa(landscape)

See also index of Ways to Study
104
Operations (functions) y f(x)
  • intuitive f(x) associated with x
  • conditional f(x) possible by x
  • set-theoretical f(x) part of x, encloses x,
    without x ...
  • logical f(x) if x, not x ...
  • mathematical f(x) xx , x2...
  • causal f(x) caused by x
  • temporal f(x) preceded, followed by x
  • spatial(formal) f(x) near to, contiguous to,
    surrounded by x ...
  • structural f(x) connected with x, seperated
    from x ...
  • combinations a box of boards connected by
    nailsbox(boards, nails)

105
Valid, Reliable
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