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Title: afea 1


1
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols EIBUS An example
2
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Main networks
  • The Installation Bus is designed to provide
    distributed technical control for management and
    surveillance of buildings.
  • Therefore it provides a serial data transmission
    between the devices connected to the bus. It also
    operates as a compatible, flexible low-cost
    system supporting the above applications.

3
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Main networks
  • The Installation Bus is designed to provide
    distributed technical control for management and
    surveillance of buildings.
  • Therefore it provides a serial data transmission
    between the devices connected to the bus. It also
    operates as a compatible, flexible low-cost
    system supporting the above applications.

Decentralized
Centralized
4
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS

5
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Topology
  • The EIB installation bus is a twisted-pair that
    is laid parallel to the mains power supply
    network. The Bus Line interconnects all sensors
    and actuators of an installation together.
  • Sensors are command initiators such as switches
    and pushbuttons. Other types of sensors include
    temperature sensors, brightness sensors etc.
    Actuators are command receivers such as
    luminaries, blinds, heating, door openers etc.
  • On each Bus Line up to 64 devices can be
    operated. Up to 12 such Bus Lines can be joined
    together with a Line Coupler to form one Bus
    Area. Up to 15 such Bus Areas can in turn be
    connected by means of an Area Coupler.

6
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Topology
  • EIB is a fully peer-to-peer network, which
    accommodates up to 65536 devices.
  • The logical topology allows 256 devices on one
    line.
  • Lines may be grouped together with a main line
    into an area.
  • 15 areas together with a backbone line form an
    entire domain.
  • On open media, nearby domains are logically
    separated with a 16-bit SystemID.
  • Without the addresses reserved for couplers, (255
    x 16) x 15 255 61.455 end devices may be
    joined by an EIB network.
  • Installation restrictions may depend on
    implementation (medium, transceiver types, power
    supply capacity) and environmental
    (electromagnetic noise) factors. Installation and
    product guidelines should be taken into account..

7
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Topology

8
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Topology

9
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Media
  • Several media, like Twisted Pair, Powerline,
    Radio Frequency and Infrared, today support the
    EIB protocol. It is of course always possible to
    connect gateways to other media.
  • On EIB TP (Twisted Pair), bit-level collision
    detection with dominant logical 0 ensures that in
    case of collision, the transmission always
    succeeds for one of the communication partners.
    The resulting elimination of re-transmissions
    further enhances the performance of EIB TP.
    Together with EIB's powerful group addressing,
    EIB TP1 Collision Avoidance caters for extreme
    efficiency with reaction times 100 ms for two
    simultaneous transmissions. Fast polling allows
    up to 14 devices to be polled for 1 byte
    status-information within 50 ms. A physical TP
    segment may be up to 1000 m long.
  • The electrical segments can have an arbitrary
    topology (i.e. linear, star, tree, loop or
    combinations of them) consisting of individual
    wiring sections as long as the electrical
    requirements (resistive and capacitive length)
    are not exceeded. Examples of such topologies of
    electrical segments are shown in Figure.

10
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Transmission
  • The communication between a sensor (e.g. a
    switch) and an actuator (e.g. a lamp) is a
    sequence of operations (see Fig. 3.12). In the
    case of the EIB protocol, a switch - being
    uniquely defined by its physical address - can
    communicate to lamps using group addressing.
  • The group addressing is based on the exchange of
    data coded with common rules between
    communication objects (mailboxes). A
    communication object is only able to transmit
    telegram on a single group address. On the
    opposite side, a communication object can be
    subscriber to several group addresses, allowing
    it to receive telegram from different emitters.
    That means all EIB Bus devices subscribers to the
    right group address (i.e. our lamp) will receive
    the command message from the switch.

11
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols EIBUS Transmission
12
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols EIBUS OSI
13
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Protocol
  • The information exchange between two devices is
    achieved by transmission of data packets.
  • Each data packet must be acknowledged. For every
    medium, the message frame is similar to

Message frame
14
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Protocol
  • Some media will precede or follow this message by
    some medium specific sequences, characteristic
    for the medium's access control or error
    correction mechanisms. The data packet contains
    the following fields
  • control field.
  • source address field.
  • destination address field.
  • length.
  • LSDU (Link Service Data Unit), i.e. info to be
    transferred.
  • check byte.

Data packet
15
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS
  • Data management and addressing
  • To manage network resources (e.g. when
    configuring an installation), EIB uses a
    combination of broadcast and point-to-point
    communication. Via broadcast (optionally using a
    device's unique serial number), each device in
    the installation is assigned a unique Physical
    Address, which is used from then on for further
    point-to-point communication.
  • A connection (optionally with access
    authorization) may be built up, for example to
    download the complete 'applet' binary image of an
    application program.
  • Management of EIB Bus devices connected to the
    Installation Bus can be addressed using two
    modes
  • Physical addressing (system operation)
  • Group addressing (normal operation).

16
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols EIBUS Data management
and addressing
Physical
Group
17
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Configuration
  • Configuration of the bus system is achieved using
    the EIB Tool Software developed by the EIBA.
  • The location and physical address of each bus
    device is entered in the architectural drawings.
  • When an installation is complete, a serial
    interface from a personal computer configures the
    EIB system.

18
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Rehabiliation
  • The EIB bus is well suited to exploitation in the
    rehabilitation field for the following reasons
  • Availability of commercial products.
  • Technology is open to third parties for
    exploitation.
  • Development kits are available.
  • Established network of training centres.
  • The major drawback of the EIB bus is that the
    technology has so far only been applied in great
    measure to the twisted pair medium. This implies
    that if an existing home is to receive an EIB
    bus, a certain amount of re-wiring will need to
    take place. However, the technology can be
    applied to other media and products do exist for
    Infrared and Power Line media. The EIBA is also
    carrying out development for the coaxial cable,
    optical fiber and radio frequency mediums.

19
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Internetworking
  • The EIB protocol does not communicate to
    communicate.
  • The aim of communication is the interworking
    between sensors and actuators.
  • The interworking pyramid, defines the different
    interworking degrees.
  • It starts with the data format used and ends
    with the application functionality.
  • It can be compared to a mail exchange where the
    communication object is the mailbox and the
    functionality the complete written order.

20
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Components
  • EIB devices are divided into three types
    according to their use
  • Basic components, such as power supply unit
    (PSU), choke, signal filter.
  • System components, which support the basic
    operation of the system such as Bus Coupling Unit
    (BCU), Line Coupler (LC), Phase Coupler, Repeater
  • EIB devices that are dedicated to applications
    such as sensors, actuators, IR-decoders, display
    panels. A Bus Coupling Unit or similar interface
    connects these types of devices to EIB.

21
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols EIBUS Components
22
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols EIBUS Components
  • The definition of the various parts are
  • Power Supply Unit (PSU) Provides power for
    feeding of EIB Bus devices (Safety Extra Low
    Voltage (SELV), 30 V DC nominal).
  • Choke Provides the coupling of the Power Supply
    Unit to the data bus line.
  • Data rail Mounted support with four tracks to
    distribute the bus onto DIN rail.
  • Data rail connector Provides the connection
    between the bus cable and the data rail.

23
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks
  • Local Operating Network Technology is a
    universal, open standard networking platform
    created by Echelon Corporation for networks
    control.
  • A LonWorks control network is any group of
    devices working together to monitor sensors,
    control actuators, communicate reliably using an
    open protocol, manage network operation, and
    provide local and remote access to network data.
  • In some ways, a LonWorks control network
    resembles a data network, such as a LAN (local
    area network).
  • Data networks consist of computers attached to
    various communications media, connected by
    routers, which communicate to one another using a
    common protocol.
  • Network management software allows administrators
    to configure and maintain their computer systems.
  • Control networks contain similar pieces optimized
    for cost, performance, size, and response
    characteristics of control.
  • They allow networked systems to extend into a
    class of applications that data networking
    technology cannot reach.

24
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks
  • Like the computer industry, the control industry
    was, and in many cases is, creating centralized
    control solutions based on point-to-point wiring
    and hierarchical logic systems.
  • This meant that there is a "master" controller,
    like a computer or programmable logic controller,
    physically wired to individual control,
    monitoring and sensing points, or "slaves."
  • The net result worked, but was expensive and
    difficult to maintain, expand, and service.
  • It was also very expensive to install especially
    for retrofitting.
  • Before LonWorks control networks, most control
    systems required thousands of feet - even miles -
    of expensive wiring to connect dumb components to
    a custom-programmed central controller.
  • Expansion required costly rewiring and custom
    programming. The systems were vulnerable to
    failure of the central controllers.
  • LonWorks control networks improve this scenario.
    They allow simple expansion by merely plugging in
    new interoperable devices that work together,
    regardless of the manufacturer. The devices
    communicate using an open protocol, the LonTalk
    protocol. By distributing processing among all of
    the control devices, the central point of failure
    is eliminated. By allowing for free flow of
    information between devices, control is improved
    and new applications are enabled.

25
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks
  • LonWorks technology nowadays provides a solution
    to the many problems of designing, building,
    installing, and maintaining control networks
    networks that can range in size from two to
    32,000 devices and can be used in everything from
    supermarkets to petroleum plants, from aircraft
    to railway cars, from fusion lasers to slot
    machines, from single family homes to
    skyscrapers.
  • In almost every industry today, there is a trend
    away from proprietary control schemes and
    centralized systems. Manufacturers are using
    open, off-the-shelf chips, operating systems, and
    parts to build products that feature improved
    reliability, flexibility, system cost, and
    performance.
  • LonWorks technology is accelerating the trend
    away from proprietary control schemes and
    centralized systems by providing
    interoperability, robust technology, faster
    development, and scale economies.

26
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks network
  • A LonWorks network consists of a number of nodes
    communicating over a number of media using a
    common protocol. The main parts of the network
    are
  • The nodes, which are intelligent devices, that
    "talk" via the communication protocol assuring
    their interoperation and interaction.
  • Network equipment (Router, Repeater, Gateway and
    PC cards, Router/Modem).
  • Transceivers (TP, Power lines, IR, RF, FO).
  • PC or microprocessor communications software (DDE
    or MIP).
  • Configuration, management, supervision and
    maintenance software.

27
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks network
28
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks network

29
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks network
  • The main advantages of the LonWorks network are
  • It is a distributed control network.
  • Easier integration of different devices (sensors,
    actuators, controllers, etc.) from various
    manufacturers is achieved.
  • Higher performance due to peer-to-peer
    communications is ensured.
  • Reduced costs of installation and reconfiguration
    due to its distributed characteristics.

30
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
  • The LonWorks protocol, also known as the LonTalk
    protocol and the ANSI/EIA 709.1 Control
    Networking Standard, is the heart of the LonWorks
    system.
  • The protocol provides a set of communication
    services that allow the application program in a
    device to send and receive messages from other
    devices over the network without needing to know
    the topology of the network or the names,
    addresses, or functions of other devices.
  • The LonWorks protocol can optionally provide
    end-to-end acknowledgement of messages,
    authentication of messages, and priority delivery
    to provide bounded transaction times.
  • Support for network management services allow for
    remote network management tools to interact with
    devices over the network, including
    reconfiguration of network addresses and
    parameters, downloading of application programs,
    reporting of network problems, and
    start/stop/reset of device application programs.

31
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
32
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol OSI
  • The LonWorks protocol is a layered, packetbased,
    peer-to-peer communications protocol. Like the
    related Ethernet and Internet protocols, it is a
    published standard and adheres to the layered
    architectural guidelines of the International
    Standards Organization (ISO) Open Systems
    Interconnect (ISO OSI) reference model.
  • The LonWorks protocol, however, is designed for
    the specific requirements of control systems,
    rather than data processing systems. To ensure
    that these requirements are met with a reliable
    and robust communications standard, the LonWorks
    protocol is layered as recommended by the
    International Standards Organization.
  • By tailoring the protocol for control at each of
    the OSI layers, the LonWorks protocol provides a
    control-specific solution that provides the
    reliability, performance, and robust
    communications required for control applications.

33
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Channel
  • A channel is a specific physical communication
    medium (such as twisted pair or power line) to
    which a group of LonWorks devices are attached by
    transceivers specific to that channel.
  • Each type of channel has different
    characteristics in terms of maximum number of
    attached devices, communication bit rate, and
    physical distance limits.

34
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Addressing
  • The addressing algorithm defines how packets are
    routed from a source device to one or more
    destination devices.
  • Packets can be addressed to a single device, to
    any group of devices, or to all devices.
  • To support networks with two devices to tens of
    thousands of devices, the LonWorks protocol
    supports several types of addresses, from simple
    physical addresses to addresses that designate
    collections of many devices.

35
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Addressing
  • Physical Address. Every LonWorks device includes
    a unique 48-bit identifier called the Neuron ID.
    The Neuron ID is typically assigned when as
    device is manufactured, and does not change
    during the lifetime of the device.
  • Device Address. A LonWorks device is assigned a
    device address when it is installed into a
    particular network. Device addresses are used
    instead of physical addresses because they
    support more efficient routing of messages, and
    they simplify replacing failed devices. A network
    installation tool that maintains a database of
    the device addresses for the network assigns the
    device addresses. Device addresses consist of
    three components a domain ID, subnet ID, and
    node ID. Devices must be in the same domain to
    exchange packets. There may be up to 32,385
    devices in a domain. The subnet ID identifies a
    collection of up to 127 devices that are on a
    single channel, or a set of channels connected by
    repeaters. Subnet IDs are used to support
    efficient routing of packets in large networks.
    There may be up to 255 subnets in a domain. The
    node ID identifies an individual device within a
    subnet.

36
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Addressing
  • Group Address. A group is a logical collection of
    devices within a domain. Unlike a subnet,
    however, devices are grouped together without
    regard for their physical location in the domain.
    There may be any number of devices in a group
    when unacknowledged messaging is used groups are
    limited to 64 devices if acknowledged messaging
    is used. Groups are an efficient way to optimize
    network bandwidth for packets addressed to
    multiple devices. There may be up to 256 groups
    in a domain.
  • Broadcast Address. A broadcast address identifies
    all devices with a subnet, or all devices within
    a domain. Broadcast addresses are an efficient
    method to communicate with many devices, and are
    sometimes used instead of group addresses to
    conserve the limited number of available group
    addresses.

37
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Delivering
  • The LonWorks protocol offers three basic types of
    message delivery service and also supports
    authenticated messages. An optimized network will
    often use all of these services. These services
    allow tradeoffs between reliability, efficiency,
    and security, and are listed below
  • Acknowledged Messaging. Provides for end-to-end
    acknowledgement. When using acknowledged
    messaging, a message is sent to a device or group
    of up to 64 devices and individual
    acknowledgements are expected from each receiver.
    If acknowledgements are not received, the sender
    times out and retries the transaction. The number
    of retries and the timeout are both configurable.
  • Repeated Messaging. Causes a message to be sent
    to a device or group of any number of devices
    multiple times. This service is typically used
    instead of acknowledged messaging because it does
    not incur the overhead and delay of waiting for
    acknowledgements. This is especially important
    when broadcasting information to a large group of
    devices, as an acknowledged message would cause
    all the receiving devices to try to transmit a
    response at the same time.
  • Unacknowledged Messaging. Causes each message to
    be sent once to a device or group of any number
    of devices and no response is expected. This
    messaging service has the lowest overhead and is
    the most typically used service.
  • Authenticated Service. Allows the receiver of a
    message to determine if the sender is authorized
    to send that message. Thus, authentication
    prevents unauthorized access to devices and is
    implemented by distributing 48-bit keys to the
    devices at installation time.

38
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Variables
  • The LonWorks protocol implements the innovative
    concept of network variables.
  • Network variables greatly simplify the tasks of
    designing LonWorks application programs for
    interoperability with multiple vendors' products
    and facilitating the design of information-based,
    rather than command-based, control systems.
  • A network variable is any data item (temperature,
    a switch value, or an actuator position setting)
    that a particular device application program
    expects to get from other devices on the network
    (an input network variable) or expects to make
    available to other devices on the network (an
    output network variable).
  • The application program in a device does not need
    to know anything about where input network
    variables come from or where output network
    variables go.

39
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Variables
  • When the application program has a changed value
    for an output network variable it simply passes
    the new value to the device firmware.
  • Via a process that takes place during network
    design and installation called binding, the
    device firmware is configured to know the logical
    address of the other devices or group of devices
    in the network expecting that network variable,
    and it assembles and sends the appropriate
    packets to these devices.
  • Similarly, when the device firmware receives an
    updated value for an input network variable
    required by its application program, it passes
    the data to the application program.
  • The binding process thus creates logical
    connections between an output network variable in
    one device and an input network variable in
    another device or group of devices.
  • Connections may be thought of as "virtual wires."
    If one device contains a physical switch, with a
    corresponding output network variable called
    switch on/off, and another device drives a light
    bulb with a corresponding input network variable
    called lamp on/off, creating a connection by
    binding these two network variables has the same
    functional effect as connecting a physical wire
    from the switch to the light bulb.

40
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Variables
  • Every network variable has a type that defines
    the units, scaling, and structure of the data
    contained within the network variable. Network
    variables must be the same type to be connected.
    This prevents common installation errors from
    occurring such as a pressure output being
    connected to a temperature input.
  • Type translators are available to convert network
    variables of one type to another type. A set of
    standard network variable types (SNVTs) is
    defined for commonly used types. Alternatively,
    manufacturers may define their own userdefined
    network variable types (UNVTs).
  • Network variables make possible information-based
    control systems, rather than old-style
    command-based control systems. This means that in
    a LonWorks system, each device application makes
    its own control decisions, based on information
    it collects from other devices about what is
    going on in the system.
  • In a command-based system, devices issue control
    commands to other devices, so a command-issuing
    device, that is typically a centralized
    controller, must be custom programmed to know a
    lot about the system function and topology.
  • This makes it very difficult for multiple vendors
    to design standard control devices that can
    easily be integrated. Network variables make it
    easy for manufacturers to design devices that
    systems integrators can readily incorporate into
    interoperable, information-based control systems.

41
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
Devices
42
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    Device
  • The basis of every LonWorks device is the Neuron
    Chip as it contains the entire required device
    hardware and software. The Neuron Chip contains
    three identical 8-bit central processing units
    (CPUs) that are dedicated to the following
    functions
  • 1. CPU-1 is the media access control, which
    drives the communication subsystem hardware and
    executes the media access algorithm. CPU-1
    communicates with CPU-2 using network buffers
    located in shared memory. CPU-1 handles layers 3
    to 6.
  • 2. CPU-2 is the network CPU that implements
    layers 3 through 6 of the LonTalk protocol. It
    handles network variable processing, addressing,
    transaction processing, authentication and
    network management.
  • 3. CPU-3 is the application CPU that runs code
    written by the user together with the operating
    systems services called by the application code.

43
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
Device
44
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
Device
Neuron Chip
45
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    LonPoint
  • The Lon Point system is the result of such a
    systems approach providing the low cost of an
    open system architecture, the multiuser
    capabilities of the LNS Network Operating System,
    the distributed processing capabilities of the
    Neuron Chip and Lon-Works platform and the wiring
    flexibility of free topology communications.
  • The system consists of the LonPoint Interface,
    Router and Scheduler Modules, Lon-Point
    Application Programs, LNS-based LonMaker for
    Windows Integration Tool, and the LonPoint
    Software Plug-In. The various I/O modules of the
    LonPoint system are described next.

46
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
LonPoint
47
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
LonPoint
48
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    LonMark objects
  • The LonMark Association is an organization aiming
    at enabling the easy integration of multi-vendor
    systems based on LonWorks networks and providing
    an open forum for member companies to work
    together on marketing and technical programs to
    promote the availability of open interoperable
    control devices. The Association is focusing on
  • Promoting benefits of interoperable LonMark
    products.
  • Providing collaborative marketing programs for
    companies developing Lon-Mark products.
  • Providing a forum to define application-specific
    design requirements. Products that have been
    verified to conform to LonMark interoperability
    guidelines are eligible to carry the LonMark
    logo. The LonMark logo is an indicator that a
    product has completed the conformance tests and
    has been designed to interoperate across a
    LonWorks network.

49
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    LonMark objects
  • As mentioned above the LonTalk protocol employs a
    data oriented application layer that supports the
    data communication rather than commands between
    nodes. By this approach application data such as
    temperatures, pressures, etc can be sent to
    multiple nodes, each of which may have a
    different application for that datum. The data in
    the LonTalk protocol are called the network
    variables and configuration properties. Standard
    Network Variable Types (SNVTs) and Standard
    Configuration Parameter Types (SCPTs) provide a
    common platform for representing a wide range of
    data by specifying units, range and resolution.
  • At the application layer, interoperability
    between LonWorks technology-based products is
    facilitated through the use of application-specifi
    c LonMark Objects and SNVTs. LonMark Objects
    build upon network variables and provide a
    concise application layer interface that
    incorporates semantic meaning about the
    information being communicated.

50
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
    LonMark objects
  • There are three types of LonMark Objects
  • The Node Object, the Sensor Object and the
    Actuators Object.
  • The Sensor Object is a generic object that can be
    used with any form of sensor, such as analog
    pressure, temperature or humidity sensor or even
    a digital switch. The Sensor Object can supply
    data directly to an Actuator Object or to control
    loop located within a Controller Object. There
    are two versions of the Sensor Object one with
    no feedback named the 'Open Loop Sensor Object'
    and the other with feedback named the 'Closed
    Loop Sensor Object'.
  • The Open Loop Sensor Object is suitable for use
    with sensing devices that report absolute rather
    than relative values and for use with devices
    that do not require feedback information for
    correct operation.
  • The Closed Loop Sensor Object includes a feedback
    feature that makes it suitable for use in
    applications where multiple sensors can be
    combined in arbitrary combinations with multiple
    actuators devices. The purpose of the closed loop
    sensor object is to enable multiple sensors to
    control a common actuator or a single sensor to
    control multiple actuators while retaining
    synchronization between the actual and desired
    states of objects in both the sensors and
    actuators.

51
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
LonMark objects
52
Intelligent Buildings Technology
Communication protocols Lonworks protocol
LonMark objects
53
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Smart Buildings Evaluation
  • Tool

54
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Intelligent Building - Typical buildings energy
    usage

55
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Steps for an effective indoor environment and
    energy management program
  • Obtain total management commitment.
  • Obtain employee cooperation.
  • Conduct an energy survey. This is the "Building
    Audit" which identifies building characteristics,
    energy uses in the building, and how much energy
    is consumed.
  • Identify problems and solutions. Use information
    gathered in the audit as well as your knowledge
    of building conditions, and check the appropriate
    Energy Conservation Opportunities.
  • Set conservation goals. Establish a goal in terms
    of percent reduction
  • Keep consumption and indoor comfort records.
    Implement changes. Monitor results.
  • Make appropriate adjustments. Based on monitored
    results, take appropriate steps to implement any
    necessary adjustments required by changing
    conditions.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
  • This matrix tool takes into account the following
    three elements (criteria)
  • The built environment should be productive, safe,
    healthy, thermally, aurally and visually
    comfortable.
  • The building has potential to serve future
    generations sustainability, or adaptability over
    the life cycle of the building and safeguarding
    the earth and environment resources.
  • Financial aspect the building can be built
    within some cost constraints whilst retaining
    market value.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -PIs
  • The performance indicators selected are
  • Built Environment
  • Responsiveness
  • Functionality
  • Economic issues
  • Suitability

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -PIs
  • Built Environment which consists of the following
    sub-performance indicators
  • Comfort and productivity at what level that the
    building creates a comfort environment for the
    occupants
  • Individual control of local environment can
    individual occupant change the set-point of their
    terminal devices such as fan-coil unit or solar
    shedding devices
  • Health and safety is it safe and health for
    people to stay in or around the building
  • Energy consumption and environmental impacts is
    there an organisational policy on the operation
    of the built environment and the associated
    environmental impacts
  • Integration with the surrounding ecological
    systems how are decision made during the design
    phase regarding to macro-climatic design,
    building integrated renewable energy sources and
    rainwater/wastewater utilisation.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -PIs
  • Responsiveness
  • Awareness how well the relevant people
    understand their relationship with the building
  • Automatic response to changes in the
    surroundings is there any measures that allow
    the building appropriately responds to the
    changes in the surroundings, utility supply,
    services systems and usage of the buildings.
  • Performance under emergencies what level of
    emergencies can be handled within and around the
    building
  • Decision-making the ability of building
    operators to make decisions in responding to
    changes
  • Flexible usage is it flexible to alter the
    partitions, layouts and services systems for
    different usage.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -PIs
  • Functionality
  • Reporting system how well the information
    associated with the efficient management and
    operation of the building is communicated to the
    relevant parties.
  • Building Management System (BMS) is there a BMS
    installed and how is it being used.
  • Maintenance how the building, including
    architectural features, BMS (if any), and
    services systems, is maintained.
  • Facility Management (FM) is there a facility
    manager or management team and how technically
    competent are they.
  • Easy-to-use through design how the issues
    related to the ease of use is considered in the
    design phase.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -PIs
  • Economic issues
  • Investment are the intelligent building
    technologies are valued by the relevant decision
    makers
  • Energy supply how easy (or difficulty) is it to
    change the supply of energy
  • Resources (water, waste treatment, etc) how
    energy audit, monitoring of water usage, and
    waste treatment are carried out
  • Costs how the operating cost associated with
    energy and other utilities are paid by tenants
  • Budget what procedure is employed to determine
    the ratio of the initial construction cost to the
    lifecycle cost

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -PIs
  • Suitability
  • Special use does the building provide features
    to satisfy special needs of some individuals such
    as the disabled or elderly.
  • IT connectivity does the building have access to
    specialist services providers through IT network.
  • Location is the building located such that the
    activities within the building have easy access
    to the relevant sources
  • Organisation is there an appropriate
    communication between different divisions of an
    organisations that allow effective dissemination
    of information associated with efficient
    operation of the building
  • Internal flow and operational planning what
    process or method are employed in the design
    phase to make decisions associated with the
    location of interacting divisions in the building
    and the movements of staff and information.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -Factors
  • These performance indicators are influenced by a
    number of factors. This Matrix Tool only consider
    the five factors, as follows
  • People
  • Do they feel comfort and are they productive in
    the building
  • How well do they understand their relationship
    with the building
  • Do they have a role in the energy management
  • Investment decision-makers do they understand
    the benefit of intelligent building technologies
    and are they willing to investigate the
    feasibility of relevant investment
  • People with special needs (such as the disabled
    and elderly) can the building satisfy their
    special needs
  • Building systems
  • Does the system provide facilities for
    individuals to change the set-point of local
    devices according to their desire
  • Are the building and its systems well integrated
    with the surroundings
  • Is the building controlled and managed by a
    Building Management System (BMS)
  • Is it technically feasible to change the
    suppliers of utilities when considered beneficial
  • Does the building have good access to the
    internet.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -Factors
  • Critical
  • What measures are there to ensure the safety and
    health of people staying in and around the
    building
  • Facilities equipped to handle emergencies
  • Maintenance and services of the facilities
    equipped to handle emergencies
  • Treatment of the waste and use of renewable
    energy sources
  • The factors associated with the location of the
    building that affect the performance of the
    building under emergencies
  • Process
  • The process of adapting energy management
    policies within the organisations
  • The technical competence of the building
    operators in dealing with any relevant change
  • The technical competence of the facility managers
  • Facilities for individual tenants to control and
    meter their utilities
  • Organisational regime of dealing with energy
    related issues
  • Design
  • Design considerations and decisions on the
    integration of the building and its systems with
    the surroundings
  • Design considerations and decisions on possible
    change of partitions, layout and services systems
    required by the change of usage
  • The use, operation and maintenance of building
    systems
  • Decision on the initial and lifecycle costs
  • Urban and building internal planning

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
  • Each of the performance indicators has a value
    ranging from 0 to 5, with 5 indicating the best
    and 0 indicating the worst. Once these individual
    performance indicators are assessed against the
    relevant building features, the overall
    performance is computed as below
  • where
  • are the value of individual performance
    indicators Built Environment, Responsiveness,
    Functionality, Economic and Suitability
    respectively.
  • are respectively the weighting factors for
    individual performance indicators .
  • And
  • The value of IQ specifies the intelligence of a
    building under the Matool. The maximum value of
    IQ is 125. The rating of the intelligent building
    is accordingly specified as follows
  • Bad lt50
  • Good 50 80
  • Very Good 80 100
  • Excellent 100125

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -Assessment
  • The assessment comprises three stages
  • Stage 1 ltAssessment purposesgt to determine the
    weighting factors
  • Stage 2 ltIndividual assessmentgt to assess all
    relevant individual performance indicators
  • Stage 3 ltOverall assessmentgt to compute the
    overall performance based on the weighting scheme
    determined in stage 1 and the value of individual
    performance indicators determined in stage 2.

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -Assessment

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
Intelligent Buildings Technology
  • Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
    -Assessment

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Intelligent Buildings Technology
Evaluating Intelligent Buildings Matrix Tool
-Assessment
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