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Title: GLOBALISATION, REGIONALISATION AND CHOICES FACING ASIA


1
GLOBALISATION, REGIONALISATION AND CHOICES
FACING ASIA
  • Ryokichi HIRONO
  • Professor Emeritus, Seikei University, and
    Visiting Professor, Graduate Institute for Policy
    Studies, Tokyo
  • Hilton, Kuala Lumpur
  • 4-5 December, 2006

2
OUTLINE
  • 1. Globalisation Implications to East Asia
  • 1) GATT/WTO regime and the reorientation of
    industrialization strategy from import
    substitution to export, 1960s-2000s
  • 2) Multilateral exchange rate regime change to
    floating, resulting in the speculative movement
    of short-term capital and the rush of foreign
    direct investment accelerating the pace of
    industrialization, 1970s-2000s
  • 3) A rapid rise to the status of a world
    factory, 1980s-2000s
  • 2. Regionalization of trade and investment,
    spearheaded first by Japanese multinational
    corporations (MNCs) and later by MNCs based in
    Asian Newly Industrialisimg Economies (ANIEs
    Hong Kong, ROK, Singapore and Taiwan), and by
    those in ASEAN countries and China, and a rapid
    expansion of people movement among East Asian
    economies, 1990s-2000s

3
OUTLINE
  • 3. Choices Facing Asia
  • 1) Cementing the existing trade and economic
    cooperation arrangements bilateral free trade
    agreements such as Japan-Malaysia, -Philippines,
    -Singapore and -Thailand, Singapore-U.S. and
    -Chile, ASEAN (AFTA), SPEC and APEC
  • 2) Promoting multilateral economic partnership
    arrangements ASEAN-China and other dialogue
    partners
  • 3) In search for ASEAN Economic Community
    (AEC), East Asian Community (EAC) and Free Trade
    Area for Asia and the Pacific (FTAAP),
  • 4. Why APT, EAS, EAC, FTAAP ? Promoting
    economic, social and environmental sustainability
    through regional cooperation

4
  • I. GLOBALISATION IMPLICATIONS TO EAST
    ASIAS ECONOMY

5
1.1 GLOBALISATION
  • 1.Economic Globalisation
  • 1) Externally, merchandise trade
    liberalisation (GATT/WTO), foreign exchange
    liberalisation (IMF), floating exchange rates
    (IMF), liberalisation of foreign borrowing and
    portfolio and direct investment (IMF/WTO),
    liberalisation of trade in agriculture and
    services and government procurement (GATT/WTO),
    bilateral and regional free trade agreements
  • 2) Internally, deregulation of economic
    activities, privatisation of state-owned
    enterprises and state-financed organisations (WB/
    ADB/UNDP), partial desocialisation of corporate
    and national health insurance, pension
    programmes, civil service reforms,
    etc(WB/ADB/UNDP/ UNESCAP/ UNROAP)

6
1.1 GLOBALISATION
  • 2. Political, Social and Cultural Globalisation
  • 1) Externally, international conventions,
    protocols and agreements in labour, migration,
    human rights, defense, terrorism, education,
    transportation, communications, tourism,
    environment, intellectual property rights, etc.
  • 2) Internally, freedom of speech and
    association, gender equality, racial, ethnic and
    religious non-discrimination, parliamentary
    democracy, multi-party system, disclosure of
    public information, civil society,
    non-governmental organisations, demonstration
    effects (fast food, blue-jeans, etc.),
    urbanisation (high-rise commercial and
    residential buildings, suburbanites, mass transit
    systems, supermarkets, etc.), popular culture
    (CNN, BBC, Stars, commercial radio and TV
    broadcasting and advertising, Nintendo animation,
    playstations, Hollywood and Bollywood movies,
    etc.)

7
1.2 CHANGING MULTILATERAL FRAMEWORK
  • 1. Multilateral trade negotiations under the GATT
    regime beginning with the Kennedy Round of 1960s,
    the Tokyo Round of 1970s, and the Uruguay Round
    of 1980s-94 and the Doha Round under the WTO
    regime since 2005
  • 2. Multilateral exchange rate realignment in
    December 1971 resulting from the Nixons New
    Economic Policy (NEP), and the change of the IMF
    regime from the fixed exchange rate to the
    floating in February 1973
  • 3. Rise of bilateral and regional free trade and
    economic cooperation arrangements all over the
    world (over 180 bilateral FTAs,
    ECM-gtEEC-gtEC-gtEU-gtEEU, ASEAN, MERCOSUR, EAC,
    CAFTA, APEC, AFTA, CIS, NAFTA, SCO, leading
    possibly to FTAA, AEC, EAEPA, EAC, FTAAP, etc.)

8
1.3 IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION
  • 1.Positive Impact
  • 1) Externally, merchandise trade expansion and
    quality improvement, intra-regional trade
    expansion, easier and cost-effective access to
    international capital, technology and
    professional manpower markets, expanding business
    opportunities overseas, enhanced international
    flows of people, information, knowledge and
    ideas, leading to the concept of a global
    village
  • 2) Internally, productivity increases, quality
    improvement and price declines/stability due to
    to more effective competition among firms and
    through economic and enterprise reforms, skill
    upgrading, increased consumer choices, gender
    equality, greater transparency and people
    participation in decision-making processes and
    greater respect for local and community
    traditions and culture, etc.

9
1.3 IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION
  • 2. Negative Impact
  • 1) Externally, sharper distinction between
    winners and losers at the international levels
    including greater disparities among both
    industrial and developing countries, a higher
    external dependence, global warming and
    environmental destruction, globalisation of
    unsustainable patterns of production and
    consumption, reduction/loss of cultural
    diversity, and rise of ill-directed nationalism
    and patriotism, leading to international
    terrorism and the possibility of greater
    international conflicts
  • 2) Internally, widening regional
    (sub-national) disparities and uprooting/
    dislocation of people, growing income disparities
    among people at the national and local levels,
    loss of individual identity, money as determinant
    of individual status and behaviour, loss of the
    sense of community at family, neighbourhood and
    township levels, accelerated deterioration of the
    environment including air, water and soil
    quality, a wider spread of unsustainable patterns
    of consumption,

10
  • II.
  • REGIONALISATION OF TRADE AND INVESTMENT AND A
    RAPID EXPANSION OF PEOPLE MOVEMENT IN ASIA
    BACKGROUND FOR REGIONAL COOPERATION

11
2.1 CHANGING STRATEGY OF INDUSTRIALISATION IN
ASIA UNDER GLOBALISATION
  • 1. During the late 1960s-1970s a shift in
    industrialisation strategy
  • from IMPORT SUBSTITUTION to EXPORT PROMOTION in
  • smaller developing countries, to benefit from the
    then rapidly
  • expanding world market and the presence of
    surplus labour and low
  • wages, especially of women even larger
    developing countries like
  • China and India moved later to export-led
    industrialisation strategy
  • 2. Export-led industrialisation strategies in
    Asia, when adopted by
  • neighbouring countries, led to a rapid expansion
    of foreign direct
  • investment inflows and intense competition among
    them
  • 3. During the 1980s onward a STEADY
    TRANSFORMATION of
  • the poor to the middle class through better
    education, greater
  • employment opportunities and better working
    conditions, BUT to
  • the pattern of UNSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT under
    the
  • pressures of globalisation and demonstration
    effects

12
2.1a SUSTAINED ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ASIA
  • Economies GDP 2005(Million) growth rates
    2000-05 1975-2004 1990-2004
  • Brunei n.a. n.a.
    -2.2 -0.7
  • Cambodia 5,398 6.8 2.1 5.0
  • China 2,228,862 9.6 8.4 8.9
  • Hong Kong 177,722 4.3 4.1 2.0
  • Taiwan 286,200 n.a. 6.0 3.7
  • Indonesia 287,217 4.7 4.1 1.8
  • Lao, PDR 2,855 6.2 3.6 4.2
  • Malaysia 130,143 4.8 4.1 3.5
  • Mongolia 1,880 5.8 0.9 2.4
  • Myanmar n.a. n.a. 1.8 5.7
  • Philippines 98,306 4.5 0.3 0.9
  • ROK 787,624 4.6 6.0 4.5
  • Singapore 116,764 4.2 4.7 3.8
  • Thailand 176,602 5.4 5.0 2.6
  • Vietnam 52,408 7.5 5.6 5.5
  • Developing Cs 9,926,393 5.3 2.4 3.0
  • Japan 4,505,912 1.3 2.3 0.8
  • World 44,384,871 2.8 1.4 1.4

13
2.1b EXPORT EXPANSION BY MAJOR COMMODITY
CLASSIFICATIONS
  • Countries Exports Manufactured High-Technology
  • of GDP of m. exports of manufactured
  • 1990 2005 1990 2004 1990 2004
  • Cambodia 6 57 n.a. 97 n.a. 0
  • China 18 34 72 91 n.a. 30
  • Hong Kong 133 165 95 97
    n.a. 32
  • Indonesia 25 30 35 56 1 16
  • Lao, PDR 11 15 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  • Malaysia 75 108 54 76 38 55
  • Mongolia n.a. 56 n.a. 38 n.a. 0
  • Myanmar 3 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
  • Philippines 28 42 38 55 n.a. 64
  • ROK 28 36 94 92 18 33
  • Singapore n.a. 197 72 84 40 59
  • Thailand 34 62 63 75 21 30
  • Vietnam 36 62 n.a. 53 n.a. 6
  • Developing Countries25 31 58 64 n.a. 19
  • East Asia 33 37 75 80 n.a. 34
  • World 19 23 72 77 18 20

14
2.2 RUSH OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT
  • 1. A dramatic change in government policies from
    nationalisation of foreign enterprises in the
    1950s to promoting foreign direct investment in
    the 1960s onward particularly in mining and
    manufacturing sectors initially and construction,
    trading, service and finance sectors later
  • 2. With the floating exchange rate installed in
    February 1973, the Energy Crises of 1973-74 and
    1979-80, and the open-door policy by China in
    1978 and by India in the 1990s, there has been a
    rapid growth of foreign direct investment in East
    and South Asia, though interrupted by the Asian
    Financial Crisis of 1997-98
  • 3. New foreign investors have joined the older
    European and Americans on the Asian scene,
    beginning with Japanese in the 1970s and later
    with other Asians in the 1990s

15
2.2a A STEADY GROWTH OF FOREIGN DIRECT
INVESTMENT
  • ( of GDP)
  • Economies FDI Inflows
    Other Private Flows
  • 1990 2000 2004 1990
    2000 2004
  • Cambodia 0.0 3.9 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0
  • China 1.0 3.6 2.8 1.3 1.8
    0.4
  • Hong Kong n.a. n.a. 20.9 n..a.
    n.a. n.a.
  • Indonesia 1.0 -3.0 0.4 1.6
    -.4.3 0.5
  • Lao, PDR 0.7 4.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0
  • Malaysia 5.3 1.9 3.9 -4.2 1.7
    3.7
  • Myanmar n.a. n.a. n.a.
    -1.5 n.a. -1.0
  • Philippines 1.2 2.7 0.6 0.2 0.6
    2.4
  • ROK 0.3 2.0 1.2 0.1 0.9
    n.a.
  • Singapore 15.1 6.9 15.0
    n.a. n..a. n.a.
  • Taiwan n.a. 2.6 1.9
    n.a. n.a. n.a.
  • Thailand 2.9 2.8 0.9
    2.9 -3.9 0.3
  • Vietnam 2.8 4.1 3.6
    0.0 -2.3 ins.
  • Developing Cs 1.0 2.5 2.7
    0.4 1.0 0.7
  • East Asia 1.7 2.8 3.4
    0.6 0.7 n.a.
  • South Asia ins. 0.5 0.7
    0.3 0.8 1.3

16
2.3 A RISE OF REGIONALISM UNDER GLOBALIZATION
  • 1. Regional trade and economic cooperation has
    made a notable growth in all regions of the
    world, beginning with the European Common Market
    in western Europe in the 1950s, expanding its
    functions during the 1960s-90s and extending its
    geographical coverage to central and eastern
    Europe in 2004
  • 2. Precipitated by some success of the European
    economic integration, five Southeast Asian
    countries formed their own region-wide trading
    and economic cooperation group, Association of
    South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1967, later
    expanded to bring in five more countries in the
    region, as done in Africa, Latin America, the
    Middle East and finally in North America. ASEAN
    since then concluded the ASEAN Free Trade
    Agreement (AFTA) and other related organisations
    to promote growth, peace, security and
    sustainable development
  • 3. Bilateral FTAs and Economic Partnership
    Agreements have been concluded between some ASEAN
    countries and outside partners, such as
    Australia, China, Chile, Japan, ROK and U.S.

17
2.3a MAJOR TRADING AND ECONOMIC COOPERATION
GROUPINGS, 2005
  • Economic Zones
  • Population(million) GDP (US million) Exports
    (USmillion)
  • EAST ASIA(A)2,061 8,326,109 2,066,424
  • EAP India (B) 3,180 9,921,290 2,193,980
  • FTAAP(C) 3,508 23,491,550 3,457,847
  • EU (D) 482 8,215,000 4,855,000
  • FTAA(E) 810 12,500,000 3,300,000
  • Note A- APT(ASEAN plus three)and Taiwan B-APT,
    plus Australia, New Zealand (EAP) and India C-
    EAP, India, Canada and U.S.A. D- 25 member
    countries E- 34 potential member countries
    consisting of NAFTA, MERCOSUR, CAFTA, CaFTA and
    other countries.
  • Source Ryokichi Hirono (2006), Roadmap Toward
    EAEC, presented at the Fourth NEAT Conference,
    Kuala Lumpur.

18
2.3b A STEADY GROWTH OF INTRA-EAST ASIAN TRADE
  • Intra-ASEAN and Intra-East Asian Exports as
  • of Total Export, as compared with intra-NAFTA
    and
  • -EU
  • Economic
  • Zones 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
  • ASEAN 3.5 4.9 3.9 5.2 7.9 11.8
  • ANIES 8.5 9.5 12.3 14.0 13.6 16.6
  • EAST ASIA 22.6 26.3 32.8 38.4 39.5 44.0
  • E.ASIAAND JAPAN33.6 36.2 41.6 50.1 50.1 56.8
  • NAFTA n.a. 36.0 36.8 41.9 46.5 46.2
  • EU 52.6 53.8 64.5 64.1 62.1 61.9
  • Source IMF, Direction of Trade Statistics
    Yearbook, 1981-2006

19
2.3c A STEADY EXPANSION OF INTRA-ASEAN INVESTMENT
  • (USmillion) 1995 2000 2003 1995-2003
  • Brunei 311.3 10,6 35.8 1,380.0
  • Cambodia 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
  • Indonesia 608.9 -232.6 384.0 1,856.
    5
  • Lao, PDR 6.5 13.7 3.0 260.8
  • Malaysia 1,676.5 258.1 251.1 7,009.0
  • Myanmar 96.7 41.2 28.6 1,038.7
  • Philippines 241.6 126.5 175.1 1,239.0
  • Singapore 1,165.1 353.0 420.0 6,574.6
  • Thailand 160.6 389.0 670.0 5,839.8
  • Vietnam 387.3 202.4 100.4 2,695.8
  • ASEAN 4,654.4 1,194.9
    2,068.9 27,894.4
  • MOFA, Thailand and UN Country Team, Thailand
    (eds.),(2005) GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP FOR DEVELOPMENT
    THAILAND CONTRIBUTION TO MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT
    GOALS, Bangkok

20
  • III.
  • CHOICES FACING ASIA

21
3.1 HISTRICAL DEVELOPMENTS IN EAST ASIAN
COOPERATION
  • 1. The establishment of ASEAN in 1967, leading to
    the AFTA and various cooperative schemes among
    its member countries
  • 2. The establishment of tripartite PECC in 1972
    as a second track organisation to promote trade
    and economic cooperation among Pacific-rim
    countries in the wake of the Nixons New Economic
    Policy and the ASEAN Summit in 1976 to cement
    intra-ASEAN cooperation in all fields in the
    aftermath of the U.S defeat in Vietnam
  • 3. The Post-Ministerial Meeting with dialogue
    partner countries of Australia, Canada, Japan,
    New Zealand, U.S. and EEC beginning in 1978,
    later joined by other observers (China in 1996
    and India in 2000)
  • 4. The establishment of the APEC in 1990,
    involving ASEAN and PMC partners, later joined by
    China, the Republic of Korea and Taiwan and
    developing into economic and political forum
    since the APEC Summit in 1993
  • 5. The proposal by Prime Minister Mahathir for
    initiating East Asian Economic Caucus and Group
    in 1992
  • 6. The establishment of the ASEM in 1996,
    involving ASEAN, China, Japan and ROK on the
    Asian side and the EU on the European side

22
3.2 INVOLVING ASEAN IN BROADENING EAST ASIAN
COOPERATION SINCE LATE 90s
  • 1. The establishment of ASEAN Plus Three Summit
    Meeting in December 1997 to promote cooperation
    in trade, finance, investment, culture, security
    and other issues, following a proposal by Prime
    Minister Hashimoto of Japan in January 1997,
    precipitated by the Asian Financial Crisis of
    1997-98, resulting in 1999 in the adoption of a
    joint statement on Cooperation in East Asia
  • 2. The conclusion of China-ASEAN Comprehensive
    Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement in Phnom
    Penh in 2002 to establish ASEAN-China Free Trade
    Agreement by 2010 for the older ASEAN member
    countries and by 2015 for the new ASEAN countries
    and promote cooperation in five priority areas,
    agriculture, ICT, HRD, two-way investment and the
    Mekong river basin development, and setting up of
    the Network of East Asian Think Tanks (NEAT) and
    East Asian Forum which have had four meetings
    since then working in line with a functional
    approach

23
3.2 INVOLVING ASEAN IN BROADENING EAST ASIAN
COOPERATION SINCE LATE 90s
  • 3. The Tokyo Declaration at the ASEAN-Japan Heads
    of State Meeting in 2003 to form ASEAN-Japan
    Comprehensive Economic Partnership within 10
    years and East Asian Community (EAC) subsequent
    to the founding of the ASEAN Economic Community
    (AEC) by 2020
  • 4. The APT Summit and East Asian Summit (EAS)
    held in Kuala Lumpur in 2005 and to be held in
    Cebu in 2006, as agreed respectively at the APT
    Summit in Vientiane in November 2004 and in Kuala
    Lumpur in November, 2005
  • 5. APEC Summit in Hanoi in 2006, agreeing to
    study the feasibility of the Free Trade Area for
    Asia and the Pacific (FTAAP) for presentation of
    its findings in November, 2007 in Australia.

24
3.3 Potential Benefits and Risks of Alternative
Approaches to East Asian Cooperation
  • 1. Existing cooperation mechanisms ASEAN, APEC
    and APT
  • 1) Current and potential benefits
  • a) Accelerating economic growth through
    greater flows of intra-regional trade and
    investment, with assistance to CLMV
  • b) Enabling greater competitiveness of
    their member states respectively on international
    market, though in a varying degree
  • c) Providing attractive markets for the rest
    of the world, while kept open to outsiders and
  • d) Giving opportunities to some of those
    outsiders to join ASEAN (Timor Leste, PNG,
    etc.), APEC (some Latin American countries)
    and/or APT (India, etc.), resulting in larger
    economic groupings
  • 2) Existing and potential risks
  • a) Being pressured to be inward-looking and
    protectionist
  • b) Posing a greater threat to outside
    competitors that may cement their own economic
    linkages against APT, though not against ASEAN
    and APEC, eventually generating a trend against
    the APT under the WTO regime and
  • c) APEC and APT, continuing to be
    complementary or becoming competitive not in the
    distant future ?

25
3.3 Potential Benefits and Risks of Alternative
Approaches to East Asian Cooperation
  • 2. Co-existence of APT Summit and EAS
  • Not preceded, as in APT Summit, by senior
    officials meetings (SOMs) which prepare
    documentations for consensus decision, EAS tends
    to be merely a forum for ASEAN and its dialogue
    partners and observers in Asia to exchange views
    on issues most critical to the region and the
    rest of the world
  • 1) Current and potential benefits
  • Similar to 1.1.a-d, if EAS should be
    re-organised along the line of APT Summit. Such
    possibility is unlikely within a few year,
    however
  • 2) Current and potential risks
  • Similar to 1.2.a-c. Furthermore,
  • d) If re-organised in line with APT Summit,
    greater difficulties in reaching consensus on
    many issues, domestic or international, as EAS
    involves many more countries and is more diverse
    in national interests and with different
    political, economic and socio-cultural linkages
    with outside
  • e) A strong apprehension, if not opposition,
    of the U.S. to any efforts by APT or any of its
    major member states to strengthen political and
    economic ties among Asian countries alone, while
    the U.S. having gone ahead with NAFTA without
    participation of Asian countries
  • f) FTAs already concluded or under
    negotiation between some APT countries and the
    U.S.

26
3.3 Potential Benefits and Risks of Alternative
Approaches to East Asian Cooperation
  • 3. ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) and East Asian
  • Community (EAC), when formed by 2020 or
    earlier.
  • 1) Potential benefits
  • Similar to 1.1.a-d and 2.1.a-d, respectively,
    for AEC and EAC, though much more
    institutionalised than ASEAN, APT and EAS now
    currently organised
  • e) Benefits extending to non-economic sectors
  • 2) Potential risks
  • Similar to 1.2.a-c and 2.2.a-f, respectively,
    for AEC and EAC
  • d) Much more exposed to competition and
    encroachment from Expanded EU and NAFTA/FTAA,
    unless legally and institutionally consolidated
    earlier

27
3.3 Potential Benefits and Risks of Alternative
Approaches to East Asian Cooperation
  • 4. Expanding APT/EAS into FTAAP or Co-existence
    of APT/EAS and FTAAP
  • FTAAP, if organised along the line of APT,
  • 1) Possible benefits
  • Similar to 2.1.a-d, though on a much larger
    scale, as it involves North America and a few of
    Latin American countries that are now members of
    North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA).
    Furthermore, FTAAP will bring far greater
    benefits, when Free Trade Area of Americas (FTAA)
    should be installed by 2010, as already agreed
    upon, since there will be, after some prolonged
    negotiation between the two parties, an agreement
    whereby benefits accruing to FTAA will be
    bestowed on the member states of FTAAP and vice
    versa. FTAAP is unlikely within a few year,
    however
  • 2) Possible risks
  • Similar to 2.2.a-d.

28
  • IV.
  • PROMOTING ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL
    SUSTAINABILITY(ESES) THROUGH REGIONAL COOEPRATION
    IN ASIA

29
4.1 REORIENTING MACROECONOMIC AND SECTOR
POLICIES TO ENHANCE ESES
  • 1. Accelerated process of investment by
    multinational corporations (MNCs) in developing
    Asian countries under growing pressures of
    deregulation and globalisation, despite their
    economic merits through their relocation from
    higher-cost to lower-cost economies in the
    region, has led to a wider geographical spread of
    industrialisation and urbanisation with its
    greater exposure to economic, social and
    environmental unsustainability such as acute
    economic and employment fluctuations through
    higher economic interdependance, increasing
    poverty incidence, growing income and wealth
    disparities, social inequities, urban slums,
    refugees and environmental degradation
  • 2. Governments of developing Asian countries have
    attempted to cope with deteriorating ESES by
    macro-economic and sectoral policies, legislative
    and administrative measures, but many have failed
    to manage the process by themselves. Regional and
    international cooperation has been found
    essential to improving ESES in their own
    countries and across the border.

30
4.2 PROMOTING ESES AT HOME FROM COMMAND AND
CONTROL TO MARKET-BASED INSTRUMENTS
  • 1. Confronted by growing issues of
    deteriorating ESES, developing
  • Asian countries, once again following the
    model of industrial
  • countries, installed the legal framework and
    institutional
  • infrastructures for improving ESES
  • 2. Given the lack of experiences in dealing with
    these sustainability
  • issues and the shortage of adequate
    professional, technological,
  • financial and institutional capabilities,
    developing Asian countries initially adopted the
    command and control (CC) policy measures to deal
    with the question of unsustainability
  • 3. Having found the implementation of their
    macroeconomic, sectoral and institutional
    policies quite inadequate, these CC policies
    have been steadily being supplemented, and even
    being replaced in many cases, by market-based
    instruments and by active participation of NGOs

31
4.3 PROMOTING ESES FOR HUMAN SURVIVAL THROUGH
POLICY REFORMS
  • 1. Centre pieces of Policy Reforms in all
    developing Asian countries for improving current
    policies and practices that are consistent with
    economic, social and environmental sustainability
    could be
  • 1) Mainstreaming ESES concerns in all macro-
    and micro-economic policies and practices
  • 2) Pro-poor policy measures in all
    macroeconomic and sectoral policies to facilitate
    poverty reduction, gender equality and people
    participation
  • 3) Application of the Polluter-Pay-Principle
    to all public and private economic activities
  • 4) Stronger political commitment to
    effective enforcement of all laws and regulations
    for ESES

32
4.4 PROMOTING ESES FOR HUMAN SURVIVAL THROUGH
INSTITUTIONAL REFORMS
  • 2. Some Measures for Institutional Reforms and
    Capacity Building in all developing Asian
    economies are
  • 1) Streamlining market-based instruments for
    more effective policy implementation and results
    for sustainable development (SD) and a greater
    need for Peer Reviews at the regional level
  • 2) Development by all these regional groupings
    and institutions of Better and Best Practices for
    mutual lesson learning in ESES policies,
    management and institution building
  • 3) Expanding and improving SD education and
    learning at schools, communities and enterprises
    in line with the U.N. Decade of Education for SD
    2005-2014
  • 4) Expanding and improving regional and
    sub-regional cooperation in ESES policies and
    management including research, education and
    training for capacity building in all relevant
    areas on the basis of country ownership and
    agreed priorities

33
4.4 PROMOTING ESES FOR HUMAN SURVIVAL THROUGH
INSTITUTIONSL REFORMS
  • 5) Need for taking issue- and
    country-specific approaches to ESES cooperation
    in the light of diversity of countries in any of
    these regional groupings in the Asian region
  • 6) Exploring a possibility of
    institutionalising sub-regional cooperation
    mechanisms in Northeast Asia, as in Southeast
    Asia
  • 7) Strengthening the effectiveness of any
    of these regional institutions, while mobilising
    the support of the United Nations and its
    agencies, Bretton Woods Institutions, regional
    development banks, Global Environment Facilities
    (GEF) and others in both enriching ESES database,
    research and training and promoting ESES
    cooperation in the region and
  • 8) Strengthening networks and partnership
    among different stakeholders, government and
    non-government alike, engaged in ESES cooperation
    at local, national, regional and international
    levels.

34
  • THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION
  • FOR FURTHER INQUIRIES, PLEASE CONTACT THE
    FOLLOWING FAX NUMBER AND EMAIL ADDRESS
  • 81(0)3-39202145
  • ryokichi_at_iea.att.ne.jp
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