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Title: Science of rare isotopes: connecting nuclei with the universe


1
Science of rare isotopes connecting nuclei with
the universe Rutgers University Colloquium,
November 5, 2008
  • Two take-away messages
  • Nuclear scientists, experimentalists and
    theorists, are getting better and better at
    controlling short-lived nuclei, in particular
    those which are useful
  • Rare isotopes are the key to answering questions
    in many areas of science
  • Introduction
  • Territory
  • Science
  • Connections and Relevance
  • Perspectives

2
Prelude
3
Munster 1544
4
The Quantum Ladder
Galaxy clusters Galaxies
Stars Planets
Living Organisms, Man-made Structures
macroscopic
Cells, Crystals, Materials
Molecules
Atoms
Nuclei
Elementary Particles (baryons, mesons)
Quarks and Leptons
subatomic
Super- strings ?
???
5
(No Transcript)
6
Introduction
7
Some nuclei are more important than others
Over the last decade, tremendous progress has
been made in techniques to produce designer
nuclei, rare atomic nuclei with characteristics
adjusted to specific research needs
8
Questions that Drive the Field
  • How do protons and neutrons make stable nuclei
    and rare isotopes?
  • What is the origin of simple patterns in complex
    nuclei?
  • What is the equation of state of matter made of
    nucleons?
  • What are the heaviest nuclei that can exist?
  • When and how did the elements from iron to
    uranium originate?
  • How do stars explode?
  • What is the nature of neutron star matter?
  • How can our knowledge of nuclei and our ability
    to produce them
  • benefit the humankind?
  • Life Sciences, Material Sciences, Nuclear Energy,
    Security

Physics of nuclei
Nuclear astrophysics
Applications of nuclei
9
Designer Nuclei in Nuclear Landscape
99Sn
100Sn
Novel decay modes
180Hg
95Cd
96Cd
82
126
Extending the limits
82
12 28
28
20
50
8
28
Probing existence/changes of the shell structure
far from stability
2
20
8
2
10
Magicity is a fragile concept
Near the drip lines nuclear structure may be
dramatically different.
11
Structure of rare isotopes Old paradigms
revisited. Crucial input for theory
No shell closure for N8,20,28 for drip-line
nuclei new shells at 14,16,32
12
Neutron skins
100Sn
Sn isotopes
protons
7
N/Z1
density (nucleons/fm3)
neutrons
radius (fm)
100Zn
protons
6
The only laboratory access to matter made
essentially of pure neutrons
N/Z2.33
60
80
100
120
0
2
8
6
4
r (fm)
neutron number
13
Neutron-rich matter and neutron skins
Giant dipole
E1 strength
GSI 2005
14
The Limit of Mass and Charge superheavies
Current Affairs
118
116
115
114
RIKEN
113
Dubna LLNL
GSI
15
How does the physics of nuclei impact the
physical universe?
  • What is the origin of elements heavier than iron?
  • How do stars burn and explode?
  • What is the nucleonic structure of neutron stars?

p process
s-process
r process
rp process
Nova
Neutron star
Crust processes
T Pyxidis
stellar burning
protons
neutrons
16
Rare isotope measurements for novae
Example of synergy between nuclear science and
astronomy
predicted ?-ray flux from decaying radionuclides
18F, 22Na... synthesized in explosion
Synthesis of e.g. 18F, 22Na, (26Al) very
important for characteristic g-ray emission from
nova
17
r (apid neutron capture) process
The origin of about half of elements heavier than
iron Goes through neutron-rich rare isotopes
http//www.jinaweb.org/html/gallery3.html
18
Testing the fundamental symmetries of nature
Experiments addressing questions o the
fundamental symmetries of nature can take
advantage of certain exotic isotopes because
aspects of their structure greatly magnify the
size of the symmetry-breaking processes being
probed
EDM searches in
19
2008 Nobel Prize in Physics
20
Half-life
Q-value
Branching Ratio
  • more cases measured stay tuned
  • Advances in isospin mixing calculations

21
Nuclear Structure Theory Progress Report
22
Links to CMP/AMO science!!!
number of nuclei lt number of processors!
23
Coupled Cluster Theory Size Extensive! converged
CCSD results for medium-mass nuclei with N3LO
Medium-mass nuclei from chiral nucleon-nucleon
interactions G. Hagen, T. Papenbrock, D.J. Dean
and M. Hjorth-Jensen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101,
092502 (2008)
24
(No Transcript)
25
Mean-Field Theory ? Density Functional Theory
  • Nuclear DFT
  • two fermi liquids
  • self-bound
  • superfluid
  • mean-field ? one-body densities
  • zero-range ? local densities
  • finite-range ? gradient terms
  • particle-hole and pairing channels
  • Has been extremely successful. A broken-symmetry
    generalized product state does surprisingly good
    job for nuclei.

26
Computational Strategy
27
Strategy
From Ian Thompson
28
?(nA?Xi) at energy Eprojectile Computational
Workflow
Eprojectile
(UNEDF work)
Target A (N,Z)
Ground state Excited states Continuum states
TransitionDensities????(r)
Structure ModelMethods HF, DFT, RPA, CI, CC,
Transitions Code
UNEDF VNN, VNNN
?????
Folding Code
Veff for scattering
Transition Potentials V???(r) (Later
density-dependent non-local)
(other work)
Deliverables
Inelastic production
Compound production
Coupled ChannelsCode FRESCO
Partial Fusion Theory
Hauser-Feshbach decay chains
Residues (N,Z)
Delayed emissions
Compound emission
Elastic S-matrix elements
Voptical
Preequilibrium emission
Prompt particle emissions
Fit Optical Potential Code IMAGO
Global optical potentials
KEY Code Modules UNEDF Ab-initio Input User
Inputs/Outputs Exchanged Data Future research
UNEDFReaction work
29
Universal Nuclear Energy Density Functional
http//unedf.org/
  • Funded (on a competitive basis) by
  • Office of Science
  • ASCR
  • NNSA
  • 15 institutions
  • 50 researchers
  • physics
  • computer science
  • applied mathematics
  • foreign collaborators
  • FIDIPRO
  • Warsaw
  • France/Belgium
  • Japan
  • 5 years

unprecedented theoretical effort !
See http//www.scidacreview.org/0704/html/unedf.h
tml by Bertsch, Dean, and Nazarewicz
30
Example Large Scale Mass Table
Calculations Science scales with processors
M. Stoitsov HFBLN mass table, all nuclei
  • 9,210 nuclei
  • 599,265 configurations
  • Using 3,000 processors - about 25 CPU hours

Jaguar Cray XT4 at ORNL
see MassExplorer.org
31
Multimodal fission in nuclear DFT
  • Staszczak, A.Baran,
  • J. Dobaczewski, W.N.

32
Connections and Relevance
33
Connections to quantum many-body systems
  • Understanding the transition from microscopic to
    mesoscopic to macroscopic
  • Symmetry breaking and emergent phenomena
  • Pairing in finite systems
  • Quantum chaos
  • Open quantum systems
  • Dynamical symmetries and collective dynamics
  • Dilute fermion matter
  • strongly correlated
  • very large scattering length (unitary limit)
  • Low-density neutron matter
  • Cold fermions in traps

34
Societal Benefits
35
Applications of Rare Isotopes How can our
knowledge of nuclei and our ability to produce
them benefit the humankind?
  • Stockpile stewardship and inertial fusion
  • Modeling the diverse reaction pathways driven by
    both neutrons and charged particles spanning an
    energy spectrum from about 0.1 to 16 MeV
    (analogous to the r-process)
  • Materials science
  • Rare-isotopes have broad applications in
    condensed matter and materials science as low
    density, very high signal to noise in situ
    detectors of local atomic environments. ?-NMR is
    an excellent example
  • Energy, transmutation of waste
  • Can we use fast neutron reactors and
    accelerators for the mitigation of long-lived
    radioactive waste?
  • Can we design an economically competitive, energy
    efficient, reduced-waste nuclear reactor?
  • Medical and biological research
  • Applications of radionuclides (see below)

36
What are the next medically viable radioisotopes
required for enhanced and targeted treatment and
functional diagnosis?
Example Targeted Alpha Therapy in vivo
The radionuclide 149Tb decays to alpha particles
17 percent of the time and has a half-life of 4.1
hours, which is conveniently longer than some
other alpha-emitting radionuclides. Lower energy
alpha particles, such as in 149Tb decays, have
been shown to be very efficient in killing cells,
and their short range means that minimal damage
is caused in the neighborhood of the target cells.
?-knife!
First in vivo experiment to demonstrate the
efficiency of alpha targeted therapy using 149Tb
produced at ISOLDE, CERN
G.-J. Beyer et al. Eur. J. Nucl. Med. and
Molecular Imaging 33, 547 (2004)
37
5106
Monoclonal Antibody
2 days later the mice have been devided into 4
groups
38
Perspectives
39
Experiment
40
Connections to computational science
1Teraflop1012 flops 1peta1015 flops (next 2-3
years) 1exa1018 flops (next 10 years)
CRAY XT4 (Jaguar) No. 5, 260 TFlops
CRAY XT5 (Jaguar, Kraken) petaflop machines
41
National Academy 2007 RISAC Report BPA Rare
Isotope Science Assessment Committee
Nuclear science is entering a new era of
discovery in understanding how nature works at
the most basic level and in applying that
knowledge in useful ways
  • Exciting opportunities in
  • Nuclear Structure
  • Nuclear Astrophysics
  • Tests of fundamental symmetries with
    rare-isotopes
  • Scientific Applications

42
Outlook
The study of rare isotopes makes the connection
between the fundamental building block of matter,
complex systems, and the cosmos
  • Exciting and transformational science old
    paradigms revisited
  • Interdisciplinary science
  • Science relevant to society

Over the last decade, tremendous progress has
been made in techniques to produce designer
nuclei, rare atomic nuclei with characteristics
adjusted to specific research needs. Guided by
unique data on short-lived nuclei, we are
embarking on a comprehensive study of all nuclei
based on the most accurate knowledge of nuclear
interactions, the most reliable theoretical
approaches, and the massive use of the computer
power available at this moment in time. Many
problems remain but the prospects are excellent.
Thank You
43
Backup
44
1, 2, 3, 4, 208, 8
45
NN and NNN interactions
Effective-field theory (?PT) potentials
Vlow-k unifies NN interactions at low energy
Bogner, Kuo, Schwenk, Phys. Rep. 386, 1 (2003)
  • Quality two- and three-nucleon interactions exist
  • Not uniquely defined (local, nonlocal)
  • Soft and hard-core

N3LO Entem et al., PRC68, 041001
(2003) Epelbaum, Meissner, et al.
46
Short-range correlations a red herring
47
Hagen et al, ORNL/UTK
Ab initio Reactions
Nollett et al, ANL
Coupled Clusters
CC
GFMC
Quaglioni Navratil, LLNL 2008
No Core Shell Model Resonating Group Method
11Be arXiv0804.1560
48
How many parameters are really needed?
Spectroscopic (s.p.e.)
Global (masses)
Bertsch, Sabbey, and Uusnakki Phys. Rev. C71,
054311 (2005)
Kortelainen, Dobaczewski, Mizuyama, Toivanen,
arXiv0803.2291
New optimization strategy and protocol needed
49
Alignment of variables related to neutron skin
1 full alignment/correlation 0 not aligned
P.G. Reinhard W. Nazarewicz in preparation
50
  • SciDAC 2 Project Building a Universal Nuclear
    Energy Density Functional
  • Understand nuclear properties for element
    formation, for properties of stars, and for
    present and future energy and defense
    applications
  • Scope is all nuclei, with particular interest in
    reliable calculations of unstable nuclei and in
    reactions
  • Order of magnitude improvement over present
    capabilities
  • Precision calculations
  • Connected to the best microscopic physics
  • Maximum predictive power with well-quantified
    uncertainties
  • See http//www.scidacreview.org/0704/html/unedf.h
    tml
  • by Bertsch, Dean, and Nazarewicz

51
Construction of the functional Perlinska et al.,
Phys. Rev. C 69, 014316 (2004)
isoscalar and isovector densities spin,
current, spin-current tensor, kinetic, and
kinetic-spin pairing densities
isoscalar (T0) density
isovector (T1) density
p-h density
p-p density (pairing functional)
Most general second order expansion in densities
and their derivatives
  • Constrained by microscopic theory ab-initio
    functionals provide quasi-data!
  • Not all terms are equally important. Usually 12
    terms considered
  • Some terms probe specific experimental data
  • Pairing functional poorly determined. Usually 1-2
    terms active.
  • Becomes very simple in limiting cases (e.g.,
    unitary limit)

52
Density Matrix Expansion for RG-Evolved
Interactions S.K. Bogner, R.J. Furnstahl et al.
see also EFT for DFT R.J. Furnstahl nucl-th/07020
4
53
Emergent collective behavior in nuclei
Quantum phase transitions
152Sm
148Sm
154Sm
Vibrator
Soft
Rotor
Transitional
Deformed
Spherical
Energy
Transitional rare isotopes
Deformation
54
What is the next magic nucleus beyond 208Pb?
55
Broydens Mixing Procedure Phys. Rev. C 78,
014318 (2008)
A. Baran, A. Bulgac, M. McNeil Forbes, G. Hagen,
W. Nazarewicz, N. Schunck and M.V. Stoitsov
300,000
200
108
3,000,000
56
6,8He 11Li Charge Radii and Masses of Halo
NucleiPrecision measurements provide stringent
test of nuclear models
ANL (2004)
T1/2 806 ms
ANL/GANIL (2007)
T1/2 119ms
T1/2 8.6 ms
57
  • How does complexity emerge from simple
    constituents?
  • How can complex systems display astonishing
    simplicities?

How do nuclei shape the physical universe?
58
Weinbergs Laws of Progress in Theoretical
Physics From Asymptotic Realms of Physics (ed.
by Guth, Huang, Jaffe, MIT Press, 1983)
First Law The conservation of Information (You
will get nowhere by churning equations) Second
Law Do not trust arguments based on the lowest
order of perturbation theory Third Law You
may use any degrees of freedom you like to
describe a physical system, but if you use the
wrong ones, youll be sorry!
59
Strongly paired fermions Cold atoms and neutron
matter
an-18.5 fm, re2.7fm
pairing gap
s-wave part of AV18
Gezerlis and Carlson, Phys. Rev. C 77, 032801(R)
(2008)
60
Radioactive Ion Science Timeline
Relativistic Coulomb excitation of 32-Mg at RIKEN
Direct radiative capture with 21-Na at
ISAC-I 38m-K ?-??correlations at TRINAT
100-Sn discovered at GSI and GANIL
Europe
Japan
First mass measurement of short-lived nuclei at
PS in CERN
First accelerated beam experiment (13-N) at LLN
Two-proton emitters discovered at GSI and
GANIL
Canada
Momentum distribution of halo at RIKEN
Z105 (Db) discovered in Dubna
Element Z112 discovered
Measurement of half-life of r-process nucleus at
Studsvik
Mössbauer effect
Projectile-fisson of 238-U and Z112 discovered
at GSI
Proton emission discovered at Harwell
Theory of nucleosynthesis
BBHF theory of nucleosynthesis
Z108 chemistry at GSI
Becquerel discovers radioactivity The Curies
discover polonium
Acceleration of RIBs at LLN
Beta-delayed proton radioactivity discovered at
Dubna and McGill
Island of inversion at N20 and shape coexistence
in proton-rich Hg at iSOLDE
Targeted alpha therapy at ISOLDE
ISOLTRAP
First ISOL experiment in Copenhagen
Becquerel discovers radioactivity The Curies
discover polonium
Laser ion source at ISOLDE
Neutron-induced fission
IGISOL at Jyväskylä
Isotopic tracer technique by von Hevesy
Nobel Prize for magic numbers
Nobel Prize for unified model
6-He produced in Copenhagen
Explanation of magic numbers
Explanation of magic numbers
RIKEN
SPIRAL1
ISOLDE
GANIL
GSI
ISAC-I
REX-ISOLDE
Nobel Prize for unified model
1900
1930
1960
2000
Parity violation in beta decay
Fermi builds controlled fission reactor
NSCL
HRIBF
Shell structure changes in exotic nuclei at
ATLAS/HRIBF/NSCL
Collapse of magic numbers in exotic nuclei
Nobel Prize for magic numbers
Nobel Prize for nucleosynthesis
Invention of PET scanner
Trapped francium at Stony Brook
Explanation of magic numbers
First in-flight separator at Oak Ridge
First in-flight fragmentation experiments at
Berkeley
First therapeutic application of artificial
radionuclide
Radiochemistry used to monitor nuclear weapons
tests
Shell structure of exotic nuclei with knockout
reactions at NSCL
6-He enhanced reaction cross sections at TwinSol
beta-NMR demonstrated at ANL
Z100 (Fm) discovered
First application of radiochemistry to inertial
fusion target diagnosis
BBHF theory of nucleosynthesis
Studies with accelerated 132-Sn and 82-Ge at HRIBF
Neutron halos discovered at Berkeley
Neutron halos discovered
21-Na ?-??correlations at Berkeley
Measurement of half-life of r-process nucleus at
TRISTAN
Charge radius of 6-He at ATLAS 78-Ni lifetime at
NSCL
United States
61
Recent years very successful period for theory
of nuclei
  • many new ideas leading to new understanding
  • new theoretical frameworks
  • exciting developments
  • high-quality calculations
  • The nucleon-based description works to lt0.5 fm
  • Effective Field Theory/Renormalization Group
    provides missing links
  • Short-range repulsion a red herring!
  • Accurate ab-initio methods allow for interaction
    tests
  • Worldwide attack on nuclear energy density
    functional
  • Quantitative microscopic nuclear structure
  • Integrating nuclear structure and reactions
  • High-performance computing continues to
    revolutionize microscopic nuclear many-body
    problem impossible becomes possible

62
GFMC S. Pieper, ANL
1-2 calculations of A 6 12 nuclear energies
are possible excited states with the same quantum
numbers computed
63
Nuclear DFT works well for BE differences
S. Cwiok, P.H. Heenen, WN Nature, 433, 705 (2005)
Stoitsov et al., 2008
  • Global DFT mass calculations HFB mass formula
    ?m700keV
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