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Title: The%20journey%20continues:


1
Leyton Schnellert October
2007 Rural Schools Renewal Conference
Success for all Working together to support
students with special needs
2
Enduring Understandings
Self-regulation and Metacognition
Cognitive Strategies
Learning Sequences
3
What do we know about the brain and diverse
learners?
SUCCESSFUL MEANING MAKING DEPENDS ON THE
COMPLEX INTERACTION OF MANY OVERLAPPING
DIMENSIONS
4
What do we know about the brain and diverse
learners?
SUCCESSFUL MEANING MAKING DEPENDS ON THE COMPLEX
INTERACTION OF MANY OVERLAPPING DIMENSIONS

COGNITIVE DIMENSION - Skills, - Strategies, -
Background Knowledge
TEXTUAL DIMENSION - Difficulty Level -
Considerate/ Inconsiderate - Format
SOCIAL DIMENSION - Apprenticing and
Scaffolding - Culture - Funds of Knowledge
PERSONAL DIMENSION - Engagement - Goals -
Identity and Agency
Brozo, IRA, 2007
5
What do we know about the brain and diverse
learners?
What the individual brings
Personal objectives
Managing motivation and emotions
Adjusting engagement in learning
Task interpretation
Self-regulation (planning, self-monitoring,
self-evaluating)
Butler Cartier, 2004 Butler, Schnellert
Cartier, 2005
6
What key elements of learning work for all
students?
7
work for all students?
What key elements of learning
Formative assessment to determine students
strengths and needs
(Brownlie, Feniak Schnellert, 2006 Earl
Katz, 2005 Schnellert, Butler Higginson, in
press Smith Wilhelm, 2006)
Activating prior knowledge/ helping students
connect what they are learning to what they
already know
(Brownlie, Feniak Schnellert, 2006 Buehl,
2001 Kame'enui Carnine, 2002 Wilhelm, 2007)
Helping students process new content/ building
their repertoire of meaning making
strategies (Brownlie, Feniak Schnellert,
2006 Buehl, 2001 Cook, 2005 Gear, 2006 Harvey
Goudvis, 2007Kame'enui Carnine, 2002 )
8
What key elements of learning
Provide opportunities for students to
personalize and transform (synthesize) their
learning in reference to key concepts and
essential questions (Brownlie, Feniak
Schnellert, 2006 Buehl, 2001 Cook, 2005
Daniels, Bizar, 2005 Tomlinson McTighe,
2006 Wilhelm, 2007)
Ensuring students self-assess, set goals and
take actions to manage and improve their
learning (Brownlie, Feniak Schnellert, 2006
Butler, Schnellert, Cartier, 2005 Davies,
2000 Zimmerman Schunk, 2001)
work for all students?
9
Instructional considerations
Try to
Use regular guided-thinking experiences to
introduce key comprehension strategies
demonstrate response activities, stopping
frequently to explain your moves as you deal
with unfamiliar terms, structures, and ideas.
repeat instructions
set a purpose
Clearly define assessment tasks so that
students, understand the steps they must take to
complete the work.
(West, 2000 Booth, 2002)
10
Gradual Release of Responsibility
Modeled
I show, you watch
I show, you watch
Shared
I do, you help
Guided
You do, I help
Independent
You do, I watch
Pearson Gallagher, 1983
11
(key concepts/essential understandings)Students
will understand that
Big ideas
Student outcomes
(important skills or processes)Students will
be able to
Stage
Purpose Engage/Activate prior knowledge/Predict
content/ Focus on a purpose
Connecting
Purpose Construct meaning/Monitor
understanding/ Process ideas
Processing
Purpose Process ideas/Apply knowledge/ Reflect
on thinking and learning
Transforming Personalizing
Assessment 4. 3. 2. 1.
12
Name _____________
Purpose reading to find Key Ideas about
Connecting


Things I already know about the topic and/or
text
Skimming the text, what are 4 big questions I
think will be answered?
13
Name _____________
Purpose reading to find Key Ideas about
Processing
  • Read the information with your partner.
  • Together find the most important information
  • Then use pictures, words, diagrams, charts,
    images, webs or icons to make notes.
  • Talk to your partner about why this is important
    make some notes under why

Why is this important? (and how do I know?)



Most Important Idea, Event or Action (use
pictures, words, icons)
Schnellert, 2006
14
Name _____________
Purpose reading to find Key Ideas about
Why is this important? (and how do I know?)



Most Important Idea, Event or Action (use
pictures, words, icons)
Synthesizing/ Transforming
What is the big idea in this text? How do I know? What is an image or symbol that represents this?

Schnellert, 2006
15
Name _____________
Purpose reading to find Key Ideas about
Synthesizing/Transforming
What clues can I use to figure out main ideas when reading this kind of text?

The next time we read focusing on main idea and details, I want to

Schnellert, 2006
16
How might we design classroom experiences to
ensure achievement for all?
17
Universal Design
Universal Design originated in the field of
architecture.
Historically, architects have designed
buildings to be accessible for the majority of
people, but not for all people.
Stairs are the access most of us have to
buildings.
  • For some people, though, stairs are a
  • barrier to access
  • people in wheelchairs, people on roller
  • blades, baby strollers

18
The Challenge of Learners with Diverse Needs
Redesign the curriculum?
Retrofit the curriculum?
or
The Goal
fix the curriculum
fix the child
goals
assessments
methods
materials
so that it can meet diverse learner needs.
19
HOW IS THIS ACHIEVED?

Flexible curricular materials and activities
that provide alternatives for students with
differing abilities.
These alternatives are built into the
instructional design of educational materials.
They are NOT added on after-the-fact.
Universal Design principles can apply to
lectures, classroom discussions, group work,
handouts, web-based instruction, and other
academic activities.
20
3
Guiding Principles
1
Multiple means of engagement
  • to tap into learners' interests, offer
    appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.

2
Multiple means of representation
  • to give learners various ways of acquiring
    information and knowledge

3
Multiple means of expression
  • to provide learners alternatives for
    demonstrating what they know

21
Teaching approaches that respond to diversity
Open-ended teaching
Multiple intelligences
Inquiry learning
Workshop
Differentiation
Literature and information circles
22
Say Something
In a trio
What is teaching to diversity?
What comes to mind?
How does UDL relate to your work?
23
What service-delivery models most support
learners with special needs?
24
Menu for Resource Teachers
specials
  • Help administer, score and create a plan from a
    bi-monthly performance-based assessment
  • Collaborative planning
  • Co-teaching
  • Working with small groups or individual students
  • Peer/parent/tutor programming
  • Special education assistants

25
Long term gains for struggling readers/learners
adolescents who lack literacy skills can learn
these skills if they have intensive, focused and
sustained instruction that helps them catch up
with their peers
these adolescents also need to participate in
the general education curriculum so they do not
fall behind their peers in content knowledge and
a shared responsibility for literacy instruction
is needed -deliberate steps must be taken to
coordinate instruction across teachers and
classes.
Deshler, Lenz, Bulgren, Schumaker, Marquis, 2004
26
The Content Literacy Continuum
is about
Developing a school- wide approach to improving
adolescent literacy
that requires SLPs
that requires
Intensive Clinical Interventions (level 5)
that requires teacher attention to
for students who read at approximately grade 4
level and need
Developing A plan
Content mastery instruction (level 1)
that clearly addresses
for those students who need more explicit
strategy instruction by offering
Intensive basic skill instruction (level 4)
Adolescent literacy
in which students learn how to approach
literacy through
Professional development
Intensive strategy instruction (level 3)
Embedded strategy instruction (level 2)
Strategies intervention model
Source Ensuring content-Area learning by
secondary students with learning disabilities by
Deshler et al., 2001
27
Next Steps
Suggestions for supporting the continued
progress of students toward achieving their IEP
goals beyond initial levels
Consultation regarding specific issues that
arise
Consultative
Responding to emergent issues
Co-planning
Co-instruction
Curriculum design
Adaptations/ modifications
Introduction of strategies
28
Next Steps
In Class
Co-teaching
Team teaching
Supportive activities
Complementary instruction
29
Next Steps
Instruction outside of class based on IEP goals
Intensive literacy instruction that reinforces
classroom instruction
Pre-teaching and/or re-teaching introduced in
regular classroom
Organization strategies
Reading strategies
Literacy intervention
Numeracy tools
Writing process
Study skills
Memory strategies
Vocabulary
i.e. second shot
30
How can we provide
students with alternatives for
demonstrating what they know?
How can we help These students interact with
the ideas they encounter?
How can we tap into these students interests,
offer appropriate challenge and increase
motivation?
Questions to think about when planning
31
How can we work together to best meet the needs
of diverse learners?
Establish shared goals (see Lenz Deshler)
Develop collaborative, community-minded
classrooms
Determine enduring understandings
Develop authentic, engaging tasks
Provide personalized, descriptive feedback
Multiple modes for input and output
Cognitive strategy development
Metacognition and self-regulation
32
Resources
  • BC Performance Standards www.bced.gov.bc.ca/perf_s
    tands
  • Bennett, B. Rolheiser, C. (2001). Beyond
    Monet The Artful Science of Instructional
    Integration. Bookation.
  • Booth, D. (2002). Even hockey players read Boys,
    literacy and learning. Markham, ON Pembroke.
  • Brown, A., Cocking, R., Bransford, J., Eds.
    (2000). How People Learn Brain, Mind,
    Experience, School. National Academy Press.
  • Brownlie, F. Feniak, C. Schnellert, L. (2006).
    Student Diversity, 2nd ed., Pembroke Publishers.
  • Brownlie, F. (2005) Grand Conversations, Portage
    Main Press.
  • Brownlie, F. King, J. (2000). Learning in Safe
    Schools. Pembroke Publishers.
  • Buehl, D. (2001). Classroom Strategies for
    Interactive Learning, IRA
  • Butler, D. L., Schnellert, L., Cartier, S. C.
    (2005). Adolescents' engagement in "reading to
    learn" Bridging from assessment to instruction.
    BC Educational Leadership Research, 2.
  • Cohen, P. (1995). Designing performance
    assessment tasks. Education Update, 37(6), 15.
  • Daniels, H. Bizar, M. (2005).Teaching the best
    practice way Methods that matter, K-12 Pembroke
    Publishers.
  • Gregory, K., Cameron, C. and Davies, A. (2000).
    Setting and Using Criteria For Use in Middle and
    Secondary Classrooms, Connections Publishing, BC,
    Canada.
  • Harvey, S. (1998) Non-Fiction Matters Reading,
    Writing, and Research in Grades 3-8, Stenhouse
    Publishers.
  • Hourcade, J.J., Bauwens, J. (2002). Cooperative
    Teaching Rebuilding and Sharing the Schoolhouse.
    Austin, TX ProEd Inc.
  • Joyce, B., Hrycauk, M., Calhoun, E. (2001
    March). A Second Chance for Struggling Readers.
    Educational Leadership, 42-46.
  • Kameenui, E, Carine D., Eds. (2002). Effective
    Teaching Strategies That Accommodate Diverse
    Learners. Columbus, OH Merrill.
  • Lenz, B.K., Deschler, D.D. Kissam, B.R. (2004).
    Teaching content to all Evidence-based
    inclusive practices in middle and secondary
    schools. Boston Allyn Bacon.
  • Marzano, R., Pickering, D., Pollack, J. (2001).
    Classroom Instruction That Works
  • Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student
    Achievement ASCD.
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