Japanese Economy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Japanese Economy PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: c7f55-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Japanese Economy

Description:

Given its heavy dependence on imported energy, Japan has aimed to diversify its sources. ... by higher government taxes on automobile engines over 2000 cc, as ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:78
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 40
Provided by: tulsag
Category:
Tags: economy | japanese

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Japanese Economy


1
Japanese Economy Energy
  • By Wang Haiyan
  • Zhu Shufang
  • Deng Hao

2
Japanese Economy Energy
  • This Presentation mainly discuss Japanese
    economy, energy demands and some related
    information. It is appropriate for high school
    students who have interest in Japanese Energy
    Policy.

3
Geography
  • Area 377,864 sq. km. (145,902 sq. mi.) slightly
    smaller than California.
  • Cities Capital--Tokyo.
  • Other cities--Yokohama, Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo,
    Kobe, Kyoto, Fukuoka.
  • Terrain Rugged, mountainous islands.
  • Climate Varies from subtropical to temperate.

4
People
  • Population (2007 est.) 127.5 million. Population
    growth rate (2007 est.) -0.088.
  • Language Japanese.
  • Education Literacy--99.
  • Health (2007 est.)
  • Infant mortality rate--2.8/1,000.
  • Life expectancy--males 78 yrs., females 85
    yrs.
  • Work force (67 million, 2003) services--42
    trade, manufacturing, mining, and
    construction--46 agriculture, forestry,
    fisheries--5 government--3.

5
Introduction to Economy (1)
  • GDP (2007 est.) 5.103 trillion (official
    exchange rate) 4.34 trillion (PPP).
  • Real growth rate (2007 est.) 1.9. Per capita
    GDP (2007 est. PPP) 33,800.
  • Natural resources Fish and few mineral
    resources.
  • Agriculture Products--rice, vegetables, fruit,
    milk, meat, silk.
  • Industry Types--machinery and equipment, metals
    and metal products, textiles, autos, chemicals,
    electrical and electronic equipment.

6
Introduction to Economy (2)
  • Japan's industrialized, social market economy is
    the world's third-largest, adjusted to purchasing
    power parity (PPP), after the United States and
    People's Republic of China. Also, Japan is
    the world's second-largest economy by real GDP,
    nominal GDP and by market exchange rates. Its
    economy is highly efficient and competitive
    in areas linked to international trade
    although productivity is lower in areas
    such as agriculture, distribution, and services.
    Government-industry cooperation, a strong work
    ethic, mastery of high technology, and a
    comparatively small defense allocation have
    helped Japan advance with extraordinary speed to
    become one of the largest economies in the world.
    Its reservoir of industrial leadership and
    technicians, well-educated and industrious work
    force, high savings and investment rates,
    and intensive promotion of industrial
    development and foreign trade have produced
    a mature industrial economy. Japan has few
    natural resources, and trade helps it earn the
    foreign exchange needed to purchase raw
    materials for its economy.

7
Introduction to Economy (3)
  • Distinguishing characteristics of the Japanese
    economy include the cooperation of manufacturers,
    suppliers, distributors, and banks in
    closely-knit groups called keiretsu the powerful
    enterprise unions and shunto cozy relations with
    government bureaucrats, and the guarantee of
    lifetime employment (shushin koyo) in big
    corporations and highly unionized blue-collar
    factories. Recently, Japanese companies have
    begun to gradually move away from some of these
    norms in an attempt to increase their global
    competitiveness and profitability (the latter due
    mostly to their increased reliance on equity
    rather than debt financing).

8
Introduction to Economy (4)
  • For three decades, Japan's overall real economic
    growth had been spectacular a 10 average in the
    1960s, a 5 average in the 1970s, and a 4
    average in the 1980s.

9
Introduction to Economy (5)
  • Sliding stock and real estate prices marked
    the end of the "bubble economy" of the late
    1980s, and ushered in a decade of stagnant
    economic growth. These problems may have
    been exacerbated by domestic policies
    intended to wring speculative excesses from
    the stock and real estate markets. Real GDP in
    Japan grew at an average of roughly 1.5
    yearly between 1991-1999, compared to growth
    in the 1980s of about 4 per year. Growth in
    Japan throughout the 1990s was slower than
    growth in other major industrial nations, and
    the same as France and Germany. Government
    efforts to revive economic growth have met
    with little success and were further hampered
    in 2000 to 2001 by the slowing of the global
    economy. However, GDP per worker has
    increased steadily even through the
    nineties, given that from 1993 to 2007, 10 of
    the population distribution moved from the
    "working age" to "elderly age."

10
Introduction to Economy (6)
  • Starting in 2003 Japan's economy began to grow
    strongly, growing at 2.0 per year in 2003 and
    2004, and 2.8 percent in 2005. Unlike previous
    recovery trends, domestic consumption has been
    the dominant factor in leading the growth. As
    predicted, the economic recovery continued in
    2006 and 2007. Former Prime Minister Shinzo Abe,
    who was working on Japan's economic revival,
    signed a treaty with Saudi Arabia and UAE about
    the rising prices of oil.

11
Introduction to Economy (7)
  • The Japanese economy began to see signs of
    trouble again in 2008. In January, Ota Hiroko,
    the Minister of State for Economic and Fiscal
    Policy, announced that Japan's economy can no
    longer be considered 1st class economy due to a
    number of facts including a decline in the
    countrys per capita gross domestic product,
    resulting in the fall of Japan's GDP per
    capita to 18th among the 30 member nations of
    the Organization for Economic Cooperation
    and Development (OECD) in 2006 and the reduction
    of Japans share of aggregate world income to
    below 10 for the first time in 24 years.

12
Economy 1 Agriculture
  • Only 15 of Japan's land is arable. The
    agricultural economy is highly subsidized and
    protected. With per hectare crop yields among the
    highest in the world, Japan maintains an overall
    agricultural self-sufficiency rate of about 40
    on fewer than 5.6 million cultivated hectares (14
    million acres). Japan normally produces a slight
    surplus of rice but imports large quantities of
    wheat, corn, sorghum, and soybeans, primarily
    from the United States. Japan is the largest
    market for U.S. agricultural exports.

13
Economy 2 Minerals
  • Deposits of gold, magnesium, and silver meet
    current industrial demands, but Japan is
    dependent on foreign sources for many of the
    minerals essential to modern industry. Iron ore,
    coke, copper, and bauxite must be imported, as
    must many forest products.

14
Economy 3 Industries(1)
  • Industries Manufacturing, construction,
    distribution, real estate, services, and
    communication are Japan's major industries today.
    Agriculture makes up only about 2 of the GNP.
    Most important agricultural product is rice.
    Resources of raw materials are very limited and
    the mining industry rather small.

15
Economy 3 Industries(2)
  • Japan's industrialized, free market economy is
    the second-largest in the world. Its economy is
    highly efficient and competitive in areas linked
    to international trade, but productivity is far
    lower in protected areas such as agriculture,
    distribution, and services. After achieving one
    of the highest economic growth rates in the world
    from the 1960s through the 1980s, the Japanese
    economy slowed dramatically in the early 1990s,
    when the "bubble economy" collapsed, marked by
    plummeting stock and real estate prices.

16
Economy 3 Industries(3)
  • Japan's reservoir of industrial leadership and
    technicians, well-educated and industrious work
    force, high savings and investment rates, and
    intensive promotion of industrial development and
    foreign trade produced a mature industrial
    economy. Japan has few natural resources, and
    trade helps it earn the foreign exchange needed
    to purchase raw materials for its economy.

17
Economy 4 Exports
  • The Japanese economy is one of the strongest in
    the world. Only the USA has a higher
    GNP. The Japanese currency is the Yen.
  • Exports Japan's main export goods are
    cars, electronic devices and computers. Most
    important single trade partner is the USA which
    imports more than one quarter of all
    Japanese exports. Other major export
    countries are Taiwan, Hong Kong, South Korea,
    China and Singapore.

18
Economy 5 Imports
  • Imports Japan has a large surplus in its
    export/import balance. The most important import
    goods are raw materials such as oil, foodstuffs,
    and wood. Major suppliers are the USA, China,
    Indonesia, South Korea, and Australia.

19
Giant consumer market (1)
  • Despite its struggles, the Japanese market is
    still the world's giant. The ratio of imports of
    raw materials and fuel, including mineral
    fuels such as crude oil and textile raw
    materials, to total value of imports was 26 in
    2001. Considering that raw materials and fuel
    accounted for 66 of total imports in 1960, this
    is a great drop. Conversely, the ratio of
    finished goods, such as machinery, equipment,
    and textile goods, has increased.

20
Giant consumer market(2)
  • The ratio of imports of finished goods to total
    imports exceeded 50 in 1989 because of increases
    in imports of machinery from European countries
    and the U.S., and of home electric appliances and
    textile goods from Asian countries. This ratio,
    lower than the 75-80 of Western countries, has
    led to criticism that Japan's market is closed.
    In fact, Japan's large imports of natural
    resources and agricultural products statistically
    lower the finished-product import ratio.

21
Value of Imports by Product (2001) 1
Product type Value of total
Foodstuffs 431.31 12.4
Fish and shellfish 133.61 3.8
Meat 83.81 2.4
(Beef) 22.97 0.7
Fruits and vegetables 61.55 1.8
Grains, processed grain products 46.82 1.3
Textile raw materials 8.29 0.2
Raw cotton 3.44 0.1
Wool 1.7 0.0
Metal ores and scrap metal 77.16 2.2
Iron ore 30.7 0.9
Copper ore 20.35 0.6
Other raw materials 126.26 3.6
Lumber 49.42 1.4
Pulp 13.2 0.4
  • (Units USD100 million, )

22
Value of Imports by Product (2001) 2
Mineral fuels 702.03 20.1
Crude oil 388.64 11.1
Liquefied natural gas 131.24 3.8
Coal 61.9 1.8
Petroleum products 74.51 2.1
Chemical products 256.38 7.3
Pharmaceuticals 50.33 1.4
Plastics 29.91 0.9
Metal products 149.52 4.3
Non-ferrous metals 84.22 2.4
Iron and steel 28.35 0.8
Machinery and equipment 1,088.64 31.2
Computers 223.96 6.4
Semiconductors, ICs 153.97 4.4
Automobiles 64.29 1.8
Communications equipment 43.7 1.3
Textile products 238.03 6.8
Clothes and accessories 190.92 5.5
Total 3,491.92 100
23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
Raw Material
  • The extent and nature of Japan's economic
    vulnerability to an interruption in the
    supply of imported raw materials.

26
Raw Materials 1
  • Deposits of gold, magnesium, and silver meet
    current industrial demands, but Japan is
    dependent on foreign sources for many of the
    minerals essential to modern industry. Iron ore,
    coke, copper, and bauxite must be imported, as
    must many forest product

27
Raw Materials 2
  • The Japanese steel industry depends entirely on
    imports for iron ore and coal, the main
    steelmaking raw materials.

28
Raw Materials 3
  • Iron ore imports in 2005 totaled 132.31 million
    tons, down 1.9, or 2.57 million tons, from the
    previous year. Among major suppliers, Australia
    shipped 81.29 million tons, down 4.9, accounting
    for 61.4 of all imports. Brazil supplied 27.68
    million tons, up 15.6, for a 20.9 share,
    followed by India, with 10.40 million tons, down
    14.3, for a 7.9 share.

29
Raw Materials 4
  • Coal imported in 2005 amounted to 62.79 million
    tons, down 3.5, or 2.27 million tons, from the
    previous year. Imports from Australia reached
    43.21 million tons, up 3.0, representing 68.8
    of all imports. Canada shipped 6.55 million tons,
    up 22.4, for a 10.4 share, China supplied 5.26
    million tons, down 30.8, for an 8.4 share, and
    Indonesia shipped 1.28 million tons, down 16.3,
    for a 2.0 share.

30
Raw Materials 5
  • Regarding ferrous scrap, Japan's exports have
    exceeded its imports since 1996, making the
    country a net exporter. Ferrous scrap exported
    from Japan in 2005 totaled 7.58 million tons,
    hitting a record high for the second straight
    year. Nearly all of this tonnage was supplied to
    three countries China, South Korea, and Taiwan.

31
Raw Materials 6
  • With steel demand growing in China and other BRIC
    markets, steel production is increasing
    worldwide, making raw materials supply and demand
    tight. In order to ensure stable supplies of
    steel products in this situation, Japanese
    steelmakers are striving to secure raw materials
    by taking such measures as concluding long-term
    quantity contracts and acquiring mining rights
    and interests.

32
Raw Materials 7
  • With supply and demand continuing tight, efforts
    were made to secure stable supplies of raw
    materials.

33
  • Japanese Gas Market

34
Why are Japanese so anxious about energy security?
  • 1 Japans energy consumption is enormous, due
    to its massive economy
  • 2 Japan is one of the worlds poorest countries
    in terms of natural resources.

35
What should be done to secure a stable energy
security?
36
Energy Security
  • Given its heavy dependence on imported energy,
    Japan has aimed to diversify its sources. Since
    the oil shocks of the 1970s, Japan has reduced
    dependence on petroleum as a source of energy
    from more than 75 in 1973 to about 57 at
    present. Other important energy sources are
    coal, liquefied natural gas, nuclear power, and
    hydropower. Demand for oil is also dampened by
    higher government taxes on automobile
    engines over 2000 cc, as well as on gasoline
    itself, currently 54 yen per liter sold retail.
    Kerosene is also used extensively for home
    heating in portable heaters, especially farther
    north. Many taxi companies run their fleets
    on liquefied gas with tanks in the car trunks. A
    recent success towards greater fuel economy was
    the introduction of mass-produced Hybrid
    vehicles.

37
The New Direction of Japanese Energy Policy
and the Role of Gasification
38
  • Energy Efficiency

39
What else do you think can be done to secure a
stable energy security?
About PowerShow.com