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Special Considerations in Athletic Training

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Title: Special Considerations in Athletic Training


1
Special Considerations in Athletic Training
  • Chapter 13

2
Environmental Conditions
  • There are 3 basic environmental conditions that
    impact athletic performance
  • Heat.
  • Cold.
  • Altitude.
  • To counter these conditions, an athletic trainer,
    coach, and athlete must prepare for these
    conditions.

3
Heat Related Conditions
  • Heat related conditions can adversely impact
    performance, adversely affect health, and even
    threaten life.

4
The Bodys Cooling Process
  • Your body cools itself by sweating. Cells will
    cook if too much heat is retained. Heat is
    carried away from body from evaporating sweat.
  • Cooling process can be altered by
  • Humidity is so high that sweat does not
    evaporate.
  • Thermoregulatory System of athlete is disrupted,
    causing sweat to cease.

5
Preventing Heat Related Problems
  • 1. Pre-hydration and re-hydration
  • -Heavy fluid intake before/during/after practice
    will ensure safety.
  • -Most of weight lost during athletics is fluid
    loss. Drink 2 cups of fluid for each pound lost
    during exercise.
  • -Thirst is not an accurate indicator of need for
    fluids.

6
Preventing Heat Related Problems cont
  • -Too much water at one time will give athlete an
    uncomfortable feeling. Several smaller doses are
    better than one large dose.
  • -During activity, it is best to give an athlete
    plain water.
  • -Electrolyte drinks are best before and after
    exercise rather than during due to slowed gastric
    emptying.

7
  • DO NOT DENY AN ATHLETE WATER OR REST AT ANY TIME

8
Preventing Heat Related Problems cont
  • 2. Acclimatization Process can take 1-2 weeks of
    working out in heat with gradually increased
    intensity.

9
Preventing Heat Related Problems cont
  • 3. Wear proper clothes
  • -Light, loose fitting clothing will allow air to
    move.
  • -Take off helmets during breaks.
  • -Do not work out in rubberized suits. The weight
    loss is due to water loss, not fat loss. This
    sets the stage for dehydration and heat illness.

10
Preventing Heat Related Problems cont
  • 4. Use weight charts
  • Athlete should regain their lost water weight
    before the next practice.
  • 5. Do not give salt tablets
  • Fluids are much more important than salt in
    avoiding heat problems.
  • 6. Be prepared to give first aid
  • Know signs of heat stroke and be prepared to
    provide first aid.

11
Heat Exhaustion
  • -Can be difficult to recognize.
  • -Symptoms less severe than heat stroke.
  • -Progressive weakness and incoordination.
  • -Skin usually moist and clammy, and may be pale
    or gray.

12
Heat Exhaustion cont
  • -Pulse may be weak and slightly more rapid than
    normal.
  • -Pupils may be dilated.
  • -Victim is usually conscious, but fainting may
    occur.
  • -Victim may be suffering from muscle cramps.

13
First Aid Procedure Heat Ex.
  • -Usually is not life threatening.
  • -Lie in cool place out of the sun.
  • -Drink as much cool water as possible.
  • -Remove excess clothing and rub athletes body
    with a cool, wet cloth.
  • -Stay out of the heat until seen by a physician.

14
Heat Stroke
  • The bodys acute inability to lose heat rapidly
  • -Caused by high body temperature, dehydration,
    and salt loss.
  • -Heat stroke is a medical emergency, and can be
    life threatening.

15
Signs and Symptoms
  • Victim may be dizzy, weak, mentally confused.
  • Victims skin may be extremely dry and will
    appear flushed. Pulse will be strong and rapid.
  • Victims temperature will be very high, skin will
    feel hot to the touch.
  • Rectally, temp will be above 105 degrees, and may
    range as high as 109 degrees.
  • Victim may become unconscious without warning.

16
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17
First Aid Procedure
  • -Make immediate arrangements to transport athlete
    to nearest medical facility.
  • -Remove all clothes and pads and place athlete in
    coolest available place.
  • -Cool athletes body by any means necessary cold
    water, ice packs, chemical cooling packs, ice
    rubbed vigorously over body, etc.
  • -If conscious, give cold drinks to aid in heat
    loss.

18
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19
Cold Related Conditions
  • Fluid Replacement Air inside heated buildings
    and outdoors is almost always drier during the
    winter than summer. Must be warmed and
    moisturized before it can be absorbed by the
    lungs. This process causes the body to use
    fluids and energy at a very rapid rate.

20
Cold Related Conditions cont
  • Frostbite Most susceptible areas are the
    fingers, toes, ears and exposed parts of the
    face.
  • Warning Signs tingling or burning sensation,
    pain, numbness, and discoloration of the skin
    (yellow-white waxy appearance).
  • -Keep cold and dampness away from the skin,
    wiggle toes and fingers, making faces to work
    muscles in face (increases blood flow).

21
Cold Related Conditions cont
  • Hypothermia Excess heat loss.
  • -Constant shivering, slurring of speech,
    involuntary muscle movement, sleepiness, etc.
  • -Pupils abnormally dilated, freezing of hands
    and/or feet.
  • -Heartbeat and respiration can fall very quickly
    if body core is not warmed.
  • -Take person to a warm area, remove wet/cold
    clothes, gradually warm body in warm, dry
    blanket.
  • -Notify emergency personnel.

22
Frostbite
23
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24
Altitude
  • -Higher altitudes have less oxygen concentration
    which makes it more difficult for the athlete to
    supply the required oxygen to body/muscles/etc.
  • -Athletes should train at the higher elevations
    for a period of time to allow their body to
    adjust.

25
Nutrition and Eating Disorders
  • -What, and when an athlete eats can affect
    performance.
  • -When there is food in the stomach, more blood is
    required for digestion, and that during physical
    activity, more blood is needed by the moving
    muscles.
  • -Can cause stomach cramping, digestive upsets,
    and overall muscle weakness.

26
Nutrition and Eating Disorders cont
  • Some athletes can eat before competition and some
    cannot.
  • Normal gastric emptying (from the stomach into
    the small intestine) can take from one to four
    hours, depending on the composition of the meal.
  • High carbohydrate and liquid meals will pass
    through the digestive system more quickly than
    meals high in fats and solids.

27
Nutrition and Eating Disorders cont
  • Another factor in digestion rate is how well food
    is chewed.
  • Stomach has to work harder on food that is not
    adequately chewed, and it holds it for a longer
    time, causing a feeling of fullness or bloating.
  • Small portions of food that are not spicy or
    bulky and that are easily digested are best
    before athletics.

28
Pre-activity Food Exclusions
  • Fatty foods digested slowly.
  • Gas forming foods.
  • Salt tablets.
  • Special magic foods.
  • Nutritional supplements are useless, costly, and
    potentially dangerous.
  • Alcohol, caffeine.

29
  • The total diet consumed during the days before
    the event is far more important than the meal
    eaten immediately prior to strenuous exercise.

30
Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • A person refuses to eat or not eating enough to
    maintain normal body functions.
  • Commonly seen in sports that have a high body
    image profile (cheerleading, gymnastics, cross
    country, wrestling, figure skating, and other
    sports that have weight classes).

31
Eating Disorders cont
  • Bulimia
  • Overeating (binge) and then vomiting (purge).
  • Athlete will consume large quantities of food and
    immediately vomit the food.
  • Routine by the athlete is an attempt to gain
    essential energy requirements, but not the weight
    associated with the food.
  • Psychological problem is best handled by a
    person qualified in psychological disorders.
  • Serious health concern.

32
Food and Vitamin Supplements
  • There are no super foods or wonder diets.
  • Megadoses of vitamin supplements taken
    inappropriately can also lead to nutritional
    imbalances and can endanger the athletes health.
  • A balanced diet is the best way to give the body
    pep and energy.

33
Skin Conditions
  • The establishment of appropriate protocol for the
    handling of all skin conditions will make your
    job easier and the care given to your athletes
    more complete.
  • A trainer must utilize latex gloves and follow
    the set of universal precautions in order to
    safeguard yourself.

34
Skin Conditions cont
  • Herpes Simplex
  • Common problem in sports, particularly among
    wrestlers.
  • This virus which can enter the body through
    breaks in the skin, can produce painful lesions
    anywhere on the body.
  • Most often lesions are cold sores on the lips.
  • Person afflicted will continue to be a carrier of
    the virus and be susceptible to future attacks.

35
Herpes
36
Fungus Infections
  • Athletes Foot (Tinea Pedis)
  • Prevention
  • Powder feet daily.
  • Dry feet thoroughly after shower (around toes).
  • Keep shoes dry by dusting them with powder daily,
    or use newspapers.
  • Wear clean socks daily.
  • Shower and dressing room should be cleaned and
    disinfected daily.
  • Athletes should use shower shoes (flip flops).

37
Athletes Foot cont
  • Basic Care
  • Keep feet dry through the frequent use of foot
    powder.
  • Wear clean socks to avoid re-infection, changing
    them daily.
  • Use a standard fungicide athletes foot cream or
    powder medication.

38
Athletes Foot cont
39
Fungus Infections cont
  • Jock Itch
  • Appears as a brownish or reddish lesion in the
    groin area.
  • Mild to moderate itching, resulting in scratching
    and the possibility of secondary bacterial
    infection.
  • Contagious spores may be spread by direct
    contact, contaminated clothing, or unsanitary
    locker rooms and showers.
  • Grows best in warm, moist, dark areas.

40
Jock Itch cont
  • Should not go untreated.
  • Powders, sprays, and creams will cure jock itch.
  • Keep area clean and dry and use lubricating
    ointment to lesson friction in the groin to
    prevent jock itch.

41
Drugs and Athletics
  • Alcohol
  • The most commonly abused drug at all levels.
  • Consumption results in deteriorations of
    psychomotor skills of reaction time, hand-eye
    coordination, accuracy, balance, and complex
    coordination.

42
Drugs and Athletics cont
  • Impairs body temperature regulations.
  • Decreases strength, power, local muscular
    endurance, speed, and cardiovascular endurance.
  • Acts as a diuretic and dehydrates the athlete.

43
Drugs and Athletics cont
  • Marijuana
  • 2nd most commonly abused substance by young
    athletes.
  • Can cause an inhibition of the sweating mechanism
    in hot environments.
  • Major impairment of coordination as measured by
    hand steadiness, body sway, and accuracy of
    execution of movement.

44
Drugs and Athletics cont
  • Impairment of tracking performance, perceptual
    tasks, and alertness/awareness.
  • Slowed reaction time to visual and auditory
    stimuli.
  • Altered perception of speed, time, and space.
  • Short-term and long-term memory loss.
  • Prolonged learning time.

45
Drugs and Athletics cont
  • Anabolic Steroids
  • Synthetic derivatives of the male hormone
    testosterone.
  • Taken to increase strength and muscle size.

46
Steroids
  • Harmful side effects include
  • Liver damage (including liver cancer).
  • Impaired kidney function.
  • Enlargement of prostrate gland.
  • Decrease levels of natural testosterone.
  • Shrinking testicles resulting in sterility.
  • Growth of breast tissue.
  • Weight gain caused by fluid retention which often
    leads to high blood pressure.
  • Extreme acne.
  • Possible death.
  • Increased libido.
  • Elevated levels of anger and aggression.

47
Steroids cont
  • In woman, steroids can produce
  • Deepened voice.
  • Growth of facial and chest hair.
  • Liver damage
  • Clitoral enlargement
  • Menstrual irregularities
  • Impairment of reproductive capacity.
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