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Linking Fate:Addressing Racialized Structures to Promote Fairness to Everyone

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Title: Linking Fate:Addressing Racialized Structures to Promote Fairness to Everyone


1
Linking Fate Addressing Racialized Structures
to Promote Fairness to Everyone
john powell Executive Director, The Kirwan
Institute for the Study of Race and
Ethnicity Williams Chair in Civil Rights Civil
Liberties, Moritz College of Law The Ohio State
University Delivered at the Common Ground
Conference building coalitions against racism
and privilege in greater Milwaukee January 27,
2006 (Milwaukee, WI)
2
The Challenge
  • What problems are we trying to address in our
    communities, regions and society?
  • Two related problems
  • Extreme racial segregation and extensive racial
    disparity
  • Declining opportunities for everyone, declining
    regions, stagnation and decline of the middle
    class
  • These problems reinforce each other

3
Todays Presentation
  • A New Paradigm Using Race as a Transformative
    Bridge
  • Structural Racism The Silent Opportunity Killer
  • Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
    Coalition-Building
  • Concluding Thoughts

4
A New Paradigm Using Race as a Transformative
Bridge
5
Race and Poverty are Inextricably Linked
  • What is the link between race and poverty?
  • Racialized structures and policies have created
    the extreme correlation of race and poverty in
    our urban areas
  • Racialized structures and policies have created
    the extreme correlation of race and poverty in
    our urban areas
  • People then assume that only those harmed or
    isolated are people of color
  • Why should others (even the elite) care?
  • In reality, these effects are far reaching and
    impact everyone (shared fate)
  • Also harming Whites living in opportunity poor
    communities
  • Causing regional distress, harming everyone in
    the region, even the elite

6
African American-White Racial Inequity
  • Research conducted by the Kirwan Institute has
    analyzed the extent of racial disparity (based on
    25 socio-economic indicators) in the 21 largest
    regions in the nation
  • Milwaukee indicates a high degree of racial
    disparity
  • Milwaukee has the highest level of racial
    disparity of all 21 regions

7
More on Disparities
  • Disparities are important, but not a sufficient
    lens to understand the problems we face
  • Disparities can be a divisive frame to address
    these issues
  • What is your point of reference?
  • Disparities do not address the decline in
    regional health and the economic insecurity that
    impacts everyone
  • We need to not only address disparities but grow
    opportunities for everyone
  • We need to not just set goals of racial parity
    with Whites but improve conditions for everyone
  • You can have less racial disparity if everyone is
    doing poor (The Great Depression)

8
Milwaukee Regional Distress
  • Racial disparity in Milwaukee must be understood
    in the context of the overall regional distress
    impacting the region
  • Between 2000 and 2004 the Milwaukee region lost
    10,000 jobs
  • Since 2000, the Milwaukee region was the 16th
    slowest growing metropolitan region in the
    nation, with a regional population growth of 0.9
  • Whites are also being impacted by the overall
    decline of the region
  • Out of the 21 largest Midwestern regions, Whites
    in Milwaukee recorded the 3rd lowest improvement
    in socioeconomic health in the 1990s

9
Racial/Regional Inequities Impact Everyone
  • How do racial and social inequities impact
    overall regional health?
  • Racial and regional inequities impact the health
    of the entire region, and impact everyone in the
    region
  • The segregation tax (excessive housing costs)
    paid by Whites to distance themselves from low
    opportunity communities
  • The region loses its competitive edge in the
    global economy
  • Inequitable schools that produce an unprepared
    (undereducated) labor force
  • Interregional economic competition that erodes
    the regions collective economic voice and power
  • Fragmented and redundant governments, underused
    and redundant infrastructure in suburban areas
  • An undercapitalized central city with declining
    infrastructure and resources

10
A Failure to Invest in Ourselves
  • Both at the federal, regional and local level,
    inequities represent a failure to be good social
    citizens
  • A failure to invest in the social capital of our
    citizens so that they can grow to be contributing
    members of our society
  • This parallels failure to invest in our
    neighborhoods and communities
  • You can not expect returns without a willingness
    to invest capital

11
A New Paradigm
  • Through collective imagination, we need to define
    what the future should look like
  • A New Paradigm!
  • Explicitly stated goals and principals provide a
    common framework through which to pursue justice

12
A New Paradigm
  • What is our alternative vision?
  • A model where we all grow together
  • A model where we embrace collective solutions
  • Where race is experienced and addressed in a
    different way
  • No longer using race to divide and distract from
    class struggle
  • Using race to transform our society in a way that
    lifts up all people

13
Structural Racism The Silent Opportunity Killer
14
Structural Racism (SR)
  • What is structural racism?
  • Structural racism is the blind interaction
    between institutions, policies and practices
    which inevitably perpetuates barriers to
    opportunities and racial disparities.
  • Public and private institutions each build walls
  • One wall is joined by another until they
    construct a maze
  • The maze walls off whole communities of color
    from opportunities

Structural racism is the silent opportunity
killer.
Source http//www.centerforsocialinclusion.org/st
ruct_racism.html
15
Understanding Structural Racism
  • SR Focuses on
  • Racialized outcomes instead of racist individuals
  • Interactivity among institutions (regardless of
    intent)
  • De facto disadvantage as a result of the
    historical legacy of racialization

16
Considerations for an SR Response
  • In order to respond to the network of power
    shaping SR, the interconnecting relational web
    within which individuals live and act must be
    investigated and articulated.
  • Multiple levels of leadership that cut across
    fields and borders must be identified and
    mobilized.
  • We must consider the larger relationship between
    opportunity structures and institutional
    inequities.

17
Example of Interconnections Opportunity
Structures and Housing
18
Opportunity Structures
  • Individuals exist within this interconnecting
    relational web of opportunity structures
  • Opportunity structures are the resources and
    services that contribute to stability,
    advancement and quality of life
  • Opportunities are distributed geographically-
    inner city residents are walled off from
    opportunities
  • Thus, where you live is as important as what you
    live in!

19
Mapping Opportunity in Milwaukee
  • The Milwaukee region has one of the most
    fragmented local government structures.
  • Over 20 local government units operate in
    Milwaukee County alone.
  • Milwaukee is also one of the most segregated
    places in the nation. (82 of Milwaukees African
    American residents would need to relocate to
    fully integrate the region.)
  • Milwaukees segregated inner city neighborhoods
    are economically depressed.
  • Median household income for Milwaukees central
    city neighborhood were 60 of the regional median
    household income in 2000.

20
The Dynamics of Opportunity in Milwaukee
  • Where are opportunity rich and opportunity poor
    neighborhoods located in Milwaukee?
  • Low opportunity communities are clustered in the
    inner city, high opportunity areas are found in
    the suburbs.
  • This conclusion is based on an analysis of
    multiple indicators of neighborhood opportunity
    including
  • Poverty rates, vacancy rates, population change,
    unemployment rates, and home values.

21
The Dynamics of Opportunity in the Milwaukee
Region (Light Colors Lowest Opportunity
Neighborhoods Dark Colors Highest Opportunity
Neighborhoods)
22
The Dynamics of Opportunity in Milwaukee
  • Who is living in low opportunity communities in
    Milwaukee?
  • Low opportunity neighborhoods are
    disproportionately made up of people of color.
  • African American and Latino
  • Nevertheless, isolation in low opportunity
    communities also impacts many Whites.
  • In absolute terms, significant number of Whites
    are found in low opportunity communities.

23
The Dynamics of Opportunity in Milwaukee
Neighborhood Characteristics by Racial Group and
Opportunity Level
Neighborhood Characteristics by Racial Group
Averages and Opportunity Level
24
The Dynamics of Opportunity in Milwaukee
  • Who is living in low opportunity communities in
    Milwaukee?
  • Nearly 85 of the Milwaukee regions African
    Americans live in low and very low
    opportunity neighborhoods.
  • While, 2/3s of the regions Latinos can be found
    in these communities.
  • Approximately 200,000 Whites are found in low
    and very low opportunity communities.
  • 225,000 African Americans and 70,000 Latinos live
    in these communities as well.

25
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
26
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Milwaukee has a long history of attempts at
    regional cooperation.
  • With the right coalitions, with innovative
    solutions to persistent problems, and the right
    strategies for educating and engaging the public,
    regional efforts are succeeding and old political
    divisions are being bridged.

27
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • The KEY to a successful regional advocacy can be
    found within prior circumstances of failure
  • No single constituency is powerful enough to move
    both public institutions and the public to
    support their agenda (i.e., the need for a
    democratic humility).
  • HENCE, the need to link the economic and
    political experiences of multiple constituencies
    (i.e., disjointed constituencies, savvy business
    leaders, enterprising politicians) throughout the
    region, in order to encourage democratic
    participation at a regional level without
    abandoning the U.S. history of local control.

28
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • As of 2000, of the 326 largest metropolitan
    areas, Milwaukee is ranked 307 in having the
    greatest disparity between the central city and
    its suburbs.
  • Even if suburbs are thriving, city-suburb
    disparity will over time damage the region as a
    whole.
  • Fragmentation decentralization hurts the entire
    region, including whites.
  • The greater disparity, the less competitive that
    region is, and the greater the impact on the
    regions economic health.

Source Mumford State of the Cities, available
online at http//mumford1.dyndns.org/cen2000/City
Profiles/Profiles/5080msaProfile.htm
29
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • The Milwaukee region must compete with socially
    healthier (more equitable) regions for investment
    in todays economy.
  • The region can not depend on the old industries
    of the past to sustain economic health.
  • Regionalism is a strategy to make the region more
    competitive in the new global market place.

30
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
Suburb Does Not Necessarily Equate to High
Opportunity
  • African Americans and Latinos who reside in the
    suburbs are much more likely than suburban whites
    to live in fiscally stressed jurisdictions with
    below average public resources and greater than
    average public service needs.
  • As of 2002, essentially half of the poor
    residents of U.S. metro regions lived in the
    suburbs.

Source Myron Orfield and Thomas Luce, Minority
Suburbanization and Racial Change Stable
Integration, Neighborhood Transition, and the
Need for Regional Approaches. Report of
Institution on Race and Poverty (presentation at
the Race and Regionalism Conference in
Minneapolis, May 6-7, 2005.)
31
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • How does fragmentation and regional inequity
    impact economic health?
  • Segregation drives education disparities,
    depressing the educational ability of a large
    portion of the region.
  • Segregation keeps much of the African American
    labor force isolated from economic opportunity,
    creating workforce shortages for employers.
  • Fragmentation creates redundancy in government
    services and creates inter-regional economic
    competition, when the region should be competing
    globally.

32
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Example of Regional Affordable Housing Strategy
  • Chicago Metropolis 2020
  • In the Chicago region a collaborative
    organization with strong representation of the
    business community have worked together to
    promote regional affordable housing.
  • Economic leaders in the Chicago region see a lack
    of affordable housing as a critical impediment to
    regional economic health.
  • Over 100 of the regions largest employers have
    signed a pledge to factor affordable housing
    supply and regional transit into new investments
    and business expansions in the region.
  • The group also works to lobby for statewide
    initiatives to promote affordable housing in job
    rich communities.

33
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Opportunities and Successes in Pursuit of
    Regional Equity
  • Transportation
  • The Metropolitan Organizing Strategy Enabling
    Strength (MOSES) filed a lawsuit arguing that
    policies and fiscal arrangements support
    individuals with cars (often white and wealthy
    suburbanites) while discriminating against the
    poor, minority, and disabled people who rely on
    the regions inadequate public transit systems.

34
Concluding Thoughts
35
IDEAS FOR AN AGENDA FOR MILWAUKEE
  • More Functional and Fair Labor Market
    Administration
  • Regional Reinvestment in the Central Cities and
    Older Suburbs
  • Land Use Planning and Growth Management
  • Changed Terms of Economic Development Assistance
  • Fair Housing
  • Transportation Reform
  • Watershed Protection
  • Public Works
  • Equity in the Provision of Local Public Services

Source Milwaukee Metropatterns Sprawl and
Social Separation in Metro Milwaukee, A Report of
the Center on Wisconsin Strategy and the
Metropolitan Area Research Corporation, August
2000. Available at http//www.ameregis.com/project
s/region_maps.asp
36
We are all caught up in an inescapable network
of mutuality, tied in a single garment of
destiny. Whatever effects one directly effects
all indirectly. -The Rev. Dr. Martin Luther
King, Jr.
37
ACTION Coalition-building
  • Hence, we need to build coalitions at the
    grass-root level where the communities are.
  • We need to differentiate between electoral and
    goal oriented coalitions.
  • In general, successful and lasting multiethnic
    and multiracial coalitions require,
  • an engaged leadership and followers
  • opened lines of communication (i.e., transparency
    and accountability)
  • opened ended interaction (i.e., long-term
    thinking and possibilities of building trust)

38
ACTION Coalition-building
  • To pursue regional solutions, it is critical that
    racially diverse, regional coalitions are formed.
  • Regional solutions have been most successful
    stable when coalitions comprised of multiple
    entities are formed
  • Oregon (Coalition for a Livable Future-60
    organizations)
  • Chicago (MAC, Metropolis 2020)
  • For coalition building, consider groups such as
    community based organizations, social justice
    groups, local governments, the business
    community, CDCs, philanthropic institutions and
    large urban institutions (e.g. Universities).

39
ACTION Coalition-building
  • Identify possible Turning Points or critical
    interventions in undercapitalized areas.
  • Instead of focusing on the tipping point, we need
    to better define what neighborhoods require to
    reach the turning point.
  • What convergence of positive actions will
    accelerate the neighborhoods revitalization?
  • Pushing development beyond the turning point
    threshold requires an intervention strategy to
    positively transform the neighborhoods physical,
    social, economic, and political environment.
  • Keep eyes on the prize!

40
ACTION Coalition-building
  • We need transformative thinking to actualize this
    new paradigm.
  • Materially and Culturally dialectic, discursive,
    relational.
  • We can make progress toward realizing a new
    paradigm but we need to work together and
    question what we have/are today in order to be
    able to achieve that craved EQUAL HUMANITY, in a
    Socratic sense.

41
For More Information Visit Us On-Line www.KirwanI
nstitute.org
42
  • APPENDIX

43
Additional Mapping of Milwaukee
44
Milwaukee Regions Racial Demographics
45
Milwaukee Regions Racial Demographics
46
Milwaukee Regions Racial Demographics
47
Milwaukee Regions Racial Demographics
48
Population Change Blacks
49
Population Change Whites
50
Population Change Latin_at_s
51
Population Change Asians
52
Median Household Income (1999)
53
Housing Units Percentage Change
54
Median Age of Housing Units
55
Low-Income Tax Credit Housing Projects
56
All Subsidized Housing
57
Percentage Change in Employment
58
Additional Information on New Paradigm
Re-thinking Racism and Privilege
59
Durable Group Inequalities
  • Inequality matters durable group inequalities
    matter more. Why?
  • When disparities are durable and cumulatively
    visited on certain groups, this bring into
    question the fairness of larger structures and
    arrangements.
  • Durable racial inequalities are a sign and
    symptom of exclusionary whiteness white space.

60
Remedying Racial Inequalities
  • Most racial justice pursuits focus on non-whites
    and seek to achieve equity and equality.
  • This is based on the assumption that something is
    wrong with numbers (distributive problem) not the
    nature of arrangements.
  • Inclusion as a goal is therefore problematic
    because if Group A has something Group B does
    not, the pursuit of equity/equality normalizes
    Group A and
  • At best, the normalized group gets nothing
  • At worst, something is taken away from Group A
    (zero-sum game)

61
Boundaries
  • Whiteness is comprised of and functions through
    boundaries
  • Social, psychological, spatial
  • Who sets them?
  • How are they drawn?
  • Do they even exist?
  • Who belongs in or out?
  • What work do they do?

62
Racial Boundaries
  • Boundaries of racial space
  • Regulate status and behavior
  • Create sort racial identities in racialized
    space
  • Constitute being and non-being
  • Distribute benefits and burdens
  • Ascribe membership or lack of membership in the
    imagined space of the society
  • Requires those inside to need protection, those
    outside containment (i.e. policing the space)
  • These boundaries are normalized so that those who
    are in the white space see it as natural, and
    perceive those who are not, as lacking something
    (e.g. laziness).

63
Exclusionary Space Internal
  • The internal boundaries of whiteness are so
    internalized, that rarely (if ever) do we cross
    that boundary, even in our dreams.
  • Whiteness is vacant, but it is not meaningless.

64
Boundaries
  • Why should we be concerned about the boundaries
    of whiteness?
  • Those inside are defined in opposition to those
    outside the boundaries.
  • Those inside shape the structure operation of
    society.
  • Thus, ALL are limited and harmed (not just those
    outside) by the narrow construction of identity
    and society.
  • The space itself is toxic. It embodies organized
    fear, exclusion, domination, and individualism.

65
Exclusionary Space
  • How do we know whiteness is not a natural
    phenomenon caused by the innate human nature to
    categorize and classify along lines of
    difference?
  • If it were natural, it would not need to be
    heavily policed.
  • It is not inherently about the categories, but
    about the meaning and hierarchical functioning of
    those categories.
  • Whiteness has social, not inherent or biological
    meaning!
  • We know when we cross a boundary.

66
Constructing an Alternative
  • Why is rethinking and re-imagining society so
    difficult?
  • A particular sense of self and whiteness emerged
    at the same time.
  • Hence, abandoning whiteness can be conceived of
    as ontological death.

67
New Paradigm
  • How do we envision a new paradigm? (Why is it
    important?)
  • Our society cannot be de-racialized solely by
    material redistribution (e.g., redistribution of
    wealth), nor by only achieving numerical
    diversity in our institutions (e.g., affirmative
    action).
  • We must engage in deliberate collective action to
    address the presence and construction of
    boundaries of exclusion.
  • Collectively Reshaping a New Paradigm!

68
New Paradigm
  • We need transformative thinking to actualize this
    new paradigm.
  • Materially and Culturally dialectic, discursive,
    relational.
  • Our efforts in the past have been transactional,
    we are making small changes- incremental gains
    within existing arrangements.

69
Protesting Boundaries
  • We need to challenge the arrangements themselves,
    instead of who belongs inside or outside of them.
  • Example Women fought to earn a place in the
    workplace
  • The workplace was arranged with the assumption
    that a parent would stay home with children, and
    thus is not structured optimally to allow for
    both parents working.
  • Women were granted a place, but not a voice to
    reshape the institutions.
  • Thus, the structure and boundaries remained, to
    the detriment of both men and women.
  • In contrast, in Scandinavian countries
    institutions support and facilitate two working
    parents through such arrangements as on the job
    childcare.

70
SR Frameworks Contributions
  • Put in a different manner
  • Giving them fish
  • Exclusion, but with charity.
  • Letting them fish
  • De jure inclusion, BUT the magical assumption of
    equal opportunities.
  • Teaching them to fish
  • Amending past exclusion, questioning the magical
    assumption of equal opportunities, BUT still
    assuming that the arrangements are fine and there
    is something wrong/missing with them.

71
SR Frameworks Contributions
  • Proposed Extensions of the latter by an SR
    approach,
  • Making sure that the teaching to fish is
    working
  • Monitoring outcomes judging teaching coherence
    AND its capability-enhancing characteristics.
  • Learning to fish together
  • This action of monitoring, while inclusive, must
    also be a TWO-WAY STREET because as Seneca stated
    The process is a mutual one. People learn as
    they teach. Hence, questioning the arrangements
    TOGETHER.

72
Additional Information on Solutions and
Hope Regionalism and Coalition-Building
73
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Sprawl Segregation from Opportunity
  • Good jobs, stable housing, and educational
    opportunities are pushed into suburbs, and then
    exurbs.
  • This locks the central city and inner-ring
    suburbs out of access to meaningful opportunities.

74
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Why is the region important?
  • The spatial orientation of todays economy,
    housing market, infrastructure, and labor market
    are no longer locally focused.
  • Local initiatives are not enough
  • Local conditions are under the influence of
    regional forces outside of local control.
  • Regional structures and market conditions impact
    neighborhoods and require new approaches.
  • Resources are allocated on a jurisdictional
    (local) level.
  • Opportunities are allocated on a regional level.
  • Traditional decision-making is on the local
    level.
  • Rational (local) Decisions Unreasonable
    (regional, jurisdictional) Structures
    Unreasonable Results/Racial Hierarchies

75
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Regionalism must be equity-based.
  • Regionalism itself is neutral. It can produce
    equitable or inequitable outcomes depending on
    the focus.
  • Regionalism without equity could successfully
    meet goals such as financial efficiency and
    growth management without addressing disparities.
  • Infrastructure-focused regionalism could further
    disenfranchise people of color by benefiting
    suburban communities without modifying the
    residential/educational segregation in the
    region, harming the central city.

76
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Equity based regionalism looks at the spatial
    arrangement of resources and opportunity.
  • Equity based regionalism is focused on key
    opportunity structures.
  • Opportunity structures are the resources and
    services that contribute to stability,
    advancement and quality of life.
  • Fair access to these opportunity structures is
    limited by spatial arrangements and regional
    dynamics including
  • segregation, concentration of poverty,
    fragmentation, and sprawl

77
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • The only Midwestern regions with relatively low
    levels of disparity are Indianapolis and
    Columbus.
  • Both regions have more regionalized government
    structures (Indianapolis through consolidation,
    Columbus through proactive annexation).
  • Research by David Rusk, David Miller and others
    supports this theme, finding that less fragmented
    regions as having more racial equity than their
    fragmented peers.
  • Researchers feel that fragmentation (and
    corresponding exclusionary policies) produce
    greater levels of segregation and greater
    exclusion from opportunity for people of color,
    ultimately leading to greater inequity.

78
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Equity-based regionalism can also positively
    impact a regions economic health.
  • Research suggests that regions who utilize
    regional policies are economically (and socially)
    healthier.
  • Conversely, regions that are the most fragmented
    are more economically depressed. Why?
  • No unified strategy for economic development
    (infighting over jobs and new businesses).
  • A less qualified and educated work force due to
    educational disparities in the region.
  • An entry level and low skill work force that is
    spatially isolated from suburban job
    opportunities.
  • More likely to exhibit sprawling growth that
    wastes public resources on new roads, sewers,
    schools in undeveloped areas, while existing
    resources are left to deteriorate.

79
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • The suburbs are changing.
  • Traditionally urban issues are now impacting our
    older suburbs and these communities have fewer
    resources to deal with them.
  • Need for a unified approach to address these
    issues.
  • Smaller suburbs do not have the resources to
    address these regional trends.

80
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • The challenge for regional equity is to connect
    low income populations and people of color to
    these opportunity structures.
  • This requires cooperation between the central
    city, suburbs and exurbs, and an equity-based
    regionalism approach.
  • Opportunity does not lie solely in the suburbs,
    it is a moving target. Thus, separate and
    isolated efforts to move individuals to
    opportunity are not enough.

81
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Regionalism is not an attempt to take
    opportunity from Whites, but a way to better
    connect people of color to the opportunities they
    have been denied in the past.
  • The ultimate goal of regionalism is to lift an
    entire region and ALL of its residents.
  • Also, concerns by African Americans of power
    dilution are real and potentially an issue, but
    these can be mitigated with proper policies that
    focus on regional structures to connect people to
    opportunity.

82
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Often regions rush to regional governmental/struct
    ural solutions (such as consolidation) without
    exploring other cooperative intergovernmental
    strategies.
  • There may be significant resistance of
    communities of color to adopting this approach.
    Why?
  • Communities of color and low-income communities
    can be further marginalized through power
    dilution from government consolidation and
    mergers.
  • Regionalism may not explicitly target the issues
    impacting racial equity (such as housing,
    education and tax base).

83
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Minority representation dilution
  • In most regions, consolidation reforms have
    resulted in a reduction in the concentration of
    African American voters (and in some cases
    elected political representation).
  • Indianapolis Unigov
  • Schools originally not addressed in
    consolidation, fragmented tax districts also
    maintained and created political
    disenfranchisement of African American community.
  • Louisville Consolidation
  • Recent research has found suburban political
    interests (and development) dominate the
    political agenda at the expense of African
    American central city neighborhoods.

84
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Can Regionalism Exist Without Regional
    Government or Consolidation? Yes!
  • Intergovernmental arrangements can address
    fragmentation and inequity without resulting in
    power dilution for communities of color.
  • Example Pre-consolidation Louisville
  • Prior to the consolidation in Louisville, the
    city and county developed an agreement to share
    occupational tax revenues and jointly manage land
    use planning and development.
  • During this time period, investment increased
    significantly in Louisville and indicators of
    disparity were improved.
  • Example Minneapolis-St. Paul
  • The twin cities region remains highly fragmented
    (the 2nd most fragmented region per capita
    nationally) but equity has been improved through
    regionalized tax base sharing.
  • Additional initiatives to equalize school funding
    have also improved equity.

85
Solutions and Hope Regionalism and
Coalition-Building
  • Examples of potential equity based regional
    policies
  • Regional school strategies to address segregation
    and concentrated school poverty.
  • Regional affordable housing strategies
  • Regional transportation/mobility strategies
  • Strategies to curb sprawl and reinvest in
    existing neighborhoods (with infrastructure and
    other resources).
  • Strategies to make decisions regionally and to
    share resources (taxes).

86
Some relevant Quotes
87
  • …metropolitan solutions demand both an inside
    game (e.g., enterprise zones) and a strong
    outside game (e.g., regional land use planning
    to reduce sprawl, regional fair-housing to avoid
    concentrated poverty, and regional revenue
    sharing to reduce fiscal disparities).
  • - David Rusk
  • excerpted from Inside Game, Outside Game
    Winning Strategies for Saving Urban America

88
  • Indeed, the process may be the goal talking
    together leads to working together, and this can
    lead to growing together, partly because the
    resulting personal and institutional ties put
    everyone rich and poor, city and suburb on
    the same map.
  • - Manuel Pastor Jr., Peter Dreier, J. Eugene
    Grigsby III, and Marta López-Garza
  • excerpted from Regions That Work How Cities
    and Suburbs Can Grow Together

89
  • I am not truly free if I am taking someone
    elses freedom, just as surely as I am not free
    when my freedom is taken from me. The oppressed
    and the oppressor alike are robbed of their
    humanity.
  • - Nobel Laureate Nelson Mandela

90
  • The idea of linked fate in a democracy connects
    the two dimensions of our project. In our mind,
    the fate of our democracy as a whole is linked to
    the fate of blacks, Latinos and poor people of
    all colors. Our new paradigm highlights and
    builds on those linkages. In addition, scholars
    and intellectuals must link their work as well as
    their fate to help assemble the problem solving
    capacity necessary to address the magnitude of
    our societys problems. In order to confront a
    landscape that is more complex, more elusive and
    often more intractable than the easy to spot Jim
    Crow segregation patterns of the 20th century, we
    need to move from representing race as a matter
    of color to representing race as a challenge of
    democracy.
  • - Lani Guinier, john a. powell, and Claude Steele
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