Texas Oral Rabies Vaccination Program 1995 to Present - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Texas Oral Rabies Vaccination Program 1995 to Present

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Texas Oral Rabies Vaccination Program 1995 to Present – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Texas Oral Rabies Vaccination Program 1995 to Present


1
Texas Oral Rabies Vaccination Program 1995 to
Present
A cooperative effort
2
Texas Oral Rabies Vaccination Program1995 to
Present
Tom J. Sidwa, D.V.M. State Public Health
Veterinarian Manager, Zoonosis Control Branch
3
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program(ORVP)
  • Two rabies epizootics broke out in Texas in 1988
  • Two human deaths in South Texas
  • Affected primarily dogs and coyotes in South
    Texas
  • Affected primarily gray fox in West Central Texas

4
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program
  • Normal rabies control measures were not working
  • Initiated ORVP in South Texas in 1995
  • First in the United States to attempt this rabies
    management strategy (patterned after Canadian
    ORV)
  • Initiated ORVP in West Central Texas in 1996

5
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program1995-2002
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
6
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program2003-2008
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
7
Technology changes/ bait density changes
  • Year Coyote Sq Mi Fox Sq Mi Coyote Rate Fox
    Rate
  • 1995 15,000 0 50, 60, 70,
    100 0
  • 21,000 20,000 70
    70
  • 23,000 18,000 70
    70
  • 24,000 17,000 70 70
  • 15,000 18,000 70 100
  • 15,000 10,000 70 100
  • 13,600 12,500 70 100
  • 12,000 21,300 70 100
  • 12,000 19,000 70 100
  • 13,000 21,700 70 100
  • 13,000 18,000 70 100
  • 13,000 22,400 70
    100
  • 11,800 21,200 64,70,100 100,200
  • 7,700 33,700 64 91
  • 7,700 31,700 64 91

8
New Bait Density Results 2008 vaccination
campaign
  • At 91 baits per square mile
  • 132 gray fox surveillance specimens 76
    seroconversion
  • 3 bobcat 0 seroconversion
  • At 64 baits per square mile
  • West Texas 82 coyote surveillance specimens
    74 seroconversion
  • South Texas 82 coyote surveillance specimens
    46 seroconversion

9
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10
2009 ORVP Logistics
  • 2009 vaccination campaign Jan 7 to Jan 23
  • Distributed 2,899,390 vaccine units
  • 31,280 fishmeal polymers
  • 1,811,085 dog food polymers
  • 1,057,025 coated sachets
  • Used 4 Airports
  • 2 aircraft fitted with polymer only bait
    equipment
  • 3 aircraft fitted with polymer or sachet bait
    equipment
  • Staffing
  • Approximately 32 (including refueling staff at 2
    locations) on any given day

11
Technology changes bait size/type changes
12
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13
2009 Reported Bait Exposures
  • 4 bait exposure calls
  • 3 polymer incidents
  • 1 coated sachet incident
  • All 4 calls involved the gray fox vaccination
    campaign
  • All 4 calls involved dogs finding the bait
  • Distribution method involved
  • 3 were dropped by fixed wing aircraft
  • 1 was distributed by hand baiting
  • No adverse clinical symptoms were noted in the
    dogs
  • No human exposures

14
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15
The Road to Elimination of the Domestic Dog
Coyote Rabies Variant
16
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program
  • No domestic dog coyote cases in South Texas
    since 2004
  • ORVP is now a barrier zone to prevent
    re-introduction from Mexico
  • Discussions via the North American Rabies
    Management Workgroup are on-going to initiate
    surveillance south of the border

17
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program
  • West Central Texas gray fox rabies variant

18
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program
  • The gray fox epizootic zone has been reduced by
    half
  • Major break through of the vaccination zone
    occurred in 2007
  • Contingency response has been successful
  • Next two years will be critical to West Central
    Texas rabies control efforts
  • Until surveillance is in place in Mexico, a
    barrier zone will be necessary

19
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20
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program
  • West Central Texas rabies control efforts have
    been secondary to South Texas because of the
    original human deaths
  • The number of laboratory confirmed cases
  • 1995 243 2000 58 2005 8
  • 1996 101 2001 20 2006 45
  • 1997 24 2002 65 2007 62
  • 1998 36 2003 61 2008 11
  • 1999 - 66 2004 22 2009 1
  • Rabies follows fox population dynamics in a 3
    year cycle (if epizootic is not expanding) need
    to ensure herd immunity during the bottom of the
    cycle to break the rabies propagation

21
Laboratory Confirmed Cases
22
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23
Change in Reservoir Species?
24
Texas Coyote - Canis latrans
25
Challenges and Initiatives
  • Increase awareness in a sparsely populated land
  • Continue to solicit participation from the public
  • veterinarians, trappers, ranchers, game wardens,
    park staff, etc.

26
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27
Challenges and Initiatives
  • Define the true boundaries of the Texas Fox
    variant affected areas
  • Expressly in light of the 2007 break through
  • Within Texas and New Mexico
  • Within Mexico

28
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29
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program
  • New Mexico is experiencing a rabies epizootic in
    the Silver City area
  • Spillover from Arizona gray fox
  • Two cases in February 2009 approximately 100
    miles from El Paso (NM is using passive
    surveillance)
  • Texas ORVP hand baited the fox habitat in El Paso
    in January/February 2009

30
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31
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32
Oral Rabies Vaccination Program
  • ORVP eliminated domestic dog coyote variant and
    halved the area of gray fox epizootic zone
  • Moreover, an economic analysis of the Texas ORVP
    (domestic dog-coyote rabies) revealed
  • Using 3 levels of exposure and testing
    frequencies (case frequency)
  • Benefit-cost ratio 3.70, 6.95, and 13.44
  • Cost of program 1995 to 2006 26 million
  • Estimated benefits range from 98 million to 354
    million
  • study conducted by the National Wildlife
    Research Center, Fort Collins, CO, published Dec
    1, 2008 JAVMA
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