Designing%20Effective%20Step-By-Step%20Assembly%20Instructions%20%20Maneesh%20Agrawala,%20Doantam%20Phan,%20Julie%20Heiser,%20John%20Haymaker,%20Jeff%20Klingner,%20Pat%20Hanrahan%20and%20Barbara%20Tversky%20%20Microsoft%20Research%20and%20Stanford%20University - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Designing%20Effective%20Step-By-Step%20Assembly%20Instructions%20%20Maneesh%20Agrawala,%20Doantam%20Phan,%20Julie%20Heiser,%20John%20Haymaker,%20Jeff%20Klingner,%20Pat%20Hanrahan%20and%20Barbara%20Tversky%20%20Microsoft%20Research%20and%20Stanford%20University

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Designing Effective StepByStep Assembly Instructions Maneesh Agrawala, Doantam Phan, Julie Heiser, J – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Designing%20Effective%20Step-By-Step%20Assembly%20Instructions%20%20Maneesh%20Agrawala,%20Doantam%20Phan,%20Julie%20Heiser,%20John%20Haymaker,%20Jeff%20Klingner,%20Pat%20Hanrahan%20and%20Barbara%20Tversky%20%20Microsoft%20Research%20and%20Stanford%20University


1
Designing Effective Step-By-Step Assembly
InstructionsManeesh Agrawala, Doantam Phan,
Julie Heiser, John Haymaker, Jeff Klingner, Pat
Hanrahan and Barbara TverskyMicrosoft Research
and Stanford University
2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
Designing Instructions
  • Planning
  • Choose sequence of assembly operations
  • Robotics / AI / Mechanical EngineeringWolter
    89, de Mello 91, Wilson 92, Romney 95
  • Presentation
  • Visually convey assembly operations
  • Visualization / Computer Graphics Seligmann
    91, Rist 94, Butz 97, Strothotte 98

We jointly optimize plan and presentation
5
Geometric Analysis Romney 95
B blocked by A
both parts free to move
A blocked by B
Input Parts
Blocking Graph
6
Geometric Assembly Planning
7
Many Geometrically Valid Sequences
8
Our Approach
  • Identify cognitive design principles
  • How people conceive of 3D assemblies
  • How people comprehend visual instructions
  • Encode principles as constraints within automated
    design system

9
Identifying Design Principles
  • Experiment 1 Assemble and draw instructions
  • Experiment 2 Rate effectiveness
  • Experiment 3 Validate effectiveness

10
Sequence the Assembly Operations
Single exploded view diagram
Step-by-step diagrams
  • Step-by-step instructions preferable

11
Illustrate the Assembly Operations
Structural diagrams
Action diagrams
  • Action diagrams preferable

12
Ensure Visibility of Parts
  • Essential
  • Parts being attached
  • Context (show earlier parts)
  • Less important
  • All parts in a symmetric group
  • Repetitive operations

13
Automated Instruction Design
  • Step-by-Step
  • Action diagrams
  • Good visibility

TV stand instructions generated by our system
14
Input
required optional
  • Geometry
  • Parts in assembled positions
  • Orientations
  • Default viewpoint / orientation
  • Preferred orientation for each part
  • Groupings
  • fasteners, significant parts, symmetry,similar-ac
    tions
  • Ordering constraints
  • Force one part to attach before another

15
TV Stand Input
required optional
  • Geometry Parts in assembled positions
  • Orientations Default viewpoint / orientation
  • Groupings fasteners, significant parts, symmetry

16
All parts
Search
Leftover parts
Best subset of parts
Sequence Parts
Reorientation
Sequence of assembly steps
17
All parts
Search
Leftover parts
Best subset of parts
Sequence Parts
Reorientation
Sequence of assembly steps
18
All parts
Search
Leftover parts
Best subset of parts
19
All parts
Search
Choose part subset
Search
Interference
Leftover parts
Best subset of parts
Attachment
Ordering
Grouping
Visibility
20
Computing Visibility

Area(P) red pixels
Area(P,Q) red pixels
Area of top not occluded by sides
Area of top alone
Vis(P,Q) Area(P,Q) / Area(P)
pixels that remain visible
21
Visibility Constraint
  • Current parts R min ( Vis(r, R-r)
    )
  • Check that each part in current subset is
    visible
  • Attached parts A Vis(A, R)
  • Check that context is visible
  • Unattached parts U min ( Vis(u, R) )
  • Check that future parts will be visible

r Î R
u Î U
22
Lego Car
23
Bookcase
Input model
24
  • Add significant parts one by one
  • Visibility
  • Distance to viewer
  • Add all remaining parts
  • Omit repetitive operations
  • Skip if 2 similar-action parts already added

Best subset of parts
Sequence Parts
25
Bookcase After Sequencing
26
Bookcase Omitting Repetition
27
  • Set preferred orientation for significant parts
  • If visibility of current parts is low try
    alternate oblique views

28
Bookcase With Reorientation
29
All parts
Search
Leftover parts
Best subset of parts
Sequence Parts
Reorientation
Sequence of assembly steps
30
Sequence of assembly diagrams
31
Building Stacks
  • Stack set of parts that
  • Share separation direction
  • Lie on a stabbing line
  • Are in sequential contact

32
Building Stacks
  • Stack set of parts that
  • Share separation direction
  • Lie on a stabbing line
  • Are in sequential contact

33
Placing Guidelines
  • Expand stacks
  • Form lines between stack parts

34
Placing Guidelines
  • Expand stacks
  • Form lines between stack parts

35
Bookcase
  • 9 parts Planning 48s

36
Table
  • 13 parts Planning 28s

37
Test Object
  • 25 parts Planning 53s

38
Exploded View
39
Future Work
  • Experiment 4 Evaluation
  • Time/errors as they use our instructions
  • Assemblies with more subparts
  • Take advantage of hierarchy
  • Apply system recursively
  • Physical and functional constraints
  • Part size and mass
  • Gravitational stability

40
Summary
  • Cognitive design principles
  • Step-by-step
  • Action diagrams
  • Good visibility
  • Automated instruction design system
  • Integrate planning and presentation

41
Acknowledgements
  • Boris Yamrom
  • Christina Vincent
  • ONR grants N000140210534, N000140110717 and
    N000140010649
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