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Space Mining: A Space Management Approach to Sustainable Success

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Title: Space Mining: A Space Management Approach to Sustainable Success


1
Space Mining A Space Management Approach to
Sustainable Success
Ottawa Ontario
  • Concurrent Session Presentation at
  • ERAPPA 57th Annual Conference
  • Ottawa, Ontario
  • September 2007
  • Presenter Phil Rouble, Facilities Planning
    Specialist
  • roublep_at_algonquincollege.com
  • http//academic.algonquincollege.com/staff/roublep

2
Foreword
  • In slide show mode, only slides relevant to the
    ERAPPA Annual Conference (Ottawa, September 2007)
    are presented
  • In normal mode, additional background information
    has been provided explore!
  • Any questions? Please contact Phil Rouble
    (roublep_at_algonquincollege.com)

3
Algonquin College
Ottawa Ontario
  • Full service, publicly funded Community College
    with one central urban campus in Ottawa plus 2
    smaller rural campuses
  • 1.26M Gross Square Feet of academic and support
    facilities
  • 12600 audited (publicly funded) students
  • Approximately 3000 additional non-audited
    enrollments for a total of approximately 15600
    full time students on campus
  • Ottawa Campus approximately 14750
  • Pembroke Campus approximately 600
  • Perth Campus approximately 250
  • Additionally
  • 370K GSF of residences with 1050 beds
  • Approximately 140 full time post secondary
    programs
  • Typical program credit hours of 20-22 hours per
    week
  • Annual operating budget 200M (CAN)

CHICAGO
4
Algonquin College Growth 1990 to 2005 Audit
Eligible Activity vs GSF of Academic Facilities
7034 Students
12400 Students
Net 76 Growth in Audited Enrollments
GSF / Audited Enrollment 1990 199 2005 101
Net 10 Reduction in GSF
1.4 M GSF
1.26 M GSF
Residence facilities excluded in analysis
Average Area per Full Time Student 80 GSF (Fall
2006)
5
Our Mandate as Facility Managers and Planners
Most institutions are under pressure to grow
enrollments
Growth creates demand for space
Facilities managers and planners are charged with
developing facilities to accommodate growth
Most institutions view facilities and space as
mission critical
Facility managers and planners must steward
facilities to supply capacity for growth
6
Our Dilemma as Facility Managers and Planners
The obvious option BUILD TO GROW
But what if you cant afford to build new ?
What if you cant afford to operate and maintain
new buildings?
What if you are simply tired of walking through
hallways of empty classrooms and labs?
Is the oversupply of space resources sustainable
in your institution?
7
Is There Another Way?
Ottawa Ontario
  • What if you could find ways to balance the supply
    of space resources to meet demand while
    supporting the sustainable success of the
    institution?

Yeah… Right!
Its simple! Just provide the right amount of the
right size of the right type of facility at the
right time
8
Space Mining
An Algonquinism
  • The process of extracting capacity from an
    existing portfolio of space

Space mining is an integrated planning approach
that can dig deep into hidden capacity reserves
9
The Space Mining Model
Exploration
Infrastructure Development
Tools and Techniques
10
SPACE MINING
THE CASE FOR
11
How much learning occurs in empty space?
12
None
13
How much money disappears in empty space?
14
MILLIONS? 10's of MILLIONS? 100's of MILLIONS?
15
100's of MILLIONS!
16
Simplified Cost Avoidance Case Study What If
Algonquin Used a Build to Grow Approach from
1990 to 2005?
Assumption Say Algonquin had decided to
maintain the same 199 GSF per student from 1990
to 2005 (But we didnt!)
17
Simplified Cost Avoidance Case Study Do Try This
At Home!
Per student measures are an interesting
comparative
18
Explaining the Simplified Build to Grow Table
  • The previous slide is a live Excel spreadsheet
  • Double-click to activate Excel and modify values
  • An interesting number to manipulate is the GSF /
    student ratio in Cell C10 a good candidate for
    target setting
  • Another interesting variable is the Furniture and
    Equipment Assumed Replacement Cycle
  • In some facilities (computer labs), 3 to 5 years
    might be more normal
  • It is a very simplified and quick model to
    indicate an order of magnitude savings gained via
    cost avoidance
  • Several factors have been omitted to keep the
    model simple
  • It is believed that the values presented are
    conservative and that in fact even more funds
    might have been needed to maintain the same rates
    of GSF / student and quality of facilities
  • The model represents Algonquins experience and
    would need to be revised to fit other
    institutions
  • Note the formula for the Change in Total GSF in
    the Build to Grow Model (Cell D9)
  • Represents the Difference from the actual
    building area at Algonquin (Cell C4)
  • It is NOT C9-B9

19
Sustainability Perspective
Sustainable development is development that
meets the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to
meet their own needs. Brundtland Commission, 1987
  • Optimization of existing facilities fits
  • Social Sustainability
  • Promoting sustainability understanding and
    awareness
  • Renewal and modernization
  • Economic Sustainability
  • Cost awareness and allocation Space costing /
    Cost allocation
  • Financial viability
  • Resource management (space management, resource
    allocation…)
  • Environmental Sustainability
  • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and pollution
  • Energy conservation

The Three Pillars of Sustainable Development
20
Sustainability Perspective The Campus We Never
Built!
Algonquin College has approximately 1.26 million
GSF of academic facilities (excluding residences)
  • Overbuilding is such a waste!
  • Ecological footprints
  • Densification of activity within the same
    facility footprint
  • Carbon footprints
  • The most efficient facilities are the ones never
    built

THE KEY TO ACHIEVING SUSTAINABILITY TARGETS?
  • From 1990 to 2005 Algonquin avoided building 1.2
    million GSF

21
Renewal and Modernization Case Study 1
I dont want to be put into a dirty old space!
22
Before Former Outdated Welding Shop
23
After Adaptive Reuse Health Sciences Simulation
Centre
24
Renewal and Modernization Case Study 2
You just want to squeeze me into a smaller space!
25
Before 6000 sf Antiquated Electrical Labs
26
After Renewal / Consolidation 4000 sf Modernized
Electrical Labs
27
Successful Space Management Requires An
Integrated Planning Approach
Ottawa Ontario
Supports the academic mission
President and Senior Administration
Executive Sponsor VP-Academic
Facilities Planning
Must support and champion the process
Scheduling
Chair Senior Academic Dean or Director
Space Management
Process must be driven by the Academic mission
Academic Planning
Financial Planning
Program Evaluation
Business Plans
Enrollment Planning
Budget Planning
Capital Planning
Frames the academic mission within fiscal
realities
  • Revenues
  • Capital Costs
  • Direct Costs
  • Overhead

Resource Planning
Growth Projections
Space Costing
Resource Balancing
Resource Allocation
28
Academic Ownership
It wont work unless it is driven by the
academics. They need to take ownership of the
concept. It must be relevant to them and their
success must be tied to it. Nick Papadolias,
Retired Chair of the College Space Management
Committee (CSMC) And Executive Director of
Academic Services
29
Successful Space Management Rules of Engagement
  • Requires a holistic perspective participants
    must wear their corporate hats
  • Transparency is key full disclosure among peers
    is a powerful influencer
  • Focus on facts not rhetoric and innuendo
  • Focus on problem solving not blame
  • Focus on opportunities not weaknesses

30
The Space Mining Model
Evolving
Revised July 2007
31
EXPLORATION
SPACE MINING
32
The Space Mining Model
Evolving
Revised July 2007
Tools and Techniques
Exploration
Infrastructure Development
Continuous Improvement
Resource Management Model / Committee
Room Inventory
Establish Measures and Targets
Manage Pools of Space
Change Management
Collect and Publish Utilization Data
Demand Analysis
Culture Change
Resource Balancing
Growth vs Capacity
Space and Scheduling Policies
Utilization Zone Analysis
Prospecting for Capacity
Implement a Space Cost Allocation Model
Program Assessment
Thresholds
Data Mining (Pivot Tables)
Strategic Acquisition
Alternative Growth Strategies
33
Continuous Improvement Kaizen A Journey Not
a Destination
  • Kaizen (change for the better) aims to
    eliminate waste
  • Activities that add cost but do not add value
  • Kaizen must operate with three principles in
    place
  • Process and results (not results-only)
  • Systemic thinking (i.e. big picture, not solely
    the narrow view)
  • Non-judgmental, non-blaming (because blaming is
    wasteful).
  • People at all levels of an organization
    participate
  • Emphasizes the learn-by-doing aspect of improving
    production
  • Make changes, monitor results, and then adjust
  • Large-scale pre-planning and extensive project
    scheduling are replaced by smaller experiments,
    which can be rapidly adapted as new improvements
    are suggested.
  • (Toyota Production System / Lean Thinking
  • Extracted from Wikipedia June 24, 2007)

Algonquin College is deploying this approach to
many of its processes
34
Change Management Are You Ready for Change?
  • For change to be successfully realized
  • Awareness Why should we optimize the use of
    space?
  • Desire Need to be motivated to support and
    participate in space management
  • Knowledge How do we manage space?
  • Ability Can we implement new skills and
    processes?
  • Reinforcement Can we stop now? NO ITS
    WORKING!
  • The ADKAR Model of Change Management by Prosci
    (Wikipedia July 2007)

Facility managers and planners must be change
agents
35
Changing Culture Catalysts and Drivers
Culture is one of the hardest and slowest things
to change
36
Changing Culture Our Space Mantra
  • Space at Algonquin is a College resource
  • College resources are strategically allocated to
    ensure the success of all College initiatives
    within a context of fiscal responsibility
  • Space is not owned but is strategically
    allocated by the College Space and Infrastructure
    Committee (CSIC)

37
Changing Culture Establish Common Ground
To enable the delivery of quality curriculum in
the most appropriate space with the best student
timetables that College resources will permit
38
Changing Culture Change the Language of Space
  • Access NOT Ownership
  • Open or Dedicated
  • Accountabilities NOT Users
  • Focus on Optimization of Space
  • Primary Accountability for Optimization
  • Suitabilities of Space NOT Use of Space
  • Functional
  • Attributes

39
Changing Culture Establish Clear Accountabilities
  • The Space Committee is accountable to ensure
    that space is strategically allocated to ensure
    the success of College initiatives
  • Deans and Directors accountable to ensure that
    optimization of space is always considered
  • Physical Resources / Facilities Planning are
    accountable for the stewardship of College
    facilities assets
  • Scheduling is accountable to ensure that
    academic activities are scheduled in suitable
    space with quality timetables

40
Access to Rooms Overview
Access to Rooms
  • Avoids conflicts in scheduling by clarifying who
    decides what activity is best accommodated in a
    particular space
  • Open access to rooms may assist in the
    optimization of underutilized specialized spaces
  • Assigned by CSMC
  • Applies to both Daytime and CE activity
  • Does not refer to time constraints

Dedicated
Open
OR
  • Access managed centrally by Registrars Office
  • Access to space is Open to All Departments
  • Access to space is NOT restricted
  • Priority Access to Open Space
  • Permitted where appropriate
  • Curriculum needs
  • Improving optimization of a specialized space
  • Assessed by Registrars Office and Physical
    Resources
  • Subject to approval by CSMC
  • Managed equitably by Registrars Office
  • Access managed by specific School
  • Access to space is restricted to departments
    approved by specific School
  • Approved Departments are listed in Room Inventory
    under Department Access
  • Departments from other Schools may be included

41
Understanding Priority Access to Open Space
GENERAL NEEDS
SPECIALIZED NEEDS
Suitabilities of Space Resources
Priority Access Required for
Specialized Space Resources
General Space Resources
Specialized Space Resources with Optimization
Potential
General Space Resources with Specialized Features
  • Examples
  • Classroom Eclassroom
  • Classroom Theory
  • Computer Lab - General
  • Examples
  • Classroom Museum
  • Computer Lab Office Admin
  • Examples
  • Classroom CCP
  • Classroom ESL/FSL
  • Computer Lab New Media / CE
  • Examples
  • Lab Dental
  • Shop Welding
  • Computer Lab Linux
  • Access
  • Open
  • Primary Accountability
  • All Departments
  • Access
  • Open
  • Primary Accountability
  • All Departments
  • Access
  • Open
  • Primary Accountability
  • Specific School
  • Access
  • Dedicated
  • Primary Accountability
  • Specific School

42
Cultural Myth No. 1 But wait a minute, space is
free! Isnt it?
False The problem is that the cost of space is
hidden in capital infusions, endowments and
operating overhead
Solution Measure the cost of space, separate it
from overhead and manage it
43
Cultural Myth No. 2 Paying for space is not my
problem! Is it?
False Every dollar wasted in empty space is less
money available for learning and research.
Academics must work harder to support the waste.
Solution Allocate the cost of space to the cost
centre managing the space
44
Cultural Myth No. 3 But my space is busy!
Probably False The real utilization of space is
often a cloudy picture. A better question Is
there capacity for growth available?
Solution Collect and publish accurate
utilization statistics
45
Cultural Myth No. 4 Space is mission critical to
my success. I must protect it.
True and False True Space is an enabling
resource False It is wrong to protect it
Solution Allocate space to support success
Reallocate space to where it is needed
46
Cultural Myth No. 5 But its my space!
False Space is an institutional resource
Solution Manage space as a corporate resource
Change from a culture of ownership to one of
stewardship
47
Growth
WHERE can we grow?
How MUCH can we grow?
Capacity
48
Growth
HOW should we grow?
Capacity
49
Not All Growth Is the Same
  • Strategic Growth Areas
  • Significant new activity opportunities that may
    yield new growth potential for College
  • Urgent societal needs / Areas of focus for
    excellence
  • High Growth Areas
  • Significant high demand activity requiring
    additional resource allocations and investments
  • Smart Growth Areas
  • Program areas with capacity to grow with low cost
    / no cost and sufficient demand to fill to
    available capacity
  • Declining Activity Areas
  • Program areas with significant excess capacity
    due to reduction in activity levels due to
    declining demand
  • Areas No Longer in Demand
  • These areas need to be identified as early as
    possible and support provided for decision making
    related to effective exit strategies when
    appropriate

50
Two Sources of Capacity
Bricks and mortar campus facilities The
traditional campus
Existing Facilities
85-90 of capacity
New Construction
New Acquisitions
Virtual campus infrastructure Web-enabled campus
Online Learning
10-15 of capacity
Distance Education
Hybrid Courses
51
This Vessel Called Space
Space is a container
52
This Vessel Called Space
Target Utilization
It is full at some point below the brim Try to
fill every space
53
This Vessel Called Space
It is not a good thing to overfill! Timetable
quality and client satisfaction may suffer
54
This Vessel Called Space
A paradigm shift focus on capacity potential
Conventional space optimization focus
Low Utilization (Hide it!)
The question Is it half full or half empty?
55
Capacity in a Bricks and Mortar Campus
Available Hours
The most critical dimension of capacity
Number of Seats or Stations
Station Size (sf / station)
56
Prospecting for Capacity
Space Leads
Hearsay
Walkabouts
Rumours and Innuendo
An early stage exploratory process that should
constantly be revisited
Observations
Hunches
Audits
Prospecting is a discovery process that can help
to identify to new capacity reserves
57
Thresholds Breaking Through Perceived Barriers
  • Driven by urgency
  • How important
  • How immediate
  • Driven by context or crisis
  • Shortage of funding
  • Shortage of resources
  • Sustainability agenda
  • Driven by leadership
  • Champions Lets try it
  • Directives Make it happen!
  • Driven by passion
  • I really want to make this happen

58
Prospect Charting Prioritize Prioritize
Prioritize!
Gold Nuggets
Polished Gems
Optimization of Specialized Labs
Renew Shed Space
Optimization of General Computer Labs
Optimization of General Classrooms
High
Optimization of Service and Admin Space
Utilization Reporting
Demand Analysis
Faculty Offices
Academic Space Inventory
Payoff
Reclaim Poor Quality Space
Senior Administration Offices
Lab Activity Audits
Change Locks on Vacant Space
After Hours Office Walkabouts
Low
Fools Gold
Rough Stones
Effort
Easy
Hard
59
Paint a Picture Special Deans and Directors
Space Workshop
  • Crisis
  • One year to consolidating the last large
    satellite urban campus into main campus
  • Over 30000 sf of unresolved space issues
  • Workshop Setup
  • All the Deans and Directors brought to a single
    large room
  • Wallpapered room with floor plans of facilities
  • Colour coded the classrooms and labs
  • Green Utilization target met or exceeded
  • Yellow Utilization between 50 to 100 of
    target
  • Red Utilization less than 50 of target
  • Outcomes and Observations
  • Full transparency
  • Most of the red spaces were allocated to programs
    which were in trouble
  • At end gave each participants 10 coloured dots
    to stick on spaces that they thought we should
    look into more closely
  • Space leads for follow-up

Suddenly all the lights went on!
60
Alternative Growth Strategies Working Group
  • In November 2005, the Presidents Executive
    Committee expressed concern that excessive
    capital funds were being directed to traditional
    adaptation of existing space to handle enrollment
    growth and indicated reluctance to commit
    additional capital funds without exploring
    options to use the available capacity within the
    existing portfolio of space
  • The Alternative Growth Strategies Working Group
    was assembled by the College Space and
    Infrastructure Committee to look at alternate
    strategies to accommodate growth that maximize
    the use of existing resources while minimizing
    the need to invest capital in renovations and
    adaptations
  • A preliminary menu of 40 strategies was developed
  • Stage 1 - This menu was focused to 14 items to
    achieve 2006-07 pressures and priorities
  • Stage 2 A multi-year plan and improved
    processes will be developed
  • Key areas of progress include
  • Planning to Maximize Capacity of Existing
    Resources
  • Focusing on Resource Balancing
  • Managing Resource Allocation
  • Improving Decision Making Tools and Processes
    Related to Capital Funding and Cash Flow
  • Implementing Cost Control Measures

61
Preliminary Menu of Alternative Growth Strategies
62
INFRASTRUCTURE
SPACE MINING
63
The Space Mining Model
Evolving
Revised July 2007
Tools and Techniques
Exploration
Infrastructure Development
Continuous Improvement
Resource Management Model / Committee
Room Inventory
Establish Measures and Targets
Manage Pools of Space
Change Management
Collect and Publish Utilization Data
Demand Analysis
Culture Change
Resource Balancing
Growth vs Capacity
Space and Scheduling Policies
Utilization Zone Analysis
Prospecting for Capacity
Implement a Space Cost Allocation Model
Program Assessment
Thresholds
Data Mining (Pivot Tables)
Strategic Acquisition
Alternative Growth Strategies
64
Resource Management Model
Ottawa Ontario
Space
Space Resources
Executive Decision Making
Room Booking
Scheduling
Non-IT Equipment
Budget Process
Facilities Renewal
Recommend (When necessary)
Policy making
Steward
Campus Planning
Main Emphasis Here
Academics
College Space and Infrastructure Committee (CSIC)
Facilities Planning
Resourced by
Advocate
Must Also Support These
Administrative Services
Scheduling
Prioritize
Resource Allocation
Support Services
Track, measure and optimize
Support Success of Approved Initiatives
Monitor quality
Room Inventory
Match Supply with Demand
Utilization
Learning Environments
Approve Space Planning Solutions
Student Timetables
65
Measuring Available Capacity in a Bricks and
Mortar Campus
Room Utilization Rates ()
Station Occupancy Rates ()
Average Station Size (sf / station)
66
Set Targets
Room Utilization Rates
Targets
Set targets (Best Guess)
Refine targets
BUT THIS IS THE MOST CRITICAL DETERMINANT
Based on 50 hrs/week M-F 800am to 600pm
67
Total Available Hours Grid
68
A Primetime Scheduling Threshold
Primetime Scheduling M-F 1000 400 30 hours
per week
69
Algonquins Current Academic Week Threshold
Daytime Scheduling M-F 800 600 50 hours per
week 67 INCREASE IN CAPACITY OVER PRIMETIME
SCHEDULING THRESHOLD
70
Extended Academic Week Threshold Only Accepted
in Special Cases
Extended Scheduling Model M-S 800 1000 84
hours per week 180 INCREASE IN CAPACITY OVER
PRIMETIME SCHEDULING THRESHOLD
71
Optimizing Other Capacity Dimensions
Just beginning to really look this capacity
reserve more closely
72
Space Cost Allocation
Break Even Point
Revenues
Subsidization required by other areas
Contribution
Direct Costs
Traditional model (Without Space Cost Allocation)
gt 30 (Overhead Space)
lt 70
Point to which academic managers manage
Space Costs
Contribution
Direct Costs
Algonquins Model (With Space Cost Allocation)
gt 25 (Overhead)
lt 75 (Includes Space Costs More control with
consumers of space resources)
Space costing is applied during program
assessment through cost allocation
73
Space Costing Does It Work? Very Well!
  • Academic Schools have been provided with a tool
    to more accurately map costs to revenue
    generation
  • Program subsidization has been significantly
    reduced and is now quantifiable
  • Academic areas are provided with additional
    options to reduce costs and better position
    programs for sustainable success
  • Space dividend
  • Space is optimized to reduce costs of program
  • Phenomenon of the shedding of space
  • Movement towards open (shared) rather than
    dedicated space
  • Redeployment of shed space from programs faced
    with suspension

Space costing has been an instrumental driver in
ensuring that Algonquin College did not overbuild
74
More On Space Costing
  • For more information on how Algonquin has
    implemented its space costing model, please refer
    to the Appendix at the end of this presentation

75
Developmental Measures Drilling for Space
Through Data Analysis
  • Data analysis can be one of the simplest, fastest
    and most cost effective ways to begin optimizing
    space

Pivot tables in Microsoft Excel can yield
stunning results FAST!
If you have never seen pivot tables in action
you need to!
76
Data Mining Basics
  • Goal Support effective decision making
  • Raw data
  • Lists or databases
  • Fields / Records
  • Inventories / Scheduling data / Programs of
    study…
  • Sources
  • Information systems
  • Scheduling software
  • Internet sites
  • Cleaning the data
  • Missing data - Accountability for the
    completeness of data
  • Noisy data
  • Relevancy of the data
  • Usually the most work
  • Data integrity / Validation
  • Refining the data
  • Structuring the data into meaningful and
    effective information
  • Tagging records to group effectively
  • Classifying the data - task of finding a
    function that maps records into one of several
    discrete classes

77
Data Mining Basics
  • Mining the data for information
  • Static Reports
  • Dynamic tools - Pivot tables
  • Powerful (expensive) automated data mining
    systems (not required?) Interesting and might
    be worthwhile exploring for some BUT in the
    meantime, get on with it - KISS
  • Data Mining (Extracted from Wikipedia June 24,
    2007)
  • Data mining has been defined as "the nontrivial
    extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and
    potentially useful information from data" and
    "the science of extracting useful information
    from large data sets or databases"
  • Structured data mining is the process of finding
    and extracting useful information from raw
    datasets.
  • Data Mining is the process of extracting
    knowledge hidden in large volumes of raw data
    finding the proverbial needle in the haystack

78
Pivot Tables
  • If you are interested in learning more about
    pivot tables, please contact Phil Rouble
  • Algonquin College has been advocating the use of
    these tools in space planning for several years
    as a best practice initiative
  • Each spring, (if there is enough interest), we
    run a 2-day intensive workshop to demonstrate
    their effectiveness and to teach space planners,
    schedulers, data analysts who build space
    utilization reports
  • All are welcome let Phil know!

79
TOOLS and TECHNIQUES
SPACE MINING
80
The Space Mining Model
Evolving
Revised July 2007
Tools and Techniques
Exploration
Infrastructure Development
Continuous Improvement
Resource Management Model / Committee
Room Inventory
Establish Measures and Targets
Manage Pools of Space
Change Management
Collect and Publish Utilization Data
Demand Analysis
Culture Change
Resource Balancing
Growth vs Capacity
Space and Scheduling Policies
Utilization Zone Analysis
Prospecting for Capacity
Implement a Space Cost Allocation Model
Program Assessment
Thresholds
Data Mining (Pivot Tables)
Strategic Acquisition
Alternative Growth Strategies
81
Room Inventory
  • Start by optimizing Academic Space
  • Classrooms
  • Labs
  • Other space can follow
  • Offices
  • Admin
  • Support Services

The biggest space yields to date at Algonquin has
been by optimizing the classroom and lab spaces
82
Pools of Space
  • Create and manage pools of common space resources
    whenever possible
  • Classrooms
  • Computer labs
  • Drafting labs
  • Manage collectively
  • Measure utilization
  • Set target utilizations
  • Determine number of rooms needed
  • Determine the mix of room sizes needed

83
  • Just because we (Academics) ask for space, it
    doesnt mean we should be given it
  • Nick Papadolias, Former Chair of CSMC
  • And Executive Director of Academic Services

As stewards of the space resources, facility
managers and planners have a responsibility to
match supply and demand for space and not to
oversupply space
84
Demand Analysis A More Fluid Approach to Refine
an Inventory of General Spaces
  • Process implemented prior to the start of
    scheduling for each term using actual timetabling
    information
  • Use pivot tables and utilization targets to
    determine demand for general types of space
  • General classrooms
  • General computer labs
  • General drafting labs
  • Match room size mix to activity section size
    clusters
  • Only supply the number of spaces needed to meet
    utilization targets
  • Balance of rooms held in reserve
  • Demand activated to address unanticipated demand
    or timetable quality issues
  • Not to be scheduled space redeployed for other
    institutional priorities
  • Project swing space, special events, contract
    activity…

85
Demand Analysis A More Fluid Approach to Space
Inventory
Active Pool of Open Spaces Available for
Scheduling
  • Guiding Principles
  • Do not oversupply space
  • All scheduled activity accommodated
  • Both Daytime and Continuing Education
  • Active pool of open spaces available for
    scheduling based on target utilizations
  • Classify activity into
  • Full semester activity
  • Half semester activity
  • Short duration actiivty

Reserves of space Swapped and/or added to active
inventory as needed
  • Demand Activated Open Spaces
  • Managed by Registrars Office as scheduling
    progresses
  • Used for
  • Accommodating new demand or changes in activity
  • Refining the quality of timetables
  • Bookings Internal and External
  • Look at
  • General classroom pool
  • General computer labs
  • General drafting labs
  • Not To Be Scheduled Spaces
  • Managed by Physical Resources
  • Used to accommodate various College initiatives
  • Maintenance and repairs, renovation swing space,
    short duration storage, cyclical College
    initiatives and projects, longer term bookings…
  • Match mix of classroom sizes to section size
    clusters

86
Classroom Size Mix Demand vs. Supply
No. of Rooms
Room Size Clusters
Room Size Clusters
Winter 2007
Fall 2007
87
Start with Higher Grade Reserves of Space with
Bigger Yields
General Classrooms
General Computer Labs
Bonus in reducing inventory of unused computers
Gradually move through your portfolio of space
Excess capacity in oversized specialized labs in
problem areas
Drill down to more difficult yields in
specialized labs
88
Resource Balancing
Activity
Resources
Sustainable Success Best Value for Institution
Resource balancing shifts reserves of resources
to where they are needed now
89
Resource Balancing Areas of Smart Growth /
Declining Activity
Increase Activity Smart Growth Potential
Activity
Redeploy Resources Declining Activity
Resources
  • Renew / Consolidate
  • Shed space

Not Sustainable Rebalancing Required
90
Resource Balancing Areas of High Growth
Increase Resources
Resources
Activity
  • Build new
  • Renew / Repurpose existing

Reputation and retention risks
Not Sustainable Rebalancing Required
91
Resource Balancing Areas of Strategic Growth
Potential for significant growth and innovation
May need to stockpile reserves for pending growth
Activity
Resources
  • Build new
  • Renew / Repurpose existing

Sustainable Success Dynamic Rebalancing Required
92
Assessing Specialized Space Needs
  • Profile a program areas growth pattern
  • Complete a utilization zone analysis of the
    program areas existing and projected dedicated /
    specialized space needs
  • Look at rebalancing resources to match the
    growth pattern and ensure sustainable success

Drill down to more difficult yields in
specialized labs
93
Utilization Zone Analysis A Visual Spin on
Utilization Reporting
  • Complete a utilization report and validate its
    accuracy
  • Group rooms into Green, Yellow and Red Zones
    based on utilization
  • Green Zone - Supervised Hours Utilization meets
    or exceeds the Target Utilization
  • Yellow Zone - Supervised Hours Utilization meets
    or exceeds 50 of the Target Utilization
  • Red Zone - Supervised Hours Utilization is less
    than 50 of the Target Utilization
  • Ask Schools to review the zone analysis and to
    develop plans towards achieving green zone status
    in their specialized dedicated spaces
  • Schedule meetings with program teams to look at
    rebalancing plans

94
Utilization Zone Analysis Focus Group Sessions
Chair Space Management
Facilities Planner
Chair Academic
Dedicated Resource Needs
Director Physical Resources
Director Academic Resources
Chair Academic
Chair Academic
Dean Academic
95
Utilization Zone Analysis Immediate Results
  • Good progress moving from Red to Yellow Zone
    utilization
  • Nominal increase in Green Zone utilization
  • Reduced no. of specialized scheduled space needs
    by 4
  • Significant win-win contributions to Fall 2006
    space solutions
  • 3 rooms immediately reallocated to solve high
    growth demand in another Faculty
  • One room reduced by half its size and changed to
    unscheduled student project space

96
Program Assessment Academic Review and Renewal
Process
PROGRAM COSTING
Space Cost Allocation
PERFORMANCE QUALITY MEASURES
PROGRAM RENEWAL/NEW PROGRAM OFFERING
PROGRAM REVIEW
REMEDIATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
PROGRAM SUSPENSION
From Area 5 Program Assessment Summary June
2004
97
Program Assessment Shed or Share Phenomenon
  • Driven by the Space Costing Model
  • Schools and departments approach CSIC and
    Physical Resources asking for help to shed space
    or share space
  • Sometimes requires reconfiguration of shop or lab
    space
  • Renewal of programs
  • Renewed energy and synergies in program teams
  • Increased enrollments in programs

98
Crisis Fall 2005
We felt we were scraping the bottom of the barrel
in solving our evolving space needs
Was there a limit to space optimization?
99
Fall 2006 Made It!
New drivers lead to new thresholds which lead to
new capacity reserves
Space problems were solved but for how long?
We are looking at strategic acquisition of new
space by building new facilities
100
Fall 2007 and Beyond
Is there a limit to space optimization?
The answer may lie in more questions
2. Do these reserves add value to the institution?
3. Is there motivation to extract the capacity?
101
The Space Mining Model
Evolving
Revised July 2007
Tools and Techniques
Exploration
Infrastructure Development
Continuous Improvement
Resource Management Model / Committee
Room Inventory
Establish Measures and Targets
Manage Pools of Space
Change Management
Collect and Publish Utilization Data
Demand Analysis
Culture Change
Resource Balancing
Growth vs Capacity
Space and Scheduling Policies
Utilization Zone Analysis
Prospecting for Capacity
Implement a Space Cost Allocation Model
Program Assessment
Thresholds
Data Mining (Pivot Tables)
Strategic Acquisition
Alternative Growth Strategies
So where should you start?
102
Appendix Space Costing Model
103
Space Costing
  • An effective cost allocation practice of
    assigning space operating costs to cost centres
  • Relatively simple to implement
  • Management tool for
  • Decision making
  • Managing costs increases range of options to
    consider
  • Improvements to the bottom line
  • Identification and elimination of overhead cost
    inefficiencies
  • Direct linking of costs to revenue generation
    area
  • Whats costed?
  • Space operating costs currently only allocated to
    revenue generating activities
  • Academic Services
  • Only scheduled space classrooms and labs
  • Ancillary Services

104
The Cost of Space
  • Space is a costly resource
  • 1 Human Resources
  • 2 Space Resources
  • Empty or full space consumes operating funds
  • Utilities
  • Housekeeping
  • Overbuilding consumes capital funds
  • Less money for academic equipment and other
    initiatives
  • More work to raise capital funds
  • Money spent on empty or underutilized facilities
    is not available to support or expand core
    academic activity
  • Fewer faculty
  • Older equipment
  • Poorer quality facilities

105
How Can We Afford to Leave Space Empty?
  • What were we thinking?
  • Ignorance the cost of space is often hidden in
    overhead
  • The perception
  • Space is free
  • The answer
  • Let consumers of space know how much their space
    is costing
  • Give academic managers tools to manage their
    space along with their other costs
  • The solution
  • Implement a space costing model that allocates
    space operating costs to cost centres
  • Make it clear where subsidization occurs to
    inform decision making

106
Space Costing
  • Simple allocation of space operating costs to
    cost centers
  • Accurate within an order of magnitude
  • Only looks at scheduled space classrooms and
    labs
  • Applied during program assessment, performance
    and renewal
  • No transfer of funds or budgets
  • Only allocated against revenue generating
    departments
  • Academic areas
  • Ancillary services

107
ACADEMIC AREA PROGRAM ASSESSMENT/PERFORMANCE/RENE
WAL
PERFORMANCE QUALITY MEASURES
PROGRAM COSTING
PROGRAM RENEWAL/NEW PROGRAM OFFERING
PROGRAM REVIEW
REMEDIATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
PROGRAM SUSPENSION
From Area 5 Program Assessment Summary June
2004
108
Program Costing Financial Contribution
Financial Contribution Total Revenues Direct
Costs of Delivery
  • Total Revenues
  • Tuition fees
  • Provincial grant total
  • Basic grant
  • Add-on grant
  • KPI grant
  • Direct Costs of Delivery
  • Direct costs
  • Allocated overhead costs of
  • Department
  • Schools
  • VP Academic Services
  • Service costs from other program areas

109
Reduction of Program Subsidization
  • Financial performance expectations
  • Financial Contribution before space should exceed
    30
  • Financial Contribution after space should exceed
    25
  • The 5 contribution reduction is approximately
    equivalent to Physical Resources overall
    operating budget
  • The Board of Governors directed the College to
    reduce overall program subsidization
  • Overall subsidization now limited but not
    eliminated
  • List of subsidized programs reviewed each year
  • Program Costing is only one consideration in the
    overall Program Assessment Process
  • Failure to implement a successful remediation
    plan may lead to program suspension

110
ACADEMIC AREA PROGRAM ASSESSMENT/PERFORMANCE/RENE
WAL
PERFORMANCE QUALITY MEASURES
PROGRAM COSTING
PROGRAM RENEWAL/NEW PROGRAM OFFERING
PROGRAM REVIEW
REMEDIATION PLAN IMPLEMENTATION
PROGRAM SUSPENSION
From Area 5 Program Assessment Summary June
2004
111
Program Assessment Performance and Quality
Measures
Performance Quality Measures
QUALITY MEASURES Internal Statistics -Admissions
-Enrolment -KPI
PERFORMANCE MEASURES KPI Student
Satisfaction -Course Assessments -KPI
From Area 5 Program Assessment Summary June
2004
112
Program Assessment Program Costing
Year End Area 5 Revenues/ Expenses (Peoplesoft)
  • Program Offerings
  • Teaching contact hours
  • Audited enrolments
  • (GeneSIS)

Grant Financial Reporting (Finance)
Program Costing
Space Operating Costs Space Utilization Room
Inventory (Physical Resources)
Capital Investments Depreciation Fixed
Assets (Finance)
From Area 5 Program Assessment Summary June
2004
113
Key Accountabilities
  • Physical Resources
  • Quantifies space operating costs and establishes
    a reasonable unit cost for academic space
  • Publishes net area for spaces
  • Academic Services
  • Manages the allocation of space costs to program
    areas
  • Establishes incentives to optimize the use of
    academic space

114
Quantifying Space Operating Costs
  • Calculated by Physical Resources based on data
    from the Cost Operating Report (example next
    slide)
  • Total Operating Cost per SF charged against
    classroom and lab spaces
  • Average Cost Premium Costs
  • 2002/03 12.85 /sf
  • Average Cost per SF
  • Total Operating Budget for Physical Resources
    divided by total GSF of College
  • 2002/03 7.42 / sf
  • Premium Costs per SF for Classroom and Lab spaces
  • Incremental usage costs related to
  • Electrical and HVAC Maintenance
  • Building Maintenance
  • Cleaning
  • Utilities
  • 2002/03 5.43 / sf

115
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116
Program Costing Allocation of Space Costs
  • Assigned by Academic Services to various programs
    based on use of space
  • Dedicated space
  • 100 of cost of space assigned to program using
    space
  • Area of space x Total Operating cost / sf
  • Open (shared) space
  • Costs assigned to programs based on prorated
    average cost per scheduled hour of activity in
    all open spaces
  • No. of program hours x Average Cost per Scheduled
    Hour
  • Size of room is not considered as program areas
    to not control the size of open room in which
    activity is timetabled

117
Incentives to Further Optimize the Use of
Academic Space
  • Full cost recovery established from Fall and
    Winter activity
  • Spring term activity does not incur space costs
  • Goal - Increase Spring term activity to
    capitalize on available capacity
  • Open space costs are charged by the hour and are
    shared with the broader College
  • Invariably results in lower space costs
  • Open space is better optimized
  • Goal Encourage open space where appropriate

118
Space Costing Does It Work? Very Well!
  • Academic Schools provided with a tool to more
    accurately map costs with revenue generation
  • Program subsidization has been significantly
    reduced and is now quantified
  • Academic areas are provided with additional
    options to reduce costs and better position
    programs for sustainability
  • Space dividend
  • Space is optimized to reduce costs
  • Shedding of space
  • Movement towards open (shared) rather than
    dedicated space
  • Redeployment of shed space
  • Redeployment of space from suspended programs
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