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Energy Tool Alberto Boraso Association of Small and Medium Industry of Varese area

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Title: Energy Tool Alberto Boraso Association of Small and Medium Industry of Varese area


1
Energy Tool Alberto Boraso Association of
Small and Medium Industry of Varese area
PHARE Business Support Programme of the European
Union UEAPME - SME FIT II
2
Introduction global situation
3
Introduction global situation
4
Introduction global situation
  • A rise in temperature will be accompanied by
    changes in climate
  • The resulting increase in global temperatures
  • is alterating the complex web of systems
  • that allow life on earth, such as
  • - cloud cover, - wind patterns,
  • - ocean currents, - ocean raise
  • - rainfall, - season change
  • - distribution of plant and animal species.

5
Introduction United Nations Framework
  • United Nations Framework believes this could
    happen and asks for the international response to
    climate change
  • Kyoto protocol
  • The EU and its Member States ratified the Kyoto
    Protocol in late May 2002

6
Introduction Kyoto protocol
  • The developed countries commit themselves to
    reduce their collective emissions of six key
    greenhouse gases by at least 5.
  • Each countrys emissions target must be achieved
    by the period 2008-2012. carbon dioxide (CO2),
    methane (CH4), .... and nitrous oxide (N20)
  • Countries have a certain degree of flexibility in
    how they make and measure their emissions
    reductions.

7
Introduction What to do?
  • What can be done in order to limit damage from
    consequences of global warming that are now
    inevitable
  • Expanding forests.
  • Reducing emissions.
  • Changing lifestyles and rules.
  • Accomplishments to date. . . and problems.

8
Introduction Europe Policy
  • European Council on 9 march 2007 set the
    objective limiting the global average
    temperature increase not more than 2C above
    pre-industrial levels as foreseen by Kyoto procol
  • An integrated approach to climate and energy
    policy is needed to realise this objective
  • - increasing security of supply
  • - ensuring the competitiveness of European
    economies and the availability of affordable
    energy
  • promoting environmental sustainability and
    combating climate change.

9
Introduction Europe Policy
  • Energy Policy for Europe binding target for 2020
  • - to increase energy efficiency in the EU so as
    to achieve the objective of saving 20 
  • - to reach a 20 share of renewable energies in
    overall EU energy consumption
  • - a 10  minimum target to be achieved by all
    Member States for the share of biofuels in
    overall EU transport petrol and diesel consumption

10
Introduction Europe Policy
  • The goal of 2020 is the first step
  • the second will be to reduce up to 50
  • compared to 1990 of 2050 global GHG emissions

11
Introduction Europe Policy
  • If you plan for a year
  • Plant a seed
  • If you plan for a decate
  • Plant a tree
  • If you plan for a century
  • Educate people
  • (Tzu Chuang 300 B.C.)

12
Introduction Europe Policy
13
Introduction Europe Policy
  • European Council Action plan (2007 -2009)
  • Energy policy for Europe (EPE)
  • - Internal Market for Gas and Electricity
  • - Security of Supply
  • International Energy Policy
  • Energy efficiency and renewable energies
  • Energy Technologies

14
Introduction EPE
  • Internal Market for Gas and Electricity
  • - Effective separation of supply and production
    activities from network operations
  • - Further harmonisation of the powers and
    independence of national energy regulators
  • Establishment of an independent mechanism for
    national regulators to cooperate and take
    decisions on important cross-border issues
  • A more efficient and integrated system for
    cross-border electricity trade and grid operation

15
Introduction EPE
  • Security of Supply
  • Effective diversification of energy sources and
    transport routes
  • - Developing more effective crisis response
    mechanisms

16
Introduction EPE
  • International Energy Policy
  • The development of a common approach to external
    energy policy has to be speeded up

17
Introduction EPE
  • Energy efficiency and renewable energies
  • stresses the need to increase energy efficiency
    in the EU so as to achieve the objective of
    saving 20  of the EU's energy consumption
    compared to projections for 2020
  • a binding target of a 20  share of renewable
    energies in overall EU energy consumption by
    2020
  • a 10  binding minimum target to be achieved by
    all Member States for the share of biofuels in
    overall EU transport petrol and diesel
    consumption by 2020

18
Introduction EPE
  • Energy Technologies
  • Recognizing the need to strengthen energy
    research
  • Accelerate the competitiveness of sustainable
    energies, notably renewables, and low carbon
    technologies
  • Development of energy efficiency technologies

19
Impact on Smes Where we are?
20
Impact on Smes State of the art
  • Energy is the main factor in climate change,
    accounting for some 80 of the EUs greenhouse
    gas emissions.
  • SMEs focus on
  • Optimisation of production process
  • Provision of raw material and semifinished
    products.

21
Impact on Smes Consequences
  • Companies needs to join in the European-wide
    effort to cut down on energy waste and contribute
    to generate green energy.
  • Several new measures are to be taken
  • efficiency requirements for energy-using
    equipment,
  • technological upgrade of production processes,
  • stronger action on energy use in buildings,
  • green energy.

22
Impact on Smes Why
23
Impact on Smes Why
The company for the enterpreneur is a money
machine, therefore it must be kept efficient
and properly feeded
24
Impact on Smes Topics
  • To achieve a rational use of energy the following
    topics and sources of consumption should be taken
    into account
  •  
  • - Tariff - Energy balance
  • - Lighting - Office equipment
  • - Electric motor - Peak and power factor
  • - Heating, Air-conditioning and Ventilation
  • - Compressed air and distribution systems

25
Impact on Smes Topics - Tariff
  • This is a key process to identify how energy cost
    savings are achieved by reducing one of two main
    components
  • - Energy rate/ amount pay
  • - Energy consumption

26
Energy Negotiation Consumption Profile
27
Impact on Smes Topics Energy Balance
  • Analysis of the sites energy use
  • - identifying the sources of energy,
  • - determining the amount of energy supplied,
  • - detailing what the energy is used for.
  • Could be useful in order to identify inefficiency

28
Impact on Smes Topics Lighting
  • Lighting is a major energy consumer in
    commercial buildings. it is important to be able
    to check the lighting system, lighting levels and
    the respective loads.
  • - Lighting savings can be achieved in two ways
  • by optimising power density
  • by reducing operating hours.

29
Impact on Smes Topics Office equipment 1/2
  • Office equipment consists of productivity tools
    such as computers, photocopiers, fax machine and
    domestic-type equipment such as water boilers,
    hand dryer, and so on.
  • For energy save companies have to monitor both
    work time per day and the standby time

30
Impact on Smes Topics Office equipment 2/2
  • The technologies that you should have to take in
    account are
  • workstations and monitors, personal computer,
  • Printers, photocopiers,
  • fax machines, uninterrupt. power source
  • Fridges vending machines,
  • Dishwashers, microwaves,
  • Hand dryers, personal heaters,
  • water boilers and coffee machines.

31
Impact on Smes Topics Electric Motor
  • Electric motor drive systems use up to 90 of all
    electricity in some large processing plants.
  •   The motor drive system can be broken into three
    main parts
  • - a mechanical subsystem comprising a drive train
    to link the motor to the driven load
  • - a facility power supply system
  • - a motor/controller subsystem.

32
Impact on Smes Topics Compressed Air and
Distribution Systems 1/2
  • Compressed air usually serves one of three
    functions
  • source of energy for tools and machines,
  • powering pneumatic control equipment
  • cleaning.
  • Energy waste in compressed air systems is mostly
    a result of poor compressor efficiency and leaks
    in the distribution system.

33
Impact on Smes Topics Compressed Air and
Distribution Systems
Compressor
Compressor
34
Impact on Smes Topics Compressed Air and
Distribution Systems 2/2
  • There are many ways to reduce compressed air
    costs by making the compressed air system more
    energy efficient.
  • Common opportunities
  • - detect and repair leaks - minimise system
    pressure drop
  • - use cooler inlet air - control of compressors
  • - optimise system pressure to a minimum
  • - reduce inappropriate use and keep efficiency

35
Impact on Smes Topics Peak and Power factor
  • Electrical demand is measured in kVA or kW and is
    the instantaneous power level requirement of a
    site.
  • Management of
  • - Peak distribution
  • - Lack of generation of reactive energy
  • ?
  • savings on electric invoices and efficient
    electric system

36
Impact on Smes Topics Heating,
Air-conditioning and Ventilation 1/2
  • A heating, air-conditioning and ventilation plant
    typically consumes more than 25 of energy used
    in service or commercial buildings.
  • The basic energy saving principles
  • create awareness in order to avoid oversupply
  • only cool or warm as much as necessary
  • cool or warm for as long a time as required

37
Impact on Smes Topics Heating,
Air-conditioning and Ventilation 2/2
  • During the analysis of the heating or
    air-conditioning plant it should be taken in
    consideration the building envelope and in
    particular
  • - windows frames and type of glazing
  • - degree of thermal capacity of external walls
  • - roof and floor typology

38
Impact on Smes Topics CHP COGENERATION AND
TRIGENERATION
  • Cogeneration
  • Cogeneration is the simultaneous production and
    utilization of two energy sources electrical and
    thermal from the same fuel.
  • Trigeneration
  • If the need for heating is limited and there is a
    significant need for cooling, then heat by a
    cogeneration plant is used to produce cooling,
    via absorption cycles.

39
Impact on Smes Topics CHP COGENERATION AND
TRIGENERATION
40
Impact on Smes Topics COGENERATION AND
TRIGENERATION
  • Possible cases for cogeneration use
  • Energy-intensive industries, including the
    chemical, refining, forest products, food, and
    pharmaceutical sectors.
  • High power reliability/quality applications, such
    as telecommunications data centres requiring
    high-quality, reliable power and substantial
    cooling capacity.
  • Institutional markets, hotels, and convention
    centres where large year-round demands exist for
    electricity, heating, and cooling.

41
Energy Tool Alberto Boraso Association of
Small and Medium Industry of Varese area
PHARE Business Support Programme of the European
Union UEAPME - SME FIT II
42
Energy E. a multiple-choice test
  • Would you rather die of
  • 1. climate change?
  • 2. oil wars?
  • 3. nuclear holocaust?
  • The right answer, often left out, is
  • 4. none of the above
  • Lets just use energy in a way that saves money,
    because that will solve the climate, oil, and
    proliferation problems

Amory B. Lovins Chairman and Chief
Scientist Rocky Mountain Institute Winning the
Oil Endgame
43
Energy E. Saving energy costs less than buying it
IBM and STMicroelectronics CO2 emissions 6/y,
fast paybacks Dow cut E/lb 22 19942005, 3.3b
profit DuPonts 20002010 worldwide goals Energy
use/ 6/y, GHG 1990 level 65 By 2006
actually cut GHG 80 below 1990, 3b profit BPs
2010 CO2 goal met 8 y early, 2b profit United
Technologies cut E/ 45 during 200307 Why we
say cost for energy saving and not profit ?
44
2007 Vattenfall/McKinsey supply curve for abating
global greenhouse gases
45
Energy E. Lighting
kwh 0,18 Euro
10.000 hours (4 hours/day for 6 years)
46
Energy E. Lighting
Request Renew lighting plant Answer by
electrician Change of neon lamps
47
Energy E. Lighting
  • Real operation
  • Insert of light tube
  • Replace neon lamps with fluorescent lamps
    electronic ballasts and more efficients diffusers
  • Reduction of diffusers
  • Automatic light dimmer only in particular places
  • Introduction of switch-off campaign
  • Advantage
  • Reducing operating hours
  • Right lumes in right place

Incremental cost 24.000 Pay back 5Year
48
Energy policy example
Request Change of windows because old First
suggest Replace windows with similar glasses in
order to use the same metal joint
49
Energy policy example
Incremental Cost
Windows 54.500 Metal joint 15.000
Lighting 12.500 _______________
82.000 HVAC - 105.000
_______________ Total - 33.000
  • Single expenditures and multiple benefits
  • Capital costs
  • Save energy
  • Renew technology

50
Energy E. Heat Exchanger
Request Cleaning Heat Exchanger It was
calculeted micro depots generate by flow result
in 10 lost of efficency Solution Small sponge
spheres insert in the plant are trail by the
cooling flow avoid depots before their
consolidation Saving 475.000 /Year payback 8
months
Source ST Microelectronic
51
Energy E. Cooling
Cooling In temperate climate zone it is possible
to use the refrigerating power of the air. Water
neccessary for controlling the plants temperature
is made flow in open air before returning to
refrigeratingg plants The refrigerating plants
could be switched-off till 6 months
Source ST Microelectronic
52
Energy E. Tripled-efficiency cars
Each day, an average car burns 100 its weight
in ancient plants. Where does that fuel energy
go?
Source RMI
53
Energy E. Tripled-efficiency cars
  • Where does that fuel energy go?
  • 6 accelerates the car, 0.3 moves the driver
  • Each unit of energy saved at the wheels saves
    78 units of fuel in the tank (or 34 with a
    hybrid)
  • Three-fourths of the fuel use is weight-related
  • FIRST MAKE THE CAR RADICALLY LIGHTER-WEIGHT!

54
Toyotas Hypercar-class 1/X concept car (Tokyo
Motor Show, 26 Oct 2007)
Toray announced a plant to mass-produce
carbon-fiber auto body panels and other parts for
Toyota, Nissan,….
- 1/2 Prius fuel use with similar interior
volume - Carbon-fiber structure. This mean
1/3 the weight (420 kg) - Plug-in
hybrid-electric (about 400 kg)
Nov 2007 Ford announced 113340-kg weight cuts
MY201220
55
Energy E. Tripled-efficiency cars
CARS save up to 69 (Design, Technology,
Carbon-fiber structure) Conclusion Ultralighting
is free offset by simpler automaking and 23
smaller powertrain!
56
Passive comfort in cold, cloudy climates like
Germany (Passivhaus Institut) http//www.passiv.de
, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_house Affordable
Comfort
- Total primary energy use 120 kWh/m2-y - 15
kWh/m2-y lt10 W/m2 heating energy525 of U.S.
allowables - k-0.100.15 (k-0.066 roof in
Sweden), airtight, high comfort, loses lt0.5 C/d
w/ 0 el. - gt10k built in 5 EU nations
Vorarlberg (ÖS) standard
No central heating system can add small
exhaust-air heat pump or solar panel if desired,
but not necessary - Zero marginal capital
cost (at least at lt60N lat)
57
Energy E. Pumping design mentality
  • Industrial pumping loop cuts power from 70.8 to
    5.7 kW (92)
  • Remake costs less and works better
  • - Just two changes in design conception

source RMI
58
Energy E. Losses
Losses
Pump 25
Motor 10
throtle 33
Pipe 20
Drivetrain 2
Energy Output 9,5
source RMI
59
Energy E. Pumping design conception
1. Big Pipes, Small Pumps (not the opposite) 2.
Lay out the pipes first, then the equipment (not
the reverse)
source RMI
60
Energy E. No new technologies, just two design
changes
- Fat, short, straight pipes not thin, long,
crooked pipes! - Benefits counted 12x less
pumping energy Lower capital cost - Bonus
benefit also captured 70 kW lower heat loss
from pipes - Additional benefits not counted
Less space, weight, and noise Clean layout for
easy maintenance access Needs little
maintenance, yet better uptime Longer
equipment life - Count these and save… gt90
Pumping is the worlds biggest use of
motors, fans (same physics) both total 50
source RMI
61
The nine dots problem
62
The nine dots problem
63
The nine dots problem
64
The nine dots problem
65
The nine dots problem
66
The nine dots problem
67
Cost / Return
... advance mentality
Short mentality
68
Energy E. Technologies
  • Development of energy efficiency technologies

69
Energy E. Means
  • Shortly saving energy means
  • Open mind
  • Technology
  • Make calculation consider all life of
    equipment (In God I trust, Other bring data)

70
TOOL Energy Audit
  • Energy audit model
  • The energy audit model will be an analysing model
  • It is a targeted energy audit at the widest end
    of the scale.
  • It covers all energy usage of the site, including
    mechanical and electrical systems, process supply
    systems, all energy using processes, etc..

71
TOOL Energy Audit
  • The audit has to determine how
  • identify energy,
  • efficiently energy is being used,
  • cost saving opportunities,
  • highlight potential improvements in comfort and
    productivity.

72
TOOL Energy Audit Guideline
  • Guidelines for Energy Audit
  • Define Energy manager.
  • Define Goal.
  • Data collection.
  • State of the art and savings opportunities

73
Thank you! Energy Tool Alberto Boraso API
Varese
PHARE Business Support Programme of the European
Union UEAPME - SME FIT II
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