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Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966).

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Title: Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966).


1
The Civil Rights Era, 19541975
The civil rights movement develops and brings
about changes in American society.
Martin Luther King, Jr., speaking about a voter
registration drive. Photograph (June 17, 1966).
NEXT
2
The Civil Rights Era, 19541975
SECTION 1
Origins of the Civil Rights Movement
SECTION 2
Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights
SECTION 3
The Equal Rights Struggle Expands
NEXT
3
Changes after World War II help African Americans
make progress in their struggle for equality.
NEXT
4
Origins of the Civil Rights Movement
Postwar Changes Strengthen Protests
Chart
More Americans see racism as evil, causing
Hitlers rise, Holocaust
After fighting for freedom, blacks want share
of it in the U.S.
Blacks make more money, move into cities for
work
NEXT
5
Brown Overturns Plessy
Plessy v. Fergusonseparate but equal
doctrine established (1896)
NAACP counsel Thurgood Marshall challenges
segregation laws
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954)
rules that - segregation has no place in public
education
Map
Brown II gives segregated schools more time to
desegregate
Most white-controlled schools resist
segregation
NEXT
6
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to follow
segregation rules on bus
Image
Montgomery bus boycottblacks protest Parkss
arrest, trial by - refusing to ride the buses
in Montgomery, Alabama
Baptist minister Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.,
encourages boycott
13-month boycott, leaders endure death threats,
bombings, jailings
Nonviolent boycott gains national media
attention
Continued . . .
NEXT
7
continued Montgomery Bus Boycott
Supreme Court rules Montgomery bus segregation
law unconstitutional
Boycott has several important results - ends
segregation on Montgomery buses - leads to
founding of Southern Christian Leadership
Conference (SCLC) - makes Dr. King a very
prominent civil rights leader
NEXT
8
Massive Resistance
More than 80 percent of Southern whites oppose
school desegregation
Segregationists fight African Americans, civil
rights organizations
Ku Klux Klan use violence to threaten blacks
pursuing civil rights
Image
White Citizens Councils organize to prevent
desegregation, effective
White opposition to desegregation known as
massive resistance
NEXT
9
Showdown in Little Rock
Little Rock school board makes plans to
integrate Central High School
Segregationists, Arkansas governor Orval Faubus
blocks integration
8 of 9 black students are turned away from
school by National Guard
9th student, Elizabeth Eckford, tries to enter
despite hostile mob
Image
Eckford is escorted away, Faubus refuses
integration for 3 weeks
Escorted by U.S. military, black students enter
Central High School
NEXT
10
Sit-Ins Energize the Movement
4 black college students do sit-in to
desegregate lunch counter
Sit-inprotest, people sit, refuse to move
until demands are met
Students sit at counter for 45 minutes, come
back with more protesters
Segregationists abuse protestors, some
protestors jailed, replaced
Image
Sit-ins effective, force many lunch counters to
serve African Americans
Sit-ins bring about Student Nonviolent
Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
NEXT
11
The civil rights movement leads to the end of
legal segregation.
NEXT
12
Kennedy, Johnson, and Civil Rights
Kennedy and Civil Rights
Senator John F. Kennedy Democratic candidate
for president (1960)
Vice-president Richard Nixon Republican
candidate
Kennedy helps arrange release of Martin Luther
King, Jr., from jail
Gains African-American support
Kennedy wins election, faces Congress reluctant
to act on civil rights
Continued . . .
NEXT
13
continued Kennedy and Civil Rights
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) plans
Freedom Rides to - desegregate interstate buses
Segregationists attack riders, federal marshals
protect riders
Image
U.S. government issues order integrating
interstate bus facilities
NEXT
14
Protests in Birmingham
African Americans in Birmingham, Alabama, want
to - integrate public facilities - gain better
job, housing opportunities
Start nonviolent protest, Dr. King joins
protestors, is arrested
Police use dogs, firehoses on marchers, shown
on TV, public horrified
Image
Birmingham white leaders agree
to - desegregate lunch counters - remove
segregation signs - employ more African Americans
NEXT
15
The March on Washington
March on Washingtondemonstration, 250,000
march to Lincoln Memorial
Takes place on August 28, 1963 unites civil
rights groups
Martin Luther King delivers I Have a Dream
speech
Image
President Kennedy promises support
NEXT
16
New Civil Rights Laws
President Kennedy is assassinated on November
22, 1963 see video tape
U.S. mourns slain leader, factories, businesses
close
Vice-president Lyndon Johnson becomes president
Acts quickly on civil rights, pushes the Civil
Rights Act of 1964 - bans segregation in public
places - creates commission to stop
job discrimination
Chart
NEXT
17
Fighting for Voting Rights
Civil Rights Act of 1964 bars different black,
white voting standards
24th Amendment bans poll tax, still difficult
for blacks in South vote
Freedom Summervoter registration drive for
Southern blacks
Martin Luther King, Jr., SCLC have voter
registration protest march
State troopers attack marchers
President Johnson send U.S. troops to protect
marchers
Continued . . .
NEXT
18
continued Fighting for Voting Rights
President Johnson signs Voting Rights Act into
law (1965) - bans literacy test, laws stopping
blacks from registering to vote - sends
federal officials to register voters
Percentage of blacks registered to vote in
Selma increases sharply
Map
NEXT
19
Johnson and the Great Society
President Johnson proposes programs called
Great Society, provides - programs to help
disenfranchised, poor, elderly, women - laws
to promote education, end discrimination,
protect environment
Image
Many programs, like Medicare, Medicaid, still
exist today
Elementary and Secondary School Act provides
U.S. funds for education
Laws passed to protect environment, endangered
species, wilderness
NEXT
20
Divisions in the Civil Rights Movement
Civil rights groups disagree, some are
nonviolent, others aggressive
King, SCLC protest discrimination in Chicago,
have little effect
Frustration about lack of opportunities,
political power leads to riots
Martin Luther King, Jr., assassinated (April 4,
1968)
Nation mourns, African Americans riot across
the U.S.
Continued . . .
NEXT
21
continued Divisions in the Civil Rights Movement
Some blacks reject nonviolence, white
cooperation
SNCC leader Stokely Carmichael fights racism,
all-black organization
Nation of Islam urges blacks to separate from
whites
Popular member Malcolm X rejects separatist
ideas by mid-1960s
Image
Assassinated by Nation of Islam in 1965
NEXT
22
The African-American struggle for equality
inspires other groups to fight for equality.
NEXT
23
The Equal Rights Struggle Expands
Mexican Americans Organize
César Chávez starts farm workers union, gains
higher wages, benefits
Image
Mexican Americans form La Raza Unida (1970)
works to - get better jobs, pay, education,
housing for Mexican Americans - elect Mexican
Americans to public office
Mexican American students organize, demand
reforms in school system
Stage walkout, arrested, schools meet
protestors, make reforms
NEXT
24
Hispanic Diversity
Hispanics trace roots to Spanish-speaking Latin
American countries
Refer to themselves as Latinos
Come from different countries, cultures, often
have little in common
Differences make it difficult for Hispanic
Americans to unify politically
NEXT
25
Native Americans Unite
Termination policy leads to decline of Native
American cultures
National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
leads protests of policy
U.S. government changes policy, inspires Native
Americans, gain rights
In Declaration of Indian Purpose (1961) Native
Americans demand - right to choose own way of
life - responsibility of preserving precious
heritage
Continued . . .
NEXT
26
continued Native Americans Unite
American Indian Movement (AIM) demands
sovereign rights
Indian Self-Determination Act of 1975, tribal
governments get - more control over social
programs, law enforcement, education
Native Americans win back some of their lands
NEXT
27
The Womens Movement
1960s, women face discrimination in workplace,
limited legal rights
Betty Friedan writes book about problems women
face in society
National Organization for Women (NOW), good
jobs, equal pay for women
Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) in
1972
Continued . . .
NEXT
28
continued The Womens Movement
Supporters say ERA will - protect women
against discrimination - help women achieve
equality with men
States do not ratify ERA
Map
Civil Rights Act (1964), Higher Education Act
(1972) - outlaw discrimination against women
NEXT
29
This is the end of the chapter presentation of
lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.
NEXT
30
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