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The Vending Machine Story


Snickers Coke (12 oz) Nacho Doritos Pepsi (12 oz) Twix Bars Pepsi (20 oz) Cheez-Its ... French fries. Candy. Ice cream. Amer Jour Pub Health, 2004;94(3):463-7 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Vending Machine Story

The Vending Machine Story
  • Jaime L. Ackerman, MPH, RD, LD
  • Extension Associate
  • Dept. of Human Nutrition

Definition of OverweightBody Mass Index (BMI)
  • Current method to calculate healthy body weight
  • Describes the relationship of weight in relation
    to height wt(kg)/ht(meters)2
  • For children, BMI changes with age
  • (based on gender and age specific charts)

BMI for Children Adolescents
  • BMI used to assess underweight, overweight and
    risk for overweight.
  • Underweight BMI lt 5th percentile
  • At risk for overweight BMI 85th to lt 95th
  • Overweight BMI gt 95th percentile

Obesity Epidemic
  • Rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity in
    the United States is a result of environmental
    and behavioral factors that foster eating more
    higher-calorie foods more frequently and burning
    fewer calories through physical activity.

Why is Change Needed?
  • 64 of adults are overweight or obese
  • Overweight among children and adolescents ages
    6-19 has more than tripled over the past 30
  • 16 of children and adolescents were overweight
    during 1999-2002.

Prevalence of Overweight in Children 0 - 17 Ohio
  • Race/Ethnicity Central Cities Suburbs
  • White 31.1 24.0
  • Black 43.2 48.1
  • Hispanic 52.7 38.5
  • Gender
  • Male 41.1 26.6
  • Female 31.1 24.8
  • Ohio Inner City Health Profile
  • Ohio Department of Health, 2001

Dietary PatternsFood Guide Pyramid
  • Only 2 of Americas children (2-19) meet all of
    the recommendations of the Food Guide Pyramid
    (approximately 1100 kids)
  • 16 do not meet any of the dietary guidelines.
  • Only 1 in 5 children ages 6-11 consume the
    recommended 5 servings of fruits/vegetables a
  • On average, more than 30 of calories from fat
    and more than 10 from saturated fat.
  • USDAs CSFII 1994-1996

Energy-Dense Nutrient Poor FoodsChildren Teens
  • EDNP foods account for gt30 of daily energy
  • Total daily calories increased.
  • Energy from carbohydrates increased.
  • Energy from fat increased.
  • Protein, fiber, vitamins, folate, calcium,
    magnesium, iron, and zinc intakes fell with
    increasing EDNP foods.

Dietary PatternsSoda Consumption
Dietary PatternsSoda Consumption
  • Drink 9 ounces of more of soda (7.5 tsp sugar
    113 cal)
  • Preschool children 12
  • School age children 33
  • Adolescents 50
  • Adolescents
  • Males 2.2, 12 oz cans per day
  • Females 1.7, 12 oz cans per day
  • High soft drink consumption leads to excessive
    caloric intake and decreased consumption of
    nutrient dense beverages, such as milk.

Dietary PatternsEating Patterns Change with Age
  • 291 kids in grades 3rd 5th 8th
  • Skip breakfast 1 6 15
  • Ate any vegetable 56 50 41
  • Ate any fruit 64 56 37
  • Drank milk 99 98 90
  • Drank fruit juice 44 47 32
  • Drank soda 21 31 57

Vended Snacks
  • Vended food industry is a 19-28 billion dollar
  • Adolescents obtain 25 to 40 of calories from
    snack foods.
  • 32 of students consume vended foods as either a
    lunch at school or part of one.

Most Popular Vended Foods Nationally
  • Candy/Snacks Soft Drinks
  • Snickers Coke (12 oz)
  • Nacho Doritos Pepsi (12 oz)
  • Twix Bars Pepsi (20 oz)
  • Cheez-Its
  • Cheetos
  • Reeses Peanut Butter Cups

School Vending Machine Pyramid
Snacking is Increasing!
  • Snacking represents nearly a fourth of the energy
    and a fifth of many other nutrients.
  • Energy density is much higher for snacks than the
    non-snacking component of the diet (Journal of
    Pediatrics, 2001 138493-98)
  • Childrens caloric intake has increased by 80 to
    230 calories per day between 1989 and 1996 (USDA,
    2001 report no CN-01-CD1).
  • The average number of snacks consumed by teens
    has risen from 1.6 to 2.0 between 1977 and 1996
    (Journal of Pediatrics, 2001138493-98)

USDA School Meal Programs
  • National School Lunch Program (NSLP)
  • Nutritional quality of foods offered are
    regulated by USDA.
  • Lunches must contain less than 30 of calories
    from fat and less than 10 of calories from
    saturated fat.
  • Lunches must also provide one-third of the
    Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) for protein,
    calcium, iron, vitamins A C and calories.

USDA School Meal Programs
  • School Breakfast Program (SBP)
  • Nutritional quality of foods offered are
    regulated by USDA.
  • Must contain at least 30 of calories from fat
    and less than 10 of calories from saturated fat.
  • Must provide one-fourth of the Recommended Daily
    Allowances (RDA) for protein, calcium, iron,
    vitamins A C, and calories.

What are Competitive Foods?
  • Competitive foods are foods and beverages
  • served in schools that are not a part of USDA
  • school meal programs.
  • They may be served in a la carte lines, vending
  • machines, school stores, or fundraisers.
  • Not required to meet nutrition standards.

Vending Machines are the Most Common Way of
Selling Competitive Foods
  • Vending machines are present in approximately
  • 15 of elementary schools
  • 55 of middle schools
  • 76 of high schools

Top-selling Competitive Foods
  • The top-selling a la carte/snack bar foods are
  • Pizza
  • Chips
  • Soda
  • French fries
  • Candy
  • Ice cream

Percentage of Foods and Beverages Commonly
Offered A la Carte
  • Fruits/vegetables 74
  • 100 fruit/vegetable juice 63
  • High fat baked goods 59
  • Pizza, hamburgers, sandwiches 56
  • Low-fat baked goods 40
  • Low-fat salty snacks 38
  • High fat ice cream or yogurt 37
  • High fat salty snacks 36
  • Soda, sports drinks or fruit drinks 32

Competitive Foods
  • Approximately 20 of schools sell brand name fast
    food items in the cafeteria.
  • In general, fast foods are higher in fat,
    saturated fat and sodium.
  • Selling foods with low nutritional value
    contradicts nutrition education messages taught
    in the classroom.
  • Nutrition education messages from the classroom
    should be reinforced in the cafeteria.

Availability of Competitive Foods
  • Competitive foods are sold in
  • 43 of elementary schools
  • 74 of middle/junior high schools
  • 98 of senior high schools
  • Competitive foods may reduce participation in
    school meal programs.

NSLP vs. Competitive Foods
  • Students participating in the NSLP on average
  • more vegetables, milk, and protein-rich foods and
  • consume less sugars, soda and fruit drinks.

The Surgeon Generals Call to Action
  • Identified schools as a key setting for
  • public health strategies to prevent and
  • decrease the prevalence of overweight
  • and obesity.

Ohio Action for Healthy Kids
  • Mission Statement
  • The Ohio Action for Healthy Kids team is
  • dedicated to improving the health and
  • educational performance of Ohios
  • children through better nutrition and
  • physical activity by promoting a healthy
  • school environment.

Ohios Call to Action Plan
  • Expand school breakfast participation.
  • Ensure that healthy snacks and foods are provided
    in vending machines, school stores and other
    venues within the schools control.
  • Provide adequate physical activity programs,
    including fully inclusive intramural programs and
    physical activity clubs.

  • Ohio AFHK has broken the state into 10 zones.
  • Ohio AFHK website
  • http//
  • Get involved in your zone!

Increasing Access to Healthy Snack Foods
  • Design and implement nutrition intervention
    (vending tool) focused on large population
    groups, including individuals, community and
    institutions that provides a system to rate snack
    foods and to provide healthy alternatives.

The SnackWise Tool
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin C
  • Fiber
  • Calcium
  • Iron

Designed to evaluate the nutritional quality of a
snack food.
  • Evaluated based on
  • Calories
  • Total Fat
  • Saturated fat
  • Protein
  • Sugar

Food Rating Scale
  • Food Categories
  • Red 0 points or lower not nutritious
  • Yellow 1-3 points OK snack
  • Green 4-10 points healthy snack

Vended Food Ratings
SnackWise Tool Use to Make Changes
  • Make recommendations for percent of red, yellow
    and green snacks offered and sold
  • Promote more healthful snack and a la carte items
  • Reduce portion sizes
  • Price advantage for nutritious foods
  • Increase variety

What Can You Do As Educators?
  • Make your community aware of the problem!
  • Talk with parents about vending in schools.
  • Work with school foodservice directors to change
    the types of competitive foods they offer or
    establish standards for the what foods are
  • Work with schools to adapt policies and enforce
    limited access to vending machines during school.

What Can You Do As Educators?
  • Make your community aware of the problem!
  • Educate your audience on how they or their
    children can make healthy selections in schools.
  • Get involved in your zone or school health
    advisory committee.
  • Encourage your school to conduct a pilot program
    to improve school foods and beverages.

Key Messages to Make with Parents/Caregivers
  • Educate parents/caregivers how they can
  • Encourage local schools to establish practices
    and policies for healthy snack food and beverage
    options at school.
  • Encourage nutritional as well as financial goals
    in the schools.
  • The importance of school lunch and breakfast and
    encourage participation.
  • The rules/regulations involved with competitive
  • Provide healthy snacks at school parties and
  • BE A POSITIVE MODELeat well and move more!

  • Childhood obesity is an important public health
  • Environment influences kids eating and activity
  • Food choices in all venues at school influence
    what students choose.
  • Students will choose foods that are healthy and