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The Country of the Social Skyscrapers Sweden 19301960 Fernando Flores Morador 2008

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Title: The Country of the Social Skyscrapers Sweden 19301960 Fernando Flores Morador 2008


1
The Country of the Social SkyscrapersSweden
1930-1960Fernando Flores Morador2008
2
What drives history?
  • In the Communist Manifesto, Marx and Engels,
    wrote that history is driven by class struggle.
  • After some years of experience, one could say
    that the Marxist thesis of the importance of the
    concept of class struggle is still very useful to
    understand the development of history.
  • According to Marx, the society of classes,
    developed in the Ancient World as a consequence
    of population growth and an increasing social
    complexity.
  • In other worlds, the society of classes developed
    as a consequence of the rise of the city.

3
Before the city the archaic society
  • Before the rise of the city, society mainly was
    governed on the basis of ties of blood and
    marital rules.
  • I will refer to this ancient social order as the
    archaic society.
  • Thus, archaic qualities in a society are all
    those social conditions that originate in the
    relations in-between individuals who belongs to
    the same family.

4
  • The relations based on ties of blood were, with
    the revolution of the city superseded by
    political relationships.
  • Political relationships are based on
    mechanisms not grounded in ties of blood.
  • The selection of a king within a royal dynasty,
    for instance, is an archaic procedure,
  • but the election of a leader, as for example
    through voting, is a political action.
  • I will refer to this process of politicization as
    the process of modernisation of Ancient society
    with the consequence of the rise of Modernity.

5
  • The introduction of mechanisms in Greece
  • The kleroterion was a lottery device used by
    Athenians during the period of their democracy to
    randomly choose citizens for public posts.
  • It consisted of a flat surface incised with many
    slots into which the citizens' tokens - - would
    be placed, as well as a tube that was to be
    filled with different-colored balls that, when
    cranked out, determined which slots would be
    chosen. (Wikipedia).

6
Pinakion The identity card of the Citizens
7
Ties of blood againstmechanisms
  • We have then two conflicting faces of society
  • One is archaical and attached to family bands
  • The other is Modern and tied to mechanical
    procedures for the distribution of the political
    power.

8
  • The two conflicting faces of society did not
    disappear whit the rise of politics.
  • Why?
  • Because the family did not disappear with the
    rise of Modernity. Instead of this, blood- ties
    become a hidden part of the political game.

9
  • From the first days of ancient Greece, archaic
    and modern behaviours have coexisted to generate
    a series of struggles of power between an archaic
    world and a modern world.
  • As the process of modernisation aims to eliminate
    the archaic mechanisms by means of new political
    ways,
  • the archaic behaviour in society will strike back
    and also find new mechanisms by means of which to
    come back.

10
  • Relations based on ties of blood are a social
    causal factor, when they act controlling the
    human free will.
  • This archaic behaviour can be recognised in the
    dialectics of the processes of honour and
    reciprocation, for example, the cases of the gift
    and on the other hand the retaliation.
  • To this type of causality belong also such
    phenomena as the increased domain of family
    influence, groups of friendship, the region
    (regionalism), the nation (nationalism) and the
    concept of race (racism).

11
  • History is then, a consequence of the class
    struggle,
  • but also of the relations based on ties of blood
    and the conflicts within the family,
  • the clan,
  • the nation.

12
Introduction
  • The Swedish society that we wish to discuss
    reaches its highest degree of originality in the
    decades of 1930 to 1960. At the time Sweden stood
    out in its international context as an
    ultramodern society, distinguishing itself from
    its Scandinavian surroundings as well.
  • With the metaphor social skyscrapers we try to
    describe the radical modernity of this society,
    without entering judgments about its value as a
    social experiment. As any other modern city of
    which New York is the best example the modern
    society shows more or less desirable, practical
    and therefore also more or less lasting
    characteristics.

13
  • Ideas blooming in Sweden during the years we are
    occupied with, had been cultivated at the
    beginning of the century and were now expanding
    and strengthening their positions from the
    1930s.
  • To be able to grasp the extension of the social
    revolution that took place in Sweden during these
    years, it is necessary to classify the different
    levels of changes.
  • Let us therefore distinguish macroprocesses from
    microprocesses of change.
  • The first category is the realm of abstract ideas
    and the second the field of mentalities and their
    influence on daily life in society.
  • These two levels are evidently related to each
    other, reinforcing themselves in their particular
    consequences.

14
Macroprocesses that characterize the evolution of
contemporary thought in Sweden
  • Some of the ideological aspects that we are
    interested in characterising are
  • The nihilistic philosophy of Hägerström that has
    an impact on the whole social structure and in
    particular on the Philosophy of Law that will
    dominate in Sweden and on the political economy
    applied by Gunnar Myrdal and his project, Social
    Engineering.
  • The architectonic functionalism of the Stockholm
    Fair in 1930 which has as an ideal simplicity and
    economy, creating the cultural base that will
    make it possible to offer accommodation to the
    whole population.

15
  • The Social Pact that leads to a certain type of
    national corporatism making strikes a rare
    phenomenon in Swedish social life.
  • National Workers Organization and the
    collective affiliation to the Social-Democratic
    Party
  • The first union organization in Sweden was formed
    in 1846 but its effectiveness was not noticeable
    until the 1880s. At that time it had 7000
    members.
  • On the first congress in the year 1898, the
    National Organization decided that the obligatory
    association of its unions was the Social
    Democratic Party.

16
Corporatism/Corporativism
  • Is the theory and practice of organizing society
    into corporations subordinate to the state.
  • According to corporatist theory, workers and
    employers would be organized into industrial and
    professional corporations serving as organs of
    political representation and controlling to a
    large extent the persons and activities within
    their jurisdiction.
  • There are two types of corporate state .
  • One was fascist Italy between World Wars I and
    II.
  • The other is democratic and the best example is
    Modern Sweden.

17
  • The Home of the People
  • The political desire of the Social Democratic
    Party to make profound changes. It is in this
    sense that the term the Home of the People
    (folkhemmet) was first used.
  • The term was used for the first time by the
    Social Democratic leader Per Albin Hansson in a
    speech given in January 1928.
  • At this discourse he, amongst other things,
    launched the Party program that would
    characterize the Sweden we are discussing. Per
    Albin Hansson said
  • The society that we want to construct will be
    obtained by a demolition of all social and
    economic barriers that divides citizens in groups
    of privileged and forgotten, dominant and
    dominated, rich and poor, wealthy and deprived,
    robbers and robbed.

18
Political neutrality
  • The political neutrality and the pacifistic
    politics of Alva Myrdal and the succeeding
    Swedish governments that reaches its climax with
    the character of Olof Palme.

19
Some of the microprocesses in Swedish modernity
  • These microprocesses are clearly pointed towards
    two objectives
  • the standardization and homogenization of society
    via the rationalization of social processes and
    an increase of equality between social classes
    and the sexes.
  • These are typical microprocesses in so called
    late modernity and anticipators of a post
    modernity that has yet to appear.
  • To succeed with these objectives, Swedish society
    eliminates formal barriers on many levels
  • Dropping the titles
  • In 1967 Doctor Bror Rexed, then distinguished
    Director of the National Social Service Office,
    imposes the widespread habit of dropping the
    titles amongst all individuals in the public
    sector, irrespective of their functions and
    positions.
  • Bror Rexed (1914-2002) professor of medicine at
    Uppsala (1953-1967)

20
  • The so called reform of dropping the titles is
    rapidly spread to the rest of society causing all
    titles to be dropped in a few years, including
    academic titles and those in daily communication.
  • To this new and informal communicative relation
    one ought to add the growing usage of informal
    clothing, the abandonment of suits, shirts and
    ties by men and skirts by women and the increased
    usage of jeans.
  • This process is not unique to Sweden but in this
    country it acquires a special quality given "the
    informal" frame that the entire society obtains.
  • During the 1960s, fashion goes on to acquire an
    increasing degree of unisexuality and in addition
    makes it more difficult to tell a persons
    profession or social class by their clothing.

21
From nursery schools to national policies of
accommodation
  • In an interview from 1935 Alva Myrdal emphasises
    the need to create what she calls big childrens
    nursery homes (storbarnkammare), today known as
    nursery schools.
  • A Law is established in 1975 guaranteeing a day
    care home (daghem) for children. Alva Myrdal
    introduces her ideas in 1934 in a book
    co-authored with Gunnar Myrdal, called The
    Population Issue in Crisis (Kris i
    befolkningsfrågan) in which they demand reforms
    of the traditional domestic policies.
  • The first Swedish childrens nursery home is
    established in 1854 and from this moment
    different models destined to receive orphaned and
    very poor children appear, but none of these are
    spread to the whole society.

22
Control of the urban growth
  • The Union of Constructive Workers creates a
    cooperative of accommodations called Riksbyggen
    in 1940.
  • The objective is to construct and administrate
    accommodations on a national scale. Some 40 of
    this cooperatives capital is bestowed by the
    Workers Central (LO).
  • Until 1997, Riksbyggen administrated 190 000
    apartments of which
  • 15 000 were their own.
  • Another interesting example is the early concern
    with traffic accidents, leading the way for
    pioneering urban policies. For example, on
    September 3, 1967 there is a change from
    left-hand traffic to right-hand traffic.
  • This measure cut the number of accidents in half
    within one year.

23
Monopolies
  • Monopoly of radio and television
  • Another very important aspect to consider when
    evaluating the process off change in Sweden at
    this time is the role played by radio and
    television. It is sufficient to bear in mind that
    in the period of 1957-78 the Swedish state-owned
    radio and television (SR Svensk Radio)
    controlled all radio and television productions
    in Sweden.
  • Monopoly of the commercialization of alcohol
  • The use of alcohol and its social consequences
    has played a major role in the Swedish social
    conscience ever since the beginnings of the 20th
    century.
  • The motive is the massive consummation of alcohol
    that characterizes the Nordic world during the
    19th century. The states monopoly position in
    sales of alcohol is still one of the most
    important subjects in the political agenda of the
    different political parties. The rationalization
    of alcohol-consuming as a system is imposed in
    Sweden as early as 1914.

24
The right to free access of nature (allemansrätt)
  • A heritage from the past is converted into one of
    the most communist characteristics of Swedish
    contemporary society.
  • Every Man's Right (allemansrätt) makes it
    possible for every citizen to enjoy nature in the
    countryside and limits the implications of
    private property.
  • In Sweden, the Every Mans Right applies even
    when nature lies within the borders of private
    property.
  • This right, that without doubt has its roots in
    the Middle Ages, settles in the consciences of
    citizens during the 19th century, and ultimately
    becomes an Act in 1964.
  • According to this Act it is possible to enter
    private territory in search of flowers, wild
    fruits and mushrooms.
  • The only constraint is that one must not cause
    the owner or nature damage of any kind and that
    one must keep a considerable distance from the
    owners home.

25
Axel Hägerström and the nihilism of values
26
  • The 19th century in Sweden, is the century of
    idealism.
  • The most important of all Swedish idealists is
    Christopher Jacob Boström (1797-1866) who will
    define his philosophy as rational idealism.
  • The parting point of all philosophy should
    according to Boström be the world as it is
    experienced. Exposing this reality to logical
    analysis makes it possible to understand what
    really lays in this reality.
  • Idealism in Sweden was fundamentally an academic
    phenomenon and did not reflect the ideological
    battle fought on the economic and social fields.
  • On the other hand one should keep in mind that
    the industrial revolution is not noticed in
    Swedish society until the decade of 1870. Up
    until then the urban centers only include ten
    percent of the countrys population and
    approximately 70 are farmers.

27
  • Around the past century and following the ups and
    downs of European philosophy, neokantianism
    arrives in Sweden.
  • The force of social changes taking place in
    Europe and Sweden at the end of the past century
    and the beginnings of the following century
    destroy the idealistic school and introduces a
    new generation of philosophers to the academic
    arena, in general Social Democratic with
    neokantian orientation.
  • This new generation presents in Uppsala the
    thought of Axel Hägerström (1868-1939), creator
    of the most original and interesting philosophy
    in the history of the Country.

28
  • Axel Anders Teodor Hägerström, född 6 september
    1868 i Vireda socken i Jönköpings län, uppväxt i
    Örberga nära Vadstena, död 7 juli 1939 i Uppsala.
    Son till kyrkoherden Karl Fredrik Theodor
    Hägerström och Augusta Maria Skarin. Gift 1899
    med Esther Anna Amalia Nyander.
  • Hägerström började studera vid Uppsala
    universitet 1886 och avlade teologisk-filosofisk
    examen 1887.
  • Efter en personlig religiös kris lämnade han dock
    teologin och tog en fil.kand med teoretisk och
    praktisk filosofi som huvudämnen.
  • I ett Uppsala promoverades Hägerström till
    filosofie doktor 1893 och utnämndes samma år till
    docent i praktisk filosofi. Han var i flera år
    tillfälligt förordnad på professuren i samma
    ämne, till dess han 1911 utnämndes till ordinarie
    professor, vilket han förblev till 1933.
  • Wikipedia

29
  • Axel Hägerström becomes part of the faculty of
    Practical Philosophy in 1914.
  • The Uppsala school defines itself early on the
    theoretic field as anti-idealistic and
    anti-metaphysical.
  • Opposing to Boströmianism and in clear contrast
    to it, the theoretic work of the Uppsala school
    gives increasing room to scientific subjects.
  • It is sufficient to look at a series of
    productions by Hägerström, meant to critically
    discuss Einsteins relativistic conception that
    he accuses of having metaphysical vices.

Axel Hägerström (1868-1939)
30
  • Hägerströms critique of idealism focuses on
    denying absolute knowledge as conscience or as
    subject.
  • Absolute knowledge is instead identified as a
    consistent logical system, identical to the
    natural events in space and time. A parallelism
    is made between logical necessity and causality
    in the natural world.
  • The materialistic, anti-metaphysical and logic
    character of Hägerströms philosophy permits a
    parallel between his philosophy and the thought
    of Moore and Russell in Cambridge.
  • But the central problematization in the
    philosophy of Hägerström has its place in
    neokantianism and the school of Marburg,
    especially in the work of Herman Cohen.
  • As a curious fact, it may be told that the
    neokantian Ernst Cassirer arrives in Sweden as a
    fugitive escaping from the Nazi regime. During
    his stay in Sweden (1935-1941) he works at the
    faculty of philosophy of Gothenburg. There he
    makes a study of Hägerström that Axel Hägerström
    named Eine Studie zur Schwedischen Philosophie
    der Gegenwart (1939).

31
  • But it is on the field of theory of values that
    the Uppsala school shows its creative side
    clearly.
  • Hägerströms philosophy of values is nihilistic.
  • Our judgements about values, he tells us, are
    expressions of the feelings and thus neither true
    nor false.
  • There is no room then for practical knowledge.
  • If these feelings are projected on reality as
    values (moral, aesthetic, juridical, etc.) one
    falls into fetishism.
  • This theory had a tremendous impact on society in
    general and especially on the Social Democratic
    political means.

32
  • Hägerströms philosophy of Law supposes an
    implacable critique of the natural right which he
    sees as the consequence of a relation between
    fetishist forces, lacking all other value than
    the one coming from compromised feelings.
  • This critique was developed by Hägerströms
    student Vilhelm Lundstedt.
  • Hägerström and Lundstedt considers it an
    impossibility, for example, that human rights
    can be conceived separately from a juridical
    machinery that gives them room in collective
    opinions and in social structures.
  • Any other position is considered to be purely
    metaphysical, a term that these authors
    criticize, in the sense of anti-scientific
    philosophy.

33
Natural law
  • Natural law or the law of nature (Latin lex
    naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the
    existence of a law whose content is set by nature
    and that therefore has validity everywhere.
  • The phrase natural law is sometimes opposed to
    the positive law of a given political community,
    society, or nation-state, and can thus function
    as a standard by which to criticize that law. In
    natural law jurisprudence, on the other hand, the
    content of positive law cannot be known without
    some reference to the natural law (or something
    like it) natural law, used in this sense, can be
    evoked to criticize decisions about the statutes,
    but less so to criticize the law itself. Natural
    law can be used synonymously with natural justice
    or natural right (Latin ius naturale), although
    most contemporary political and legal theorists
    separate the two.
  • wikipedia

34
  • The nihilism of values has significant
    consequences on the structuring of Swedish law,
    especially on the subject of punishment.
  • In a clear opposition against all politics that
    sees punishment as a vengeance, political
    opinions that are based on benevolence assume the
    relative character of the crime.
  • As a consequence of this, the Swedish system of
    punishment ought to be one of the most generous
    in the world.

35
  • Hägerströms philosophy of value finds its most
    determined critics amongst the Jewish and German
    immigrants who escape to Sweden during the Second
    World War.
  • These critics see in the Hägerströmian nihilism
    of values one of the most negative symptoms of a
    European moral decadency that they accuse for the
    Nazi barbarism.
  • Hägerström is the first Swedish philosopher to
    manifest socialistic views, who reads and
    comments Marx of which he criticizes for his
    teleologsim (that is for subordinating theory to
    political actions).

36
  • His philosophy of religion is based on accepting
    the feeling of faith, denying its objective truth
    (that is to say its epistemological value).
  • This permits the surging of a theological school
    internationally known as the Lund school.
  • According to this school it is not possible to
    present the problem of the existence of God, but
    possible to present the problem of the existence
    of God as a problem for human nature.
  • The task of theology is to investigate what God
    is, what we understand as God (the ideas we have
    about God).

37
  • If it is possible at an early stage to associate
    the ideological background of the Hägerströmian
    philosophy to the conquests of the workers
    movement,
  • this character is quickly transformed into an
    instrument for a new social group the
    technocrats and specialists, typical of the
    Swedish contemporary cultural atmosphere.
  • Hägerströms philosophy of values leads to one of
    the most distinctive features of Swedish thought
  • the formalization of individual and social
    communication, its faith in legislation as a mean
    of change, the everlasting development of
    practical structures for a social action on any
    level.

38
Contribution to legal understanding
  • The jurisprudential camp of legal realism,
    broadly speaking, consists of those scholars who
    strictly reject the concept of natural law and
    who believe that legal concepts, terminology and
    values should be based on experience, observation
    and experimentation and are thus, real.
  • Hägerström is considered to be the founding
    father of the Scandinavian school of legal
    realism.
  • His disciples Karl Olivecrona, Alf Ross and
    Anders Vilhelm Lundstedt all take a similar basic
    view to Hägerström in their opinions on the
    language of Western law.
  • Due to their verdict on natural law, they also
    reject the concept of human rights.

39
Legal realism
  • Legal realism is a family of theories about the
    nature of law developed in the first half of the
    20th century in the United States (American Legal
    Realism) and Scandinavia (Scandinavian Legal
    Realism).
  • The essential tenet of legal realism is that all
    law is made by human beings and, thus, is subject
    to human foibles, frailties and imperfections.
  • The chief inspiration for Scandinavian Legal
    Realism many consider to be the works of Axel
    Hägerström.
  • The most famous representatives of Scandinavian
    Legal Realism were Alf Ross, Karl Olivecrona, and
    A. Vilhelm Lundstedt.

40
  • Belief in the indeterminacy of law.
  • Many of the legal realists believed that the law
    in the books (statutes, cases, etc.) did not
    determine the results of legal disputes.
  • Belief in the importance of interdisciplinary
    approaches to law. Many of the realists were
    interested in sociological and anthropological
    approaches to the study of law.
  • Belief in legal instrumentalism, the view that
    the law should be used as a tool to achieve
    social purposes and to balance competing societal
    interests.

41
  • The heyday of the legal realist movement came in
    the 1920s through the early 1940s. Following the
    end of World War II, as its leading figures
    retired or became less active, legal realism
    gradually started to fade.
  • Stated differently, Legal Realists advance two
    general claims
  • 1) Law is often indeterminate and judges,
    accordingly, must and do often draw on extralegal
    considerations to resolve the disputes before
    them.
  • 2) The best answer to the question "What is (the)
    law?" is "Whatever judges or other relevant
    officials do".

42
  • Hägerström, who had been influenced by the
    Neo-Kantianism of the Marburg school, rejected
    metaphysics in their entirety.
  • His opinion was that words such as right and
    duty were basically meaningless as they could
    not be scientifically verified or proven.
  • if they could not stand up to a factual test,
    they were mere fantasies.
  • Similarly, Hägerström regarded all value
    judgments as mere emotional expressions using the
    form of judgments without being judgments in the
    proper sense of the word.
  • This position caused Hägerströms critics to
    characterize his philosophy as "value nihilism" -
    a label which was emphatically rejected by
    Hägerström.

43
Axel Hägerströms Rätten och StatenMartin
Fries förord till Axel Hägerströms Rätten och
Staten Natur och kultur Stockholm 1963.
44
  • I Rättsidéers uppkomst ställer sig H. uppgiften
    att undersöka, hur iden om rättigheter och
    skyldigheter uppkommer, historiskt och
    psykologiskt.
  • Materialet hämtas till stor del från den romerska
    rätt åskådningen samt från naturrättsliga
    åskådningar. Undersökningen utmynnar i tanken att
    gällande rätt i sin idévärld är "genomdraga av
    logiskt ohållbara naturrättsliga idéer".
  • I sin undersökning börjar H. med en analys av
    plikten.
  • I sin allmänt moraliska betydelse innesluter den
    ett imperativ av inre art, "du skall" fattat som
    sakligt hörande till ett handlande.
  • Härvid föreligger en tvångskänsla förbunden med
    en viljeimpuls vid iden om en handling såsom
    moraliskt riktig.

45
  • Skillnaden mellan moralisk plikt och rättsplikt
    är nu den, att
  • rättsplikten är det ej endast fråga om ett "du
    skall", utan om "du skall tvingas" till en viss
    handlig.
  • Om A har en rättighet, så är B förpliktad att
    respektera den.
  • Om B inte följer denna förpliktelse anses det
    moraliskt rätt att tvinga B att giva ekvivalent.
  • Vid rättsplikten tillkommer iden om en yttre,
    imperativ makt.

46
  • I sin fortsatta undersökning av rättighetsidén
    hos romarna påvisar H. att det finns en dubbelhet
    i denna ide.
  • Å ena sidan betraktas den faktiska makt över en
    sak som personen får genom processuellt
    förfarande som en följd av hans rättighet till
    saken.
  • Å andra sidan skall enligt samma rättighetsidé
    den ursprungliga rätten ha sin grund i personens
    makt.
  • Därmed kommer H. in på vad som tydligen utgör
    föreläsningens tyngdpunkt uppvisandet av
    rättighetsidens logiska svaghet.
  • Om rättigheter antas existera oberoende av
    gällande rätt, så innesluter detta antagande iden
    om naturliga rättigheter, och frågan blir då,
    huruvida en sådan naturrättsidé kan genomföras i
    verkligheten.
  • Det visar sig beträffande äganderätten följande
    Utan en faktisk rättsordning kan inte ens den
    förste "ockupanten" genom sin personliga makt
    vara trygg i sin besittning och därmed i
    realiteten äga något.
  • Ty med kränkning av äganderätten är denna själv
    upphävd.

47
  • För att komma ifrån fingerandet av en makt av
    naturrättslig art antog Hegel en "allmänvilja",
    bindande de båda parterna i fordringsrätten.
  • När löftesmottagaren gör gällande löftet gentemot
    löftes givaren representerar han allmänviljan.
  • Men, frågar sig Hägerström, hur går det med
    allmänviljan, om löftesgivaren av någon anledning
    skulle vägra att uppfylla kravet?
  • Den blir i själva verket ett ingenting!
  • Iden om en naturligt given fordringsrättighet kan
    endast fasthållas därigenom, att man fingerar en
    mystisk överföring av fordringsägarens makt till
    löftesgivaren genom själva löftet.
  • Makten skall alltså vara given oberoende av
    rättsordningen, men den förutsätter enligt H. i
    själva verket - liksom vid egendomsrätten - i
    hemlighet en maktfull rättsordning såsom redan
    given.

48
  • H, visar att samhällsmakten skulle helt förintas
    utan rättsregler.
  • Staten kan inte själv ge sig rättsregler. Icke
    ens vid revolutioner försättes rättsordningen
    helt ur spel.
  • En revolution får aldrig någon verklig makt, om
    den inte anknyter till folkets rättsföreställninga
    r. Annars skulle endast den rena terrorismen
    föreligga, och den har ej med statlig makt att
    skaffa.
  • Allmänt kan sägas att gällande rätt för den
    enskilde utgöres av regler bestämmande vars och
    ens rättigheter och skyldigheter inom ett visst
    begränsat område. Uppfattningen om vissa reglers
    "bindande kraft" vilar ytterst på pliktkänslor
    beträffande handlingar, vilka gå emot våra
    intressen, samt på kraftkänslo-
    (rättighetskänslor) i fråga om handlingar som
    befordra våra intressen.
  • Till det ovan sagda kommer att rättsordningen
    driver de högsta rättsvardande myndigheterna att
    ingripa mot pliktförsumlighet. Bakom det hela
    ligger ytterst människans samhällsbildande
    tendenser eller instinkter.

49
Lagens mening alltid måste bli föremål för
tolkning
  • Slutligen pekar H. på att lagens mening alltid
    måste bli föremål för tolkning. Men att veta vad
    lagförslagsställaren menat med lagen är inte
    alltid lätt.
  • Det ser då ut som om rättsvetenskapen, om den
    över huvud har att fastställa meningen med
    gällande rätt, måste röra sig med en verklighet
    av helt annan natur än den i erfarenheten givna.
  • Därav förklaras att man kommer till sådana satser
    som att rättsvetenskapen har att behandla börats
    värld, alltså något som inte tillhör
    verkligheten.
  • I modernt juridiskt tänkande inskjuter man, i
    stället för iden om i sig bestående regler för
    rättigheter och skyldigheter, föreställningen om
    statens eller rättsordningens egen vilja.
  • Och denna vilja, menar man, är en naturlig
    verklighet. I själva verket kommer man enligt H.
    endast till mystifikationen "statens vilja". Idén
    om en sådan vilja är emellertid utan mening,
    emedan man vill ha in något i den naturliga
    verkligheten som inte finns där.

50
Gunnar Myrdal, Alva Myrdal and social
engineering
  • His wife, Alva Myrdal (1902-1986) also received
    the Nobel Prize, in her case it was the Nobel
    Peace Prize, in 1982.
  • Alva was an active pacifist and occupied diverse
    diplomatic and governmental posts until she
    became the Minister of Disarmament.
  • Alvas traditional pacifism and the concern of
    the Myrdal couple for developing countries
    anticipated the politics that Olof Palme
    developed in the 1960s which had the Vietnam War
    as its highest priority.
  • Gunnar Myrdal, Swedish economist, obtained the
    Nobel Prize in Economics in 1974, for his
    pioneering work on monetary theory and economic
    fluctuations and for his analysis on the
    interdependence between economic, social and
    institutional events.

51
  • Gunnar Myrdal was appointed Professor of
    Political Economy and International Economics at
    the Stockholm University.
  • Being a socialist, he was senator of the Swedish
    Parliament in various legislatures and Minister
    of Commerce and Industry.
  • He also served as Executive Secretary of the
    United Nations Economic Commission for Europe.
  • Myrdal has insisted that a positive economy is
    impossible, that is to say that it can not be
    normative since any economic proposition implies,
    implicitly or explicitly, moral judgments.

52
The social pact and corporativism the Swedish
way
  • Per Albin Hansson (1885- 1946), Prime Minister
    for 14 years (1932-46), became the nations
    father by enforcing reforms that favoured the
    lower classes without discriminating other social
    classes.
  • On December 20, 1938, the pact known as the
    Saltsjöbadsavtal is signed according to which
    the corporation of workers unions and the
    corporation of employers pledge to abide by a
    series of directives, ordered in some fundamental
    categories
  • a) The creation of a principal organ of
    collaboration called the Employment Board
    Arbetsmarknads-nämnden)
  • b) Directives for negotiation processes
  • c) Directives on the dismissal of workers
  • d) Directives on economic punishment in case of a
    conflict.

53
  • The corporative pact from 1938 was temporarily
    abandoned in the 1970s to return with
    modifications in the beginnings of the 1980s
    still applying today.
  • Swedish corporativism has been called liberal
    corporativism distinguishing it from the
    corporativism that characterized communism and
    fascism at the same period.

54
The peoples home and the racial hygiene
  • A home for the Swedish people required a modern
    society that assured peoples health, by means of
    hygiene, discipline and exercise.
  • These ideas arouse partly from Germany, a country
    that Sweden developed important connections with
    on the fields of hygiene, health and sports.
  • However, not all aspects of this political
    ideology were constructive. Behind these politics
    that were open to the masses hid racist
    ideologies masked in academic activities.
  • This is without doubt the darkest part of Swedish
    modernist politics in the 1930s.
  • The peoples home was after all not open to all
    citizens.
  • There existed first and second class citizens in
    the Sweden of the 1930s. The mentally ill and
    other handicapped individuals suffered
    discrimination and even sterilization with
    eugenic ends.

55
  • The Public Institute for Racial Hygiene (Statens
    institut för rashygien) was created in Uppsala in
    1922.
  • Its first director, Herman Lundborg, confessed
    himself openly to Anti-Semitism and later to
    Nazism.
  • The research at the institute was mostly focused
    on the study of the form and measure of the human
    cranium. Around 1930 the activities of the
    institute abandon their purely racist position
    and begin to study negative genetic heredities.
  • After 1935 a sterilization campaign is initiated
    that permits sterilization even in cases were the
    subject is unwilling to. The sterilization law
    suffers a lot of modifications and is applied
    until 1975, 63 000 people are sterilized in
    Sweden during the period 1935-1975.
  • After 1935, Swedish eugenics applies on
    diseases and other mental and physical
    deviations rather than on races and thus
    survives Nazism.

56
Architectonic functionalism and the Stockholm
Exhibition, 1930
  • Functionalism is an architectonic current that
    assumes its definitive forms around 1925.
  • Its roots are older and coincide with the
    development of the industrial society during the
    19th century.
  • The technical evolution of industry provided
    simple lines, basic forms without decors and
    exactitude in the dimensions. Furthermore, the
    construction of machines and of lodging for the
    industrial production called for the exact
    calculation of production costs.

57
  • The change in the concept of habitat starts as
    soon as 1900 with the modification of train and
    passenger-boat cabins particularly in Germany.
    Around 1920 the work of Le Corbusier arises as
    one of the most important advertisements for new
    architectonic ideas. Now people start talking
    about accommodation and articles of domestic use
    as anonymous servants, created to reduce the
    personnel of domestic service. Accommodation is
    called a machine.
  • The term functionalism was introduced by the
    German art critic Adolf Behne in the book Der
    moderne Zweckbau (The modern functional
    building) from 1926. It is in Germany that
    functionalism is linked with a particular kind of
    aesthetics, the Bauhaus school.

58
  • The Bauhaus school (1919-1933) developed
    functionalism and at the same time angled it to a
    particular aesthetic style.
  • The teachings of the Bauhaus transcended the
    borders of Germany and the chronological limits
    of duration one could say that all architecture
    and design from the 20th century owe a great deal
    to the poetic Bauhaus.
  • New houses for the people, by Uno Åhrén,
    Stockholm 1930.

59
  • Walter Gropius was the founder of Bauhaus and the
    first director, followed by Hannes Meyer and Mies
    van der Rohe. Kandinsky, Klee and Lazlo
    Moholy-Nagy were professors.
  • House in Oslo by Arne Korsmo, 1937
  • The hotel Sokos Vaakuna in Helsinki, 1952
  • The exodus caused by Nazism drove many of these
    artists to the United States, where they
    continued to develop their teachings.
    Functionalism was linked to technical progress
    its suggestions were unrealizable without the
    contemporary technological contributions
    (concrete, steel, etc.).
  • Functionalism acquires its most definite form
    after the year 1930 in direct relation to the
    Stockholm Exhibition, directed by Gregor
    Paulsson.

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THE END
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