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Brad Burbaugh

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Brad Burbaugh – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Brad Burbaugh


1
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2
Pastured Poultry Systems
  • Brad Burbaugh
  • Duval County Extension Service

3
Overview
  • Alternative Production
  • Choosing Meat Breeds
  • Equipment
  • Alternative Poultry Systems
  • Supplies
  • Predator and Disease Control
  • Processing
  • The Business of Pastured Poultry

4
Alternative Poultry Production
  • Pastured Poultry
  • Moveable pens
  • Several options
  • Free range poultry
  • Non-confinement system
  • USDA definition out-of-doors for 51 of their
    lives
  • Organic poultry (very difficult)
  • Begins with day old chicks
  • Feed, pasture and processor must be certified

5
Elements of Pastured Operation
  • Production, processing, and marketing
  • Chickens forage for food
  • Fresh grass portion of diet
  • Fresh pasture offered daily or weekly
  • Fresh air and exercise when foraging
  • Manure is spread evenly onto the pasture

6
Pastured Poultry Pros
  • Can start small and grow
  • Poultry build soil fertility
  • Strong demand for pastured poultry exists
  • Can be run by one person kids can help
  • Provides sustainably produced meat
  • Low capital investment to get started
  • Poultry can attract customers for other products

7
Pastured Poultry Cons
  • Labor intensive especially on-farm processing
  • Mostly seasonal
  • Limited support system of suppliers, contractors
    and suppliers
  • Weather-related stress and predation
  • Reliable processing facilities hard to find

8
Choosing Meat Breeds
  • Unlike with layers, there are limited options
  • Cornish X
  • Other hybrid varieties (Barred Silvers.etc)
  • Dual purpose varieties (Buffs, Barred Rocks)

9
Cornish X
  • Advantages
  • Grows out in about 8 weeks.
  • Lower feed costs than some other breeds.
  • Larger breast meat.
  • Disadvantages
  • More leg heart problems.
  • Less foraging desire.
  • Less flavor.

10
Barred Silvers, Rainbows, etc.
  • Advantages
  • Better foragers
  • Fewer health problems
  • More texture to meat
  • Better flavor
  • Disadvantages
  • Grow out in about 12 weeks
  • Higher feed costs
  • Smaller breasts
  • More texture to meat

11
Equipment for Alternative Production
  • Brooders
  • Home until sufficiently feathered
  • Most critical stage of growth
  • First weeks determine long term survival
    development
  • Be prepared to check your chicks at least twice
    per day. Pay attention to details!
  • Made of many different materials
  • Basic brooder holds as many as 250 chicks can
    cost as little as 100 to construct

12
Brooder Requirements
  • Space
  • 1 square foot per bird
  • Heat Sources
  • 2 light bulbs
  • 95o F for week 1 then decrease 5o F per week.
    (need thermostat)
  • Litter
  • 3 inches of clean dry litter ( No sawdust or
    cedar )
  • Avoid slippery surfaces like newspaper
  • Keep litter around water and feed dry and clean

13
Brooder Requirements
  • Water
  • 1 quart for every 25 birds (clean and fill daily)
  • For large number automatic watering systems work
    best
  • Feeders
  • Place near heat, but not directly underneath
    source
  • Fresh food in front of chicks at all times
  • Delivery Day
  • Brooder should be up and running 24 hr before
    chicks arrive
  • Have them sent overnight
  • Show each bird water source

14
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15
Pasture Housing
  • Protect from rain and cold when first on pasture.
  • After about four weeks, chickens can tolerate
    cold or rain, but not at same time.
  • Need to provide shade. Broilers can not take
    extreme heat.
  • 3 weeks in brooder
  • 7 weeks in pasture

16
Pastured Poultry Systems
  • The Salatin System
  • 80-100 birds per pen
  • Lightweight, bottomless 12 x 10 x 2 (LWH) pen
    moved one pen length onto fresh grass everyday.
  • 1/3 to ½ of the pen has a flat sheet metal roof
  • Most common water system is gravity fed bell
    waterer
  • Cost 130 (Lowes)

17
The Salatin System
  • Advantages
  • Low cost unit
  • Prevents build up of manure
  • Grass cover is not destroyed
  • Poultry protected from flying predators
  • Disadvantages
  • Pens need to be moved everyday
  • Nighttime predators
  • Hard to reach in pen to get birds
  • May not be enough shade during hot periods

18
Day Range Systems
  • Poultry house on skids ( 8 x 18 ) moved to
    field at beginning of growing period
  • Bird on pasture during day and shut in house at
    night.
  • Moved on weekly basis
  • Pasture activity controlled by electrified
    netting.
  • 400 birds per acre
  • Cost is variable
  • 160 electronet poultry fence 160
  • Electrical source variable
  • Poultry house 400

19
Day Range Systems
  • Advantages
  • Better protection from nighttime predators
  • Provides non-wet grounds and protection from rain
  • Easy to catch birds
  • Disadvantages
  • More expensive
  • Exposed to flying predators
  • House needs to be cleaned in between batches
  • Care of birds is required in AM and PM
  • Grass can be damaged if fence not moved often

20
Chicken Tractors
  • Bottomless, portable shelter-pen that fits over
    garden beds
  • Many designs
  • Mostly commonly used with fruit and vegetable
    production
  • Popular among sustainable production enthusiasts

21
Chicken Tractor
  • Advantages
  • Can be moved very easily
  • Insect control
  • Source of fertilizer
  • Used in urban areas
  • Disadvantages
  • Ground can become barren
  • Semi-labor intensive
  • Not made for a large amount of poultry

22
Feeders
  • Hanging System
  • Raise and lower to bird height
  • Outer lip level with birds back
  • Prevents spillage and spoilage
  • Trough Feeder Systems
  • Chickens more susceptible to disease
  • Taken out of pen before moving
  • More chickens can feed at once

23
Watering Systems
  • Five-gallon bucket atop the pen
  • will gravity feed a bell waterer
  • Mesh screen across top
  • Attach to pen
  • Hoses can be used on nipple
  • waterers
  • Daily water consumption at 90o F
  • Chickens8.4 gallons
  • Turkeys..120 gallons
  • Water intake varies greatly

24
Predator Control
  • Type of control depends on system
  • Salatin and tractor nocturnal predators
  • Place pens well inside pastures instead of along
    wooded fence lines. Predators reluctant to travel
    across open territory.
  • Dogs, traps, motion lights, bungee cords
  • Free Range flying predators
  • Have as little tree cover as possible. Poultry
    have a sixth sense in open air.

25
Disease Control
  • Disease rarely reported in pastured poultry
    systems
  • 10 mortality is normal
  • Most common loss due to getting wet in rainstorms
  • Parasites not a problem because of grass rotation
  • Poultry disease flow charts in production section

26
Processing Equipment
  • Kill Cones
  • Scalder
  • Plucker
  • Stainless steel table
  • Running water
  • Plastic tubs
  • Sharp knives
  • Ice
  • Bags

27
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28
The Business of Pastured Poultry
  • Labor
  • 80 hours to build one pen, raise, process and
    market 100 birds
  • Average 20 hours a week
  • Costs
  • Feed is 2/3 of production costs
  • Income
  • Typically, producer nets 50 of sale price
  • Chickens 1.75 per pound _at_ 3.5 pounds
  • Turkeys 3.00 per pound _at_18 pounds

29
Questions
  • References
  • Free Range Poultry Production and Marketing A
    Guide to Raising, Processing, and Marketing
    Premium Quality Chicken and Turkey and Eggs, by
    Herman Beck Chenoweth
  • Success with Baby Chicks, by Robert Plamadon
  • The Chicken Health Handbook, by Gail Demerow
  • Grit!, bimonthly newsletter published by American
    Pastured Poultry Producers Association (APPPA)
  • The Dollar Hen The Classic Guide to American
    Free-Range Egg Farming, by M. Hastings and
    Robert Plamondon
  • Profitable Poultry Raising Birds on Pasture by
    Sustainable Agriculture Network
  • Pastured Poultry Research by Truman State
    University
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