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Development

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Title: Development


1
Development
  • Chun Yi Lee
  • Department of Information and Computer Education
  • National Taiwan Normal University

Multimedia for Learning Methods and Development
2
Initial
  • Development the implementation of a projects
    design.
  • All the computer programming necessary to make
    the whole program function.
  • The production of graphics, audio, and video
    materials.
  • Development of the support materials such as
    directions or manuals, ancillary materials, and
    learner and instructor guides.
  • In the world of educational multimedia,
    development refers to the entire process of
    producing, refining, and validating the program.

3
Development
  • Prepare the text
  • Write program code
  • Create the graphics
  • Produce audio and video
  • Assemble the pieces
  • Prepare support materials
  • Do an alpha test
  • Make revisions
  • Do a beta test
  • Make final revisions
  • Obtain client sign-off
  • validate

4
Project Management
  • A project manager is responsible for ensuring
    that pieces of the project are completed on time
    and within budget.
  • Project management charts are a useful tool to
    keep a project within the budgeted time and cost.
  • Taking the time to plan and design as much as
    possible before starting the development phase.

5
Prepare the Text Components
  • The best way to produce text materials is by
    using a word processor.
  • Make changes easily to wording and structure.
  • Grammar and spelling checking.
  • The ease of sharing documents with other team
    members
  • The ability to track each participants editorial
    suggestions
  • The ease of sharing your work as attachments to
    e-mail.

6
Prepare the Text Components
  • Using Adobe Acrobat or Words Rich Text Format
    (RTF) is useful for moving text between different
    operating systems and hardware platforms.
  • Display text is stored inside the program or as
    an external file?
  • Internal security maybe improved, fewer files
    must be maintained, and the actual programming
    maybe easier.
  • External it is easily edited, changes is made by
    clerical staff rather than programmers,
    facilitation of language translation.

7
Prepare the Text Components
  • Dont convert text information into graphics
    files.
  • It makes updates more onerous because you have to
    redraw the graphic if you want to make any text
    changes.
  • It prevents the proper operation of text search
    features.
  • It precludes the use of text-to-speech devices
    that are intended to make text accessible to
    people with visual disabilities.
  • Web users can change the size, font, and color of
    text that appears in their browsers.
  • This may cause formatting problems and adversely
    affect the visual aesthetics.

8
Write the Program Code
  • Three approaches
  • Authoring system authorware or ToolBook
  • Programming language visual basic, html, java.
  • Applications that serve as an interface between
    you and the computer code FrontPage, DreamWeaver
    and CourseBuilder

9
Write the Program Code
  • Working with an experienced programmer rather
    than attempting to program materials yourself.
  • More quickly, efficiently, and less money.
  • The limitations of your programming ability.
  • Building a library of program building blocks
    makes development more efficient and less costly.
  • Reuse
  • Shared with all developers on your team.

10
Write the Program Code
  • Learners operating system
  • Windows, linux, or Macintosh.
  • Developing for the web
  • The type of browser
  • Using Java, special features of HTML, or external
    enhancements to the browser, such as plug-ins.
  • Different browsers may favor different audio and
    video technologies.
  • Different releases of a browser will have
    different capabilities.

11
Write the Program Code
  • You must understand the characteristics of your
    target computers and their software before you
    begin programming.
  • You should obtain an accurate description from
    your client of all the attributes of equipment
    that learners will be using.
  • Document your code well.
  • Someone will maintain or make changes to our
    program.
  • You need to provide enough information for them
    so that they can figure out what you have done.

12
Create the Graphics
  • Ensure that all graphics in your program have the
    same level of richness and character.
  • The quality of the graphic treatment should match
    the purpose of the program and the image of the
    organization that will use the program.
  • Graphics should take into account the medium of
    delivery.
  • Determine whether a customer has corporate
    standards for graphics and other look-and-feel
    issues.

13
Create the Graphics
  • Being familiar with a variety of graphics design
    software is becoming essential for multimedia
    developers.
  • Object oriented or drawing software Illustrator
    or Freehand. Good for nonatists.
  • Bit-mapped or paint software Painter, Corel
    Photo-Paint. Require more artistic ability.
  • Photo editing software Photoshop. Alter
    photographic images.
  • Web graphics software Fireworks, ImageStyler,
    and WebPainter. Combine features of
    object-oriented, bit-mapped, and photo editing
    software and be especially useful for producing
    graphic images suitable for creating Web sites.
  • The most useful graphics tool for multimedia
    producers is still the camera (digital camera).

14
Create the Graphics
  • Animation production considerations
  • Because it is effective for attracting attention,
    animation should be used sparingly and for
    important information.
  • The quality of animation should be consistent
    throughout the program.
  • The learner should be able to pause, continue,
    repeat, and skip animations.
  • When delivery will occur via the Web, the quality
    and speed of animations should be tested on
    computers with different internet connections
    speeds.
  • Tools Flash, Director, WebPainter, Poser.

15
Produce Video
  • It is difficult to illustrate human behavior in
    interpersonal situations without showing a video.
  • The relationship between video quality and cost.
  • The same that you face the graphics.
  • The medium of delivery must be taken into
    account.
  • To produce video you need a video camera and
    video editing software.
  • Traditional camera or digital camera
  • Video edit program Adobe Premiere, EditDV, Final
    Cut Pro.
  • Creating special video effects After Effects
  • Compressing and creating your final movie Media
    Cleaner Pro.

16
Produce Video
  • The video developer must make decisions about
  • The compression method
  • The size of the video window
  • The frame rate
  • The related audio compression and quality
  • The final file format for the movie
  • The user has to have software on the computer
    that enables a video compressed in a particular
    way to run properly

17
Record the Audio
  • Including audio in multimedia programs can offer
    many advantages
  • People who have difficulty reading
  • People whose skills in reading a second language
    is poor
  • Having the ability to play sounds allows you to
    prepare designs that would be extremely difficult
    or impossible otherwise.
  • For example, lessons on music or singing.

18
Record the Audio
  • Audio is good at attracting attention and it
    combines well with visual stimuli as when an
    unseen narrator describes a picture or a moving
    image.
  • Audio and text can be used effectively to
    distinguish different types of verbal
    information.
  • A good technique is for a program to give
    directions on each page with audio, while
    presenting the main content with visual text.
  • Audio is possible on almost every platform,
    assuming the appropriate hardware is attached to
    the computer.
  • Compared to video, it is easier and less
    expensive to produce audio that is of acceptable
    quality.

19
Record the Audio
  • Design with audio
  • Since the spoken word is slow for many people, we
    recommend that you make listening to audio
    optional.
  • When audio is playing, you should put the exact
    words on the screen or provide simple bullet
    points. We strongly prefer the latter.
  • Providing users with the option of either text or
    voice is beneficial but designers must be careful
    in using text and voice simultaneously.
  • Channel interference it is almost impossible for
    us to understand an audio narrative while reading
    something different.

20
Record the Audio
  • The tools for audio are analogous to those for
    video.
  • Analog tape recorder or digital tape recorder
  • Editing audio SoundForge, SoundEdit 16, WaveLab
  • Programs for creating and editing sound effects
    and instrumental music

21
Assemble the Pieces
  • Assets all the pieces of a program (individual
    components)
  • Keep track of versions of the various assets.
  • Version control
  • Computer files are renamed and date-stamped
    whenever they are changed
  • Documenting exactly which assets are included in
    each version of a program
  • Keeping an assets log
  • Having one person responsible for overall asset
    management.

22
Prepare Support Materials
  • Learner manuals
  • Instructor manuals
  • Technical manuals
  • Adjunct instructional material

23
The Learner Manual
  • Title page
  • Table of contents
  • Important warnings
  • Introduction
  • Equipment you need
  • Startup of the program
  • Trial run
  • Normal running of the program
  • Content summary or supplementary information
  • Forms or worksheets used during the program
  • Technical information
  • Suggestions for further study
  • Index
  • Quick reference guide

24
The instructor Manual
  • Title page
  • Important warnings
  • Introduction
  • Equipment needed
  • How to make backups
  • Setup of equipment
  • Starting the program
  • Trial run
  • Normal running of the program
  • Summary of the content
  • Forms or worksheets used during the program
  • Test item bank
  • Transparency masters or Powerpoint presentations
  • How to access and use instructor options
  • Technical information
  • Suggestions for further study
  • Index
  • Quick reference guide

25
The Technical Manual
  • A technical manual is necessary only if there is
    technical information beyond what is reasonable
    for an instructor manual.
  • Extensive directions for
  • Using the program on a microcomputer network
  • Using the internet
  • Using graphics plotters or laser printers
  • When a program has extensive authoring
    capabilities that allow instructors to enter
    information and questions of their own.

26
Adjunct Instructional Material
  • Extensive adjunct material, such as practice
    sheets, maps, and other large diagrams,
    videotapes or photographic slides, and scoring
    sheets for games.
  • They should keep separate from a learner manual
    if the instructor should reproduce them or if
    learners should not receive them until completing
    the program.

27
Alpha Testing
  • The alpha test is the major test of the program
    by the design and development team the beta test
    is done by the client.
  • Alpha testing should be based on both the
    evaluation (see Chapter 12) form and the style
    manual (see Chapter 13).

28
Alpha Testing
  • Evaluation form
  • Subject matter
  • Auxiliary information
  • Affective considerations
  • Interface
  • Navigation
  • Pedagogy
  • Invisible features
  • Robustness
  • Supplementary materials

29
Alpha Testing
  • The style manual
  • Look and feel
  • Use and placement of a logo
  • Font style, color, and size for text and
    different levels of headings
  • Use of colors
  • Overall screen layout (particularly if delivered
    via the Web)
  • Look and placement of buttons

30
Alpha Testing
  • Style conventions
  • Grammar (such as use of active and passive
    voices, tenses, and moods)
  • Punctuation
  • Spelling
  • Language (such as gender-related language and use
    of names and locations)
  • Culture
  • Graphics

31
Alpha Testing
  • Functionality
  • Restrictions on amount of information needed to
    create a screen (particularly if delivered via
    the Web)
  • Use of certain keyboard conventions
  • Requirement for keyboard equivalents for each
    area clickable by a mouse

32
Making Revisions
  • On the basis of what you discovered during the
    alpha test, you must make revisions to the
    program to eliminate any problems.
  • As with all programs, care must be taken to
    ensure that you do not introduce new problems
    while fixing old ones.
  • As you make changes, ensure that you update the
    documentation.

33
Beta Testing
  • A beta test is a full test of the final product
    by the client.
  • Seven-step process
  • Select the learners
  • Explain the procedure to them
  • Find out how much of the subject matter they know
    already
  • Observe them going through the program
  • Interview them afterward
  • Assess their learning
  • Revise the program

34
Select the Learners
  • The best learners are those who have the
    characteristics of the programs end users.
  • One should be representative of the best of the
    potential learners.
  • One an average learner.
  • One similar to the slowest of the learners that
    will use the program.

35
Explain the Procedure
  • The program is in the process of being developed
    and it is essential to test it before releasing
    it for general use.
  • Ask learners to proceed through the programs as
    though taking it for credit and not to ask you
    for any assistance.
  • Encourage them to make notes about the program
    whenever they have a comment to make (display
    numbers either on the screen or paper).
  • Explain that you will observe them at all times
    and will ask for a variety of information about
    the content and operation of the program at the
    end of the session.

36
Determine Prior Knowledge
  • Determine whether each is a good, average, or
    poor learner.
  • This information is important when interpreting
    the data you collect during the rest of the
    session.
  • The best learners for beta testing will have the
    necessary prerequisites but will not be familiar
    with the program content itself.

37
Observe the Learners Going Through the Program
  • As learners progress, take notes about the
    behavior exhibited, noting the type of behavior
    and where in the program it occurred.
  • Dont interrupt learners and write your question
    down and ask it after they complete the program.
  • Videotape participants and watch the tapes over
    and over at your leisure.
  • Plug a video recorder into the computer,thus
    recording the computer screen in real time and
    showing everything the learner saw on the screen.

38
Interview the Learners Afterward
  • Keep in mind that any criticism you receive
    during the beta testing phase will ultimately
    benefit your program.
  • The type of information you should seek in this
    interview relates both to the content of the
    program and to its operation.
  • How they feel about it?
  • Make an audio recording of the interview so that
    you can review it later.

39
Assess Their Learning
  • How much they learned is ultimately the most
    important information.
  • Follow their use of the program.
  • A written test
  • An oral examination

40
Final Revisions
  • If the reviews were contradictory, you could have
    a few more learners use the program and solicit
    their views as well.
  • If you decide to make the major revisions to the
    program, you should repeat the beta testing
    process with the new version.
  • Your decision should be how much of such testing
    and revision to undertake, not about whether it
    should be done.
  • You should not carry testing and revision too
    far.

41
Obtaining Client Sign-Off
  • The final client sign-off acknowledge that all
    aspects of the program are acceptable.
  • You should keep the client in the loop throughout
    the entire process, getting input and reactions,
    and more important, sign-offs at appropriate
    points.

42
Validating the Program
  • Validation is the process of testing whether the
    program meets its goals in the real learning
    environment.
  • Validation is important for two reasons
  • The real setting in which the program is to be
    used invariably is quite different from where
    alpha or beta tests are conducted.
  • Although every attempt should be made during a
    beta test to use learners who span the range of
    abilities of the target population, you will
    typically find many learners in the middle of the
    range and few at the ends.
  • Data collected from only three or four learners
    can never generalize completely to the entire
    population.

43
Validating the Program
  • Summative evaluation
  • Implies evaluation done after all development and
    revision is completed.
  • Formative evaluation
  • The ongoing evaluation throughout the project.

44
The Four Levels of Evaluation Kirkpatrick (1996)
  • Level-1 Evaluation- Assessing reaction and
    attitude
  • Level-2 Evaluation- Assessing learning
  • Level-3 Evaluation- Assessing behavior change in
    the intended environment
  • Level-4 Evaluation- Assessing results and return
    on investment (ROI)

45
Assessing Reaction and Attitude
  • Assess how much users like it.
  • Assess the attitude of instructors toward a
    program (usually instructors decide to use a
    program in a course).

46
Assessing Learning
  • Ensure people learn what is intended.
  • Measure the skills or the amount learners know
    about the subject matter before taking the
    program and again afterward.
  • Use the results of how learners perform during
    the program itself as an indicator of hw
    effective it is.
  • Give learners a test on the subject matter some
    time after they used the program to determine
    whether thy have retained the information or
    skills (retention test).

47
Assessing Learning
  • Advantages and drawbacks
  • Use a pretest and a posttest
  • Advantages you can measure both how much
    learners know at the end of the program and how
    much improvement has been caused by the program
    itself.
  • Drawbacks it adds extra time to the overall
    program and requires everyone to take a test (the
    pretest) on material they usually have little
    knowledge about that.
  • This can be demotivating for most people.

48
Assessing Learning
  • Advantages and drawbacks
  • Use a test at the end of the program or have a
    number of interactions during the program.
  • Advantages provides both you and and the leaner
    with a developmental measure of performance.
  • Drawbacks it is difficult to measure more
    complex mental skills and knowledge, but easy to
    measure simple ones.

49
Assessing Learning
  • Advantages and drawbacks
  • Use a test sometime after the program has been
    completed.
  • Advantages measures both initial learning and
    retention.
  • Drawbacks
  • both the difficulties in creating a test that
    measures the program goals and the logistical
    difficulties in getting everyone to take the test
    at a later time.
  • It is difficult to attribute any gains directly
    to the test.

50
Assessing Behavior Change in the Intended
Environment
  • Measures whether learners can use what they learn
    in the setting for which the instruction was
    designed.
  • Transfer the extent to which knowledge or
    skills learned in one situation can be used in
    another situation.
  • Level-3 evaluation is easier to do when the
    learning is more skill oriented and thus more
    observable than when it is more knowledge
    oriented.

51
Assessing Behavior Change in the Intended
Environment
  • Level-3 evaluation is rarely done for two
    reasons
  • It is not easy to evaluate the degree to which a
    program impacts on-the-job performance.
  • Most people in educational or training settings
    are so busy that there is little time for
    evaluation because there are so many other things
    yet to be done.

52
Assessing Behavior Change in the Intended
Environment
  • Level-3 evaluation is also helpful for focusing
    your attention on the real reasons for developing
    a program.
  • If you keep in mind what changes in performance
    you want learners to exhibit, you are likely to
    focus the learning activities more directly on
    effecting those changes.

53
Assessing Results and Return on Investment (ROI)
  • The productivity of the person
  • Ultimate goal
  • What return on investment measures is whether the
    money spent on developing and delivering the
    program was worth the investment.

54
Conclusion
  • Plan ahead.
  • Provide strong project management.
  • Keep the client involved and ensure that there
    are no surprises.
  • Assemble a development team of professionals.
  • Emphasize quality in the support materials as
    much as the program itself.
  • Evaluate the program thoroughly and never release
    a program without sufficient evaluation and
    revision.
  • As far as possible, include all Kirkpatricks
    four levels of evaluation in your assessment of
    the effectiveness of the program.
  • Try to obtain support for level-3 and level-4
    evaluation early in the process because these are
    the most difficult to convince clients to buy and
    the most difficult to carry out.

55
End of This Book
  • In part I, we provided an overview of learning
    principles and approaches.
  • In part II, we analyzed in detail the major
    methodologies for using multimedia in education
    tutorials, hypermedia, drills, simulations,
    instructional games, open-ended learning
    environments, and tests.
  • In part III, we provided a practical approach for
    taking your ideas and turning them into effective
    multimedia programs.
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