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Title: Technology%20Integration%20for%20Learner-Centered%20Learning:%20Asynchronous%20and%20Synchronous%20Possibilities

Technology Integration for Learner-Centered
Learning Asynchronous and Synchronous
  • Curt Bonk, Professor, Indiana University
  • President, CourseShare
  • http//
  • http//

What do we need???

1. Models of Technology in Teaching and
Learning(Dennen, 1999, Bonk et al., 2001)
  • Enhancing the Curriculum
  • computers for extra activities drill and
    practice CD
  • Extending the Curriculum
  • transcend the classroom with cross-cultural
    collaboration, expert feedback, virtual field
    trips and online collaborative teams.
  • Transforming the Curriculum
  • allowing learners to construct knowledge bases
    and resources from multiple dynamic resources
    regardless of physical location or time.

My Technology Use
  • Stand Alone Computer Presentations
  • School and University Computer Labs
  • Distance Education Web (WebCT, Blackboard) and
    Videoconferencing Courses
  • Electronic Mail
  • Computer Conferencing Collab Writing
  • Specific Technology Equipment
  • Document Camera, Fax, CD-ROM, Scanner, Digital
    Camera, camcorders, Videotape, Stereos, Scanner,
    Telephone, Audiotape.

2. Reflect on Extent of IntegrationThe Web
Integration Continuum(Bonk et al., 2000)
  • Level 1 Course Marketing/Syllabi via the Web
  • Level 2 Web Resource for Student Exploration
  • Level 3 Publish Student-Gen Web Resources
  • Level 4 Course Resources on the Web
  • Level 5 Repurpose Web Resources for Others
  • Level 6 Web Component is Substantive Graded
  • Level 7 Graded Activities Extend Beyond Class
  • Level 8 Entire Web Course for Resident Students
  • Level 9 Entire Web Course for Offsite Students
  • Level 10 Course within Programmatic Initiative

1. Social (and cognitive) Acknowledgement
"Hello...," "I agree with everything said so
far...," "Wow, what a case," "This case certainly
has provoked a lot of discussion...," "Glad you
could join us..."
6. Cognitive Task Structuring "You know, the
task asks you to do...," "Ok, as was required,
you should now summarize the peer responses that
you have received...," "How might the textbook
authors have solved this case."
4. Four Key Hats of Instructors
  • Technicaldo students have basics? Does their
    equipment work? Passwords work?
  • ManagerialDo students understand the assignments
    and course structure?
  • PedagogicalHow are students interacting,
    summarizing, debating, thinking?
  • SocialWhat is the general tone? Is there a
    human side to this course? Joking allowed?
  • Other firefighter, convener, weaver, tutor,
    conductor, host, mediator, filter, editor,
    facilitator, negotiator, e-police, concierge,
    marketer, assistant, etc.

Personal Learning Trainer
  • Learners need a personal trainer to lead them
    through materials and networks, identify relevant
    materials and advisors and ways to move forward
    (Mason, 1998 Salmon, 2000).

  • While one hopes you will not call yourself this
    nor find the need to make laws and enforce them,
    you will need some Code of Practice or set
    procedures, and protocols for e-moderators (Gilly
    Salmon, 2000).

Other Hats
  • Assistant
  • Devils advocate
  • Editor
  • Expert
  • Filter
  • Firefighter
  • Facilitator
  • Gardener
  • Helper
  • Lecturer
  • Marketer
  • Mediator
  • Priest
  • Promoter

  1. What do you currently do with technology? What
    hats do you wear?
  2. What hats do you want to wear? What do you want
    to do?

Motivational TermsSee Johnmarshall Reeve (1996).
Motivating Others Nurturing inner motivational
resources. Boston Allyn Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)
  1. Tone/Climate Psych Safety, Comfort, Belonging
  2. Feedback Responsive, Supports, Encouragement
  3. Engagement Effort, Involvement, Excitement
  4. Meaningfulness Interesting, Relevant, Authentic
  5. Choice Flexibility, Opportunities, Autonomy
  6. Variety Novelty, Intrigue, Unknowns
  7. Curiosity Fun, Fantasy, Control
  8. Tension Challenge, Dissonance, Controversy
  9. Interactive Collaborative, Team-Based, Community
  10. Goal Driven Product-Based, Success, Ownership

Extrinsic Motivation
  • is motivation that arises from external
    contingencies. (i.e., students who act to get
    high grades, win a trophy, comply with a
    deadlinemeans-to-an-end motivation)
  • See Johnmarshall Reeve (1996). Motivating Others
    Nurturing inner motivational resources. Boston
    Allyn Bacon. (UW-Milwaukee)

Intrinsic Motivation
  • innate propensity to engage ones interests and
    exercise ones capabilities, and, in doing so, to
    seek out and master optimal challenges
  • (i.e., it emerges from needs, inner strivings,
    and personal curiosity for growth)

See Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic
motivation and self-determination in human
behavior. NY Plenum Press.
More students get MBAs online Programs suit busy
executives many schools remain aloof. By Del
Jones, USA TODAY, Feb 11, 2003
  • The faculty at Duke worried about the lack of
    networking until its first batch of semi-online
    students gathered for graduation in 1997. Those
    students who had conversed by e-mail and over
    bulletin boards seemed to be better friends at
    graduation than traditional students, says Nevin
    Fouts, associate dean of the Fuqua School of

Web Facilitation???Berge Collins
AssociatesMauri Collins and Zane L.
Teaching in Your Pajamas Lessons of Online
Classes, Peggy Minnis, New York Times, Teachers
Journal, Feb 12, 2003
  • One of my favorite parts of college teaching is
    dressing up and putting on a good show. I plan my
    outfits, apply makeup, coordinate accessories,
    even rework my lecture cue cards.
  • But here I sit on a Friday night, lecturing 25
    students in my lavender pajamas. I'm teaching
  • Teaching online also required rethinking how I
    deliver the subject matter. For 17 years, I've
    taught chemistry and environmental science
    standing in front of students.

Why Are Teachers Resistant?Hannafin and Savenye
  • Believe the software is poorly designed
  • Become frustrated in how to use.
  • Do not want to look stupid
  • Do not believe that computers enhance learning
  • Fear losing control and being in the center
  • See computers competing with other academic tasks
  • See time and effort to use as too great
  • Fear upsetting unsupportive administrators

More Blended Ideas(Bonk, 2003)
  • Take to lab for online group collaboration.
  • Take to computer lab for Web search.
  • Take to an electronic conference.
  • Put syllabus on the Web.
  • Create a class computer conference.
  • Require students sign up for a listserv.
  • Use e-mail minute papers e-mail admin.
  • Have students do technology demos.

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My Technology Use
  • Stand Alone Computer Presentations
  • School and University Computer Labs
  • Distance Education Web (WebCT, Blackboard) and
    Videoconferencing Courses
  • Electronic Mail
  • Computer Conferencing Collab Writing
  • Specific Technology Equipment
  • Document Camera, Fax, CD-ROM, Scanner, Digital
    Camera, camcorders, Videotape, Stereos, Scanner,
    Telephone, Audiotape.

More Technology Tools
  • Cognitive Tools graphing tools, spreadsheets,
    word processors, and databases
  • Class Management Gradebooks, track students
  • Presentation/Integration Smart lecturns
  • Testing Essay grade, computer adaptive testing
  • Classroom Assessment Digital portfolios
  • MBL--sensors, probes, microphones, motion det
  • Hand held Devices Graphing calculators, palm
  • Assistance Technology screen magnifiers, speech
    synthesizers and digitizers, voice recognition
    devices, touch screens, alternative keyboards

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Online Exams and Gradebooks
Technology Ideas
  • Bring in experts via video/computer conferencing
  • Teleconferencing talks to tchrs experts
  • Reflect on field debate cases on the Web
  • Make Web resources accessible
  • Collab with Students in other places/countries
  • Have students generate Web pages/pub work
  • Represent knowledge with graphing tools

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More Technology Ideas
  • Take to lab for group collaboration.
  • Take to computer lab for Web search.
  • Take to an electronic conference.
  • Put syllabus or class pic on the Web.
  • Create a class computer conference.
  • Have students do technology demos.

Post Syllabus is Important!
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Still More Technology Idas
  • Find Free Concept Clips on Internet.
  • Show Web site glossary--let explore eval.
  • Final project presentations with technology
  • Scavenger hunt (including items on Web).
  • Explore simulations and Web sites.
  • Create electronic portfolios (CD, Web, video)
  • Peer Mentoring sign up.

Web Resource and Tool Reviews
Teacher E-Portfolios
  • Digital pictures of student activities
  • Handouts from coursework
  • Philosophy statements
  • Videotapes of teaching
  • Audio recordings
  • Lesson plans
  • Letters to parents
  • Letters of rec
  • Sample writing
  • Newspaper clippings of their activities
  • Work from students
  • Student evaluations
  • Self-evaluations

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Blended LearningSample Synchronous and
Asynchronous Activities
(David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23
October 2001, p. 18)
10 Blended Asynchronous Activities
  1. Social Ice Breakers intros, favorite Web sites
  2. Learner-Content Interactions self-testing
  3. Scenario-Based Simulations
  4. Starter-Wrapper Discussion, Other Forums
  5. Anonymous Suggestion Box
  6. Role Play, Debate, Assume Persona of a Scholar
  7. Online Experiments and Demonstrations
  8. Case-Based Learning and Authentic Data Analysis
  9. Online Reflection or Polling
  10. Perspective Taking, Gallery Tour of Work

1. Social Ice Breakers
  • a. Introductions require not only that students
    introduce themselves, but also that they find and
    respond to two classmates who have something in
    common (Serves dual purpose of setting tone and
    having students learn to use the tool)
  • b. Favorite Web Site Have students post the URL
    of a favorite Web site or URL with personal
    information and explain why they choose that one.

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Tone/Climate Social Ice Breakers
  • c. Scavenger Hunt
  • 1. Create a 20-30 item online scavenger hunt
    (e.g., finding information on the Web)
  • 2. Post scores
  • d. Two Truths, One Lie
  • Tell 2 truths and 1 lie about yourself
  • Class votes on which is the lie

2a. Learner-Content Interactions Self-Testing
2b. Students Play Online Jeopardy
2c. Double-Jeopardy Quizzing
  • Gordon McCray, Wake Forest University, Intro to
    Management of Info Systems
  • Students take objective quiz (no time limit and
    not graded)
  • Submit answer for evaluation
  • Instead of right or wrong response, the quiz
    returns a compelling probing question, insight,
    or conflicting perspective (i.e., a counterpoint)
    to force students to reconsider original
  • Students must commit to a response but can use
    reference materials
  • Correct answer and explanation are presented

3. Scenario-Based Simulations
4a. Discussion Starter-Wrapper (Hara, Bonk,
Angeli, 2000)
  • Starter reads ahead and starts discussion and
    others participate and wrapper summarizes what
    was discussed.
  • Start-wrapper with roles--same as 1 but include
    roles for debate (optimist, pessimist, devil's
  • Alternative Facilitator-Starter-Wrapper
    (Alexander, 2001)
  • Instead of starting discussion, student acts as
    moderator or questioner to push student thinking
    and give feedback

4b. Multiple Discussion Topics
  • Generate multiple discussion prompts and ask
    students to participate in 2 out of 3
  • Provide different discussion tracks (much like
    conference tracks) for students with different
    interests to choose among
  • List possible topics and have students vote
    (students sign up for lead diff weeks)
  • Have students list and vote.

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4c. Discussion and Questioning(Morten Flate
Pausen, 1995
  1. Shot Gun Post many questions or articles to
    discuss and answer anystudent choice.
  2. Hot Seat One student is selected to answer many
    questions from everyone in the class.
  3. 20 Questions Someone has an answer and others
    can only ask questions that have yes or no
    responses until someone guesses answer.

5a. Web-Supported GroupReading Reactions and
  • Give a set of articles.
  • Post reactions to 3-4 articles that intrigued
  • What is most impt in readings?
  • React to postings of 3-4 peers.
  • Summarize posts made to their reaction.
  • (Note this could also be done in teams)

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5b. Critical Friend Feedback
5c. Requiring Peer Feedback
  • Alternatives
  • 1. Require minimum of peer comments and give
    guidance (e.g., they should do)
  • 2. Peer Feedback Through Templatesgive templates
    to complete peer evaluations.
  • 3. Have e-papers contest(s)

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5d. Formative Feedback Anonymous Suggestion Box
  • George Watson, Univ of Delaware, Electricity and
    Electronics for Engineers
  • Students send anonymous course feedback (Web
    forms or email)
  • Submission box is password protected
  • Instructor decides how to respond
  • Then provide response and most or all of
    suggestion in online forum
  • It defuses difficult issues, airs instructor
    views, and justified actions publicly.
  • Caution If you are disturbed by criticism,
    perhaps do not use.

6a. Role PlayAssume Persona of Scholar
  • Enroll famous people in your course
  • Students assume voice of that person for one or
    more sessions
  • Enter debate topic or Respond to debate topic
  • Respond to reading reflections of others or react
    to own

6b. Role Play Personalities Idea Generator
Creative Energy/Inventor
  • Brings endless energy to online conversations
    and generates lots of fresh ideas and new
    perspectives to the conference when addressing
    issues and problems.

Slacker/Slough/Slug/Surfer Dude
  • In this role, the student does little or nothing
    to help him/herself or his/her peers learn.
    Here, one can only sit back quietly and listen,
    make others do all the work for you, and
    generally have a laid back attitude (i.e., go to
    the beach) when addressing this problem.

6c. Six Hats (from De Bono, 985 adopted for
online learning by Karen Belfer, 2001, Ed Media)
  • White Hat Data, facts, figures, info (neutral)
  • Red Hat Feelings, emotions, intuition, rage
  • Yellow Hat Positive, sunshine, optimistic
  • Black Hat Logical, negative, judgmental, gloomy
  • Green Hat New ideas, creativity, growth
  • Blue Hat Controls thinking process
  • Note technique used in a business info systems
    class where discussion got too predictable!

6d. Instructor Generated Virtual Debate (or
student generated)
  1. Select controversial topic (with input from
  2. Divide class into subtopic pairs one critic and
    one defender.
  3. Assign each pair a perspective or subtopic
  4. Critics and defenders post initial position stmts
  5. Rebut person in ones pair
  6. Reply to 2 positions with comments or qs
  7. Formulate and post personal positions.

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6e. Symposia of Experts
  1. Find topic during semester that peaks interest
  2. Find students who tend to be more controversial
  3. Invite to a panel discussion on a topic or theme
  4. Have them prepare statements
  5. Invite questions from audience (rest of class)
  6. Assign panelists to start

Panels of Experts
  • 6f. Be an Expert/Ask an Expert Have each learner
    choose an area in which to become expert and
    moderate a forum for the class. Require
    participation in a certain number of forums
  • 6g. Press Conference Have a series of press
    conferences at the end of small group projects
    one for each group)

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6h. Secret Coaches and Proteges
  1. Input learner names into a Web site.
  2. When learners arrive it randomly assigns them a
    secret protégé for a meeting.
  3. Tell them to monitor the work of their protégé
    but to avoid being obvious by giving feedback to
    several different people.
  4. Give examples of comments.
  5. At end of mtg, have proteges guess coaches.
  6. Discuss how behavior could be used in other

7. Online Co-laborative Psych Experiments
  • PsychExperiments (University of Mississippi)
  • Contains 30 free psych experiments
  • Location independent
  • Convenient to instructors
  • Run experiments over large number of subjects
  • Can build on it over time
  • Cross-institutional

Ken McGraw, Syllabus, November, 2001
8a. Case-Based Learning Student Cases
  • Model how to write a case
  • Practice answering cases.
  • Generate 2-3 cases during semester based on field
  • Link to the text materialrelate to how how text
    author or instructor might solve.
  • Respond to 6-8 peer cases.
  • Summarize the discussion in their case.
  • Summarize discussion in a peer case.
  • (Note method akin to storytelling)

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8b. Instructor or Text Generated Cases
8c. Cases from NewsAuthentic Data Analysis
  • Jeanne Sept, IU, Archaeology of Human Origins
    Components From CD to Web
  • A set of research questions and problems that
    archaeologists have posed about the site (a set
    of Web-based activities)
  • A complete set of data from the site and
    background info (multimedia data on sites from
    all regions and prehistoric time periods in
  • A set of methodologies and addl background info
    (TimeWeb tool to help students visualize,
    analyze, interpret, and explore space/time

9. Analyzing Cases with Wireless Technology
9a. Reflective Writing
  • Alternatives
  • Minute Papers, Muddiest Pt Papers
  • PMI (Plus, Minus, Interesting), KWL
  • Summaries
  • Pros and Cons
  • Email instructor after class on what learned or
    failed to learn
  • (David Brown, Syllabus, January 2002, p. 23
  • October 2001, p. 18)

9b. Thoughtful Reflections on Web
9c. Electronic Voting and Polling
  • 1. Ask students to vote on issue before class
    (anonymously or send directly to the instructor)
  • 2. Instructor pulls our minority pt of view
  • 3. Discuss with majority pt of view
  • 4. Repoll students after class
  • (Note Delphi or Timed Disclosure Technique
    anomymous input till a due date
  • and then post results and
  • reconsider until consensus
  • Rick Kulp, IBM, 1999)

Student Generated Polls
9d. Survey Student Opinions (e.g., InfoPoll,
SurveySolutions, Zoomerang,
10a. Perspective Taking Foreign Languages
  • Katy Fraser, Germanic Studies at IU and Jennifer
    Liu, East Asian Languages and Cultures at IU
  • Have students receive e-newsletters from a
    foreign magazine as well as respond to related
  • Students assume roles of those in literature from
    that culture and participate in real-time chats
    using assumed identity.
  • Students use multimedia and Web for self-paced
    lessons to learn target language in authentic

10b. Job or Field Reflections
  • 1. Field Definition Activity Have student
    interview (via e-mail, if necessary) someone
    working in the field of study and share their
  • As a class, pool interview results and develop a
    group description of what it means to be a
    professional in the field

10c. Share Work in Gallery Tour
Blended Synchronous Activities? (Sheinberg,
April 2000, Learning Circuits)
Synchronous WBT Products Jennifer Hoffman, ASTD,
Learning Circuits, (2000, Jan)
  • Deluxe (InterWise, LearnLinc, Centra)
  • 2-way audio using VOIP, one-way or two-way video,
    course scheduling, tracking, text chat,
    assessment (requires thick client-side software)
  • Standard (HorizonLive, PlaceWare)
  • One-way VOIP or phone bridge for two-way audio,
    text chat, application viewing, (requires thin
    client-side app or browser plug-ini)
  • Economy (Blackboard, WebCT)
  • Browser-based, chat, some application viewing
    (Requires Java-enabled browsers, little cost,

Web Conferencing Features
  • Audio (VOIP, bridge) and Videostreaming
  • Application Sharing or Viewing (e.g., Word and
    PowerPoint) Includes remote control and emoticons
  • Text (QA) Chat (private and public)
  • Live Surveys, Polls, and Reports
  • Synchronous Web Browsing
  • File Transfer

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10 Synchronous Activities
  1. Webinar, Webcast
  2. Synchronous Testing and Assessment
  3. Sync Guests or Expert Forums, Séance
  4. Threaded Discussion Plus Expert Chat
  5. Moderated Online Team Meeting
  6. Collaborative Online Writing
  7. Online Mentoring
  8. Graphic Organizers in Whiteboard (e.g., Venn)
  9. Human Graphs (videoconferencing)
  10. Stand and Share (videoconferencing)

1. Webinar
2. Synchronous Testing Assessment(Giving Exams
in the Chat Room!, Janet Marta, NW Missouri State
Univ, Syllabus, January 2002)
  1. Post times when will be available for 30 minute
    slots, first come, first serve.
  2. Give 10-12 big theoretical questions to study
  3. Tell can skip one.
  4. Assessment will be a dialogue.
  5. Get them there 1-2 minutes early.
  6. Have hit enter every 2-3 sentences.
  7. Ask qs, redirect, push for clarity, etc.
  8. Covers about 3 questions in 30 minutes.

3a. Electronic Guests Mentoring
3b. Electronic Seance
  • Students read books from famous dead people
  • Convene when dark (sync or asynchronous).
  • Present present day problem for them to solve
  • Participate from within those characters (e.g.,
    read direct quotes from books or articles)
  • Invite expert guests from other campuses
  • Keep chat open for set time period
  • Debrief

4. Threaded Discussion plus Expert Chat (e.g.,
Starter-Wrapper Sync Guest Chat)
5. Moderated Online Team Meeting
6. Collaborative Online Writing Peer-to-Peer
Document Collaboration
7. Online Mentoring(e.g., GlobalEnglish)
8. Graphic Organizers(e.g., Digital Whiteboards)
9. Human Graph (formative Feedback) When
  • Have students line up on a scale (e.g., 1 is low
    and 5 is high) on camera according to how they
    feel about something (e.g., topic, the book,
  • Debrief

10. Stand and Share (Interaction) when
  • Have students think about a topic or idea and
    stand when they have selected an answer or topic.
  • Call on students across sites and sit when speak.
  • Also, sit when you hear your answer or your ideas
    are all mentioned by someone else.

Look for Tech Champions
  • Joachim Hammer, University of Florida, Data
    Warehousing and Decision Support
  • Voice annotated slides on Web 7 course modules
    with a number of 15-30 minutes units
  • Biweekly QA chat sessions moderated by students
  • Bulletin Board class discussions
  • Posting to Web of best 2-3 assignments
  • Exam Qs posted to BB answers sent via email
  • Team projects posted in a team project space
  • Web resources white papers, reports, projects

Pick an Idea
  • Definitely Will Use ___________________________
  • May Try to Use ___________________________
  • No Way ___________________________

What About Instructor Sharing and Support???
Research Results
  • 9 case studies of online classes using
    asynchronous discussion
  • Topics sociology, history, communications,
    writing, library science, technology, counseling
  • Range of class size 15 - 106
  • Level survey, upper undergraduate, and graduate
  • Tools custom and commercial
  • Private, semi-public, and public discussion areas

Guidelines and Feedback
  • Qualitative discussion guidelines and feedback
    helped students know what their participation
    should look like
  • Quantitative discussion guidelines and feedback
    comforted students and was readily understood by
  • Feedback of both varieties was needed at regular
    intervals, although the qualitative feedback need
    not be individualized

  • Deadlines motivated participation
  • Message counts increased in the days immediately
    preceding a deadline
  • Deadlines inhibited dialogue
  • Students posted messages but did not discuss
  • Too much lag time between initial messages and

  • Instructor modeling increased the likelihood of
    student messages meeting quality and content
  • Modeling was more effective than guidelines

Facilitating Electronic Discussion (see also
Mauri Collins and Zane L. Bergehttp//www.emodera
  • Have Students Initiate Discussion
  • Provide Guidelines and Structure
  • Sign Up for Roles
  • Foster Role Play, Debate, and Interaction
  • Assign Due Dates, Times, Points
  • Converse, dont dictate, be flexible
  • Constantly Monitor
  • Weave and summarize weekly
  • Assign Buddies/Pals or Mentors

Faculty Support for Online learning???
TrainingOutside Support
  • Training (
  • Courses Certificates (JIU, e-education)
  • Reports, Newsletters, Pubs
  • Aggregators of Info (CourseShare, Merlot)
  • Global Forums ( GEN)
  • Resources, Guides/Tips, Link Collections, Online
    Journals, Library Resources

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Distance Ed Certificate Program (Univ of
  • 12-18 month self-paced certificate program, 20
    CEUs, 2,500-3,185
  • Integrate into practical experiences
  • Combines distance learning formats to cater to
    busy working professionals
  • Open enrollment and self-paced
  • Support services

  • Online Sharing is Key!!!
  • (Course Aggregators, WLH,,,
  • E-learning is revolutionizing the way people
    learn and share information.
  • Elsa Schelin, (2001, April), e-learning, 2(4),
    pp. 26 28.
  • Reduce, reuse, recycle.
  • Chris Jones, (2001, Jan.), OnlineLearning, 5(1),
    p. 62.

  • Administrators and faculty members at the
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology are
    debating what could become a 100-million effort
    to create extensive World Wide Web pages for
    nearly every course the university offers.
  • Jeffrey R. Young, March 1, 2001, The Chronicle of
    Higher Ed
  • Also See MIT Cheered from a Distance, Wired
    News, http//,1284,428

University Resource Partnership
  • 3/3/02 DSpace Archive MIT and HP to create a LT
    sustainable digital repository
  • Instead of submitting the paper to a print
    commercial journal and waiting months for the
    results to be published, the researcher can
    simply pull up MITs Center of Teleportation
    Research Web page and instandly submit the paper
    and data online, for all his cohorts to review.
  • Kendra Mayfield Wired News, College Archives
    Dig Deeper.
  • http//,1284,54229,00.

National Resource Partnership
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What is a Learning Object?
  • Learning Objects are small or large resources
    that can be used to provide a learning
    experience. These assets can be lessons, video
    clips, images, or even people. The Learning
    Objects can represent tiny "chunks" of knowledge,
    or they can be whole courses.
  • Claude Ostyn, Click2Learn

Software Developers Book Publishers
Hollywood Producers
Newspapers On-Line
Cable Companies Broadcasters
Telephone Cos. Computer Nets
Retail Stores
QuickTime OS/2
ADL Functional Requirements (Bob Wisher, 2001)
Accessible access instructional components from
one location and deliver them to many other
locations Interoperable use instructional
components developed in one location with a
different platform in another location Reusable
incorporate instructional components into
multiple applications Durable operate
instructional components when base technology
changes, without redesign or recoding Affordable
increase learning effectiveness significantly
while reducing time and costs
Overhaul of Basic Practices
  • Vita will mainly be about learning objects
    created for teaching research is secondary
  • Conferences will emerge on learning objects and
    sharing best practices
  • Learning object forums on college campuses
  • Instructors will be equated with objects
  • There will be a black market of learning objects

Overhaul of Basic Practices
  • All pay based on learning objects generated
  • Object exchange sites and programs
  • Instructors form teams to generate content
  • Lawsuits between text publishers and universities
  • Instructor base pay and royalties
  • From diploma mills to object bills

Overhaul of Basic Practices
  • Universities no longer exist replaced by
  • New types of universities emerge
  • New definitions of what a teacher/teaching is
  • Skills find and filter information, flexible
    scheduling, individualization of content, match
    needs to content, question students on learning,
    organize guest experts to comment on information
  • New consortia form
  • Reuse university space

At one university, (the Univ of North Texas)
royalties entice professors to design Web
courses(to spend on professional dev, research,
grading, teaching help, or pocket as a
bonus)however, the department had to add an
extra feeabout 8.50 per studentsto cover the
professors royalty. Jeffrey Young, March 30,
2001, Chronicle of Higher Education
  • Before creating or teaching a course, professors
    sign a contract outlining who owns what, and how
    much of any future revenue from the course the
    professor will get if the university offers the
    course without his or her involvement. (contract
    copies are at http//
  • Jeffrey Young, March 30, 2001, Chronicle of
    Higher Education

TrainingInside Support
  • Instructional Consulting
  • Mentoring (strategic planning )
  • Small Pots of Funding
  • Facilities
  • Summer and Year Round Workshops
  • Office of Distributed Learning
  • Colloquiums, Tech Showcases, Guest Speakers
  • Newsletters, guides, active learning grants,
    annual reports, faculty development, brown bags

Technology and Professional Dev Ten Tips to Make
it Better (Rogers, 2000)
  • 1. Offer training, mentors, tutorials
  • 2. Give technology to take home
  • 3. Provide on-site technical support
  • 4. Encourage collegial collaboration
  • 5. Send to professional development
  • 6. Stretch the day
  • 7. Encourage research
  • 8. Provide online resources
  • 9. Lunch bytes, faculty institutes
  • 10. Celebrate success

Final advicewhatever you do
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