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Work as a Priority Strategies for Employing People with Psychiatric and Cooccurring Disabilities who


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Title: Work as a Priority Strategies for Employing People with Psychiatric and Cooccurring Disabilities who

Work as a PriorityStrategies for Employing
People with Psychiatric and Co-occurring
Disabilities who are Homeless
  • Sponsored by
  • The California Institute for Mental Health
  • Facilitated by
  • Gary Shaheen
  • Laura Ware
  • Advocates for Human Potential, Inc.
  • 518-475-9146, ext. 243

DAY 1 Learning Objectives
  • Learn about factors resulting from homelessness
    that affect peoples ability to obtain and retain
  • Understand how recovery and rehabilitation
    principles and practices can provide the
    foundation for employment success.
  • Understand how to address factors of motivation,
    self esteem, powerlessness that affect employment
  • Apply information through scenario exercises

Larry MeredithIn Hooked by Lonny Shavelson 2001
  • If we are going to make a difference, then we
    have to realize that drug abuse mental health
    is related to housing is related to health care
    is related to joblessness is related to poverty.
    You cant deal with any one of those without
    dealing with all of them.

  • I have been homeless for five years
  • I have schizophrenia and have been drug addicted
    since the age of six
  • I smoked crack
  • Did some time a few years back on a burglary
  • I dont know where Im going to sleep tonight
  • Shelters are bad places where they rob you and
    beat you up. The staff looks the other way.
  • I am an artist. I could be a millionaire if I
    could get money to make and sell my paintings
  • If the Mayor can spend millions building a new
    city hall he should be able to give us money to
    help us get jobs and a decent place to live.

Disincentives to Employment
  • Distrust
  • Focus on immediate needs
  • Co-occurring disabilities
  • Learned helplessness and emotional instability
  • Functional limitations
  • Cognitive limitations
  • Illiteracy
  • Communication deficits
  • Physical/emotional trauma
  • Poor self-esteem
  • Fragmented or inadequate services/supports
  • Mobility
  • Skills mismatch
  • Fear
  • Legal issues custody convictions, judgements,
  • Lack of personal documentation
  • Child care
  • Transportation
  • Earning disincentives
  • Lack of permanent address and phone
  • Lack of hope
  • Lack of skills regarding how to work towards a
    sustained goal, not just immediate gratification

Program-Level Challenges
  • Lack of knowledge, experience
  • Paradigm paralysis
  • Different providers speak different languages and
    often cant share much information
  • Readiness prerequisites
  • Ethnic/cultural sensitivity
  • Different outcome expectations
  • Different roles and turf issues
  • Not enough or in the wrong places
  • Lack of coordination, communication
  • Promising more than can be delivered

Service System Challenges
  • Different systems are not aware of each other,
    and are resistant to change
  • Fragmentation-funding sources, priorities, roles,
    criteria, etc
  • Political priorities and issues that may prevent
    effective communication
  • Stigma
  • Lack of
  • Lack of cross-systems training
  • EBPs not understood

Breaking the Cycle
  • Trust-building is fundamental
  • Recognize/utilize personal strengths
  • Provide factual information
  • Teach by example
  • Recognize and address complex needs
  • Affirm personal dignity and self-worth
  • Reinforce personal responsibility, choice and
  • Facilitate discussions to help individual see how
    previous choices and decisions can be done
  • Adapt vocational approaches to meet needs
  • Provide comprehensive, long-term supports

Common Themes
  • Jobs that people want and can
  • manage well
  • Linking Housing First/Work First
  • Entrepreneurial approaches
  • Clear reasonable expectations
  • for all parties
  • Flexible outcomes
  • Redefining failure
  • Provide personal service supports
  • No arbitrary time limits
  • Hire consumers as staff
  • Cultural competence/relevance
  • Link to treatment, rehabilitation, recovery

Guiding Principles 1
  • Treat people on the basis of facts and inherent
    capabilities, not generalizations and stereotypes
  • Provide genuine, effective, and meaningful
    opportunity (provide reasonable accommodations
    and modifications) in integrated mainstream

Guiding Principles 2Social Justice and Equity
  • XXX of all people who are homeless are persons
    of color
  • Stigma, discrimination is a triple whammy-
  • 1) homelessness mental illness substance
    abuse criminal justice issues
  • 2) poverty and disenfranchisement
  • 3) racial stereotyping, prejudice and
  • You should consider the impacts of these factors
    on employment as well!

Guiding Principles 3 FULL PARTICIPATION
  • Involve people in decision-making at the
    individual, management and systems levels
  • Ensure informed choice and share information
    using various mediums
  • Provide support for self-determination,
    empowerment and self-advocacy

  • Homelessness is a Revolving Door Phenomenon
  • Point in Time vs. Longer Time Frame
  • Identified 3 Subgroups
  • Transient
  • Episodic
  • Chronic

  • Transient 80 of overall population, single,
    economically caused episode, low rates of illness
  • Episodic 10 of overall population, multiple
    episodes of homelessness over time
  • Chronic 10 of overall population, multiple,
    complex problems, long term homelessness

  • Changing for Good-Prochaska, Norcross
    DiClemente, 1994
  • Motivational Interviewing Preparing People to
    Change Addictive Behavior-Miller Rollnick,
  • PATHPROGRAM.COM-Click on Technical Assistance
  • Implementing Interventions for Homeless
    Individuals with Co-Occurring Mental Health and
    Substance Abuse Disorders-Winarski, 1998

  • Engagement
  • Persuasion
  • Active Treatment
  • Relapse Prevention

Source Osher and Kofoed (1989)
  • Develop
  • Relationship
  • - Outreach Skills
  • - Interpersonal Skills
  • Provide Basic Supports
  • Peer Intervention
  • Hospitalization
  • Outpatient Treatment
  • Residential Treatment
  • - Medication
  • - Individual Therapy
  • - Group Therapy
  • - Peer Support
  • Psycho-education
  • Drug-education
  • Rehabilitation Skills for
  • Supported -
  • Housing
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Peer Interventions
  • Community/Peer Support
  • Individual/Group Therapy
  • Psycho-education
  • Identify Signs/Triggers
  • for Relapse
  • Rehabilitation Skills for
  • Supported -
  • Housing
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Peer Interventions
  • Develop
  • Relationship
  • - Outreach Skills
  • - Interpersonal Skills
  • Provide Basic Supports
  • Develop Readiness
  • - Enhance Motivation
  • Peer Intervention

Case Management - Planning - Linking
- Advocating
Consumer Self-Report of Items Important to
Recovery (Ralph,R)
  • Ability to have hope
  • Trusting my own thoughts
  • Enjoying my environment
  • Feeling alert and alive
  • Increased self-esteem, spirituality
  • Knowing I have a tomorrow
  • Having a job

How MH Professionals Help (Ralph,R)
  • Encourage my independent thinking
  • Treat me like an equal in planning my services
  • Give me freedom to make my own mistakes
  • Listen to me and believes what I say
  • Recognize my abilities
  • Work with me to find the resources/services that
    I need

  • Recovery Occurs for All People
  • Recovery Occurs at Multiple Levels
  • and at Variable Rates The Centrality of Loss
  • Recovery Follows a Non-Linear Course

Source Winarski and Dubus (1995)
  • Create Environments that are Conducive
  • to Recovery.
  • Attend to Motivational States.
  • Respond to Mental Health Substance Use
  • Disorders Simultaneously.
  • Create Community.
  • Define Expectations.

Source Winarski and Dubus (1995)
Role Recovery is.
  • Obtaining and sustaining a valued role as a
  • Worker
  • Family-member
  • Friend
  • Homeowner/tenant
  • Partner, etc
  • By overcoming personal losses, setbacks,
    obstacles, and limitations
  • Obtaining the skills and trust from others needed
    to perform that role
  • Educating others re personal abilities
  • Using natural and professional supports as needed

Worker Role Recovery-Two Dimensions
  • Setting work goals
  • Testing work preferences
  • Evaluating skills, personal strengths and
    supports against goals
  • Skills Teaching tasks and work habits, as well
    as pursuing, obtaining and managing success
  • Support Service planning
  • Identify values preferences, choices
  • Prepare for change personal and environmental
  • Honest self-assessment
  • Trust in self and others
  • Hope for the future

  • Longitudinal approach collect and interpret
  • information during each contact.
  • Focus on signs and symptoms rather than
  • making diagnosis.
  • Comprehensive assessments may take many
  • weeks and/or months.

  • Assessment takes place concurrently with
  • that facilitate connection to the program.
  • Information is most effectively gathered in the
  • context of a trusting relationship.
  • Gather information in an environment free from
  • distractions.

Collect and Interpret Information
Ask Critical Questions
Source Bassuk (1994)
Tips for Effective Interviewing
  • Choose between open-ended and closed-ended
  • Avoid leading questions.
  • Structure chronological answers.
  • Divide the experience into parts.
  • Share experiences by generalized feelings.
  • Be aware of non-verbal communication
  • Conclude the interview.

Common Errors in Interviewing
  • Imposing values.
  • Offering false reassurance.
  • Asking double questions.
  • Interrupting answers.
  • Discouraging or forbidding the expression of real
  • Saying I understand inappropriately.

Techniques for Identifying Dual Disorders
  • Screen-expectation not an exception. Increase the
    Index of suspicion.
  • Self-report
  • Signs and Symptoms
  • Chemical testing
  • Collateral information
  • Correlates or predictors of substance use
  • Indirect measures (e.g. Family history -Car

Assess 1
Source Drake (1993)
Ongoing Support as Needed for Re-Placement, Job
Acquisition, Advancement
Employment-Centered Outreach
  • Make work part of the conversation about engaging
    in services
  • Prompt and listen to peoples stories about jobs
    they had and jobs they may want
  • Encourage stories that help the individual to see
    unidentified yet transferable skills
  • Provide information
  • Assess the value of an offer of work as a hook
    to influence positive change
  • Understand the stages of change

Principles/Practices 1Linking Employment and
  • Challenges
  • People may not be interested in services once
    they are in the housing unit
  • They are not sure what they want to do and avoid
  • They are engaged in behavior they are trying to
    hide from staff
  • Staff try to over engage or overstep
    boundaries and push participants away
  • Staff may not maintain proper boundaries with
    participants, especially if he/she can relate to
    a particular challenge or situation
  • Lack of cultural sensitivity to the background,
    needs, challenges and goals of a specific
  • Suggested Responses
  • Offer incentives in order to develop their
  • Keep the conversation focused on what the
    participant is thinking or feeling, and what
    he/she wants to do about it
  • Be aware of how your body language or other
    non-verbal communication
  • Remember that the staff role is to guide and
    support, not direct, over-invest, mother a
    participant, or become emotionally involved
  • Suggest meeting in an open space such as outdoors
    or in a private space such as a counseling room
  • Try to never force an interaction unless
    absolutely necessary, or unless someones safety
    is at risk
  • Vocationalize the housing environment by having
    a variety of available activities that offer
    opportunities for engagement around work

  • Creating a culture that expects work - verbally,
    mentally, environmentally and literally.
  • Arranging things, activities and resources to
    include and/or support employment.
  • Assign accountability for employment outcomes to
    all staff.
  • Develop and maintain organizational policies and
    practices that support client employment
  • Begin tracking employment outcomes.

  • Mary accepts housing but refuses to consider
    employment. Even though the Personal Services
    Coordinator reminds her that the program is
    offered only to those who want to work as well as
    get a place to live, she says she is not ready
    and wont discuss it any further.
  • What are some ways you might help Mary address
    motivation to work?

Principles and Practices 4Helping Mary
Develop Motivation for Work
  • Typical Challenges
  • Sense of hopelessness about vocational goals
    based on experience to date
  • Numerous setbacks in general or negative work or
    other vocational experiences
  • Many think of jobs or tasks that have
    historically been available without a great deal
    of creativity
  • Some may be struggling with depression or other
    clinical/medical issues that make it difficult to
    get motivated
  • Current stresses in life that make feeling
    motivated difficult
  • Negative consequences of work such as child
    support payments, credit debts, SSI/DI
    disincentives, etc
  • Suggested Responses
  • Motivation as a State not a Trait it can change
    over time and be influenced
  • Ambivalence is Good Tease out both sides, help
    tip balance towards change
  • Resistance is not a Force to be Overcome-Roll
    with it
  • Focus on Person as Ally, not Adversary
  • Recovery, Change and Growth are intrinsic to
    being Human
  • Remember that People who have suffered many
    losses may relinquish hope to survive
  • Paint a picture of immediate incentives that can
    trigger motivational thinking

  • Pre-contemplation No awareness of problem or
    need to change
  • Contemplation Emerging Awareness, ambivalence
  • Preparation Identify, anticipate hot spots,
    planning, rehearsal, identify skills, supports
  • Action Plan implementation with feedback loop
  • Maintenance Reinforce what works
  • Relapse Prevention Anticipate and plan for
    relapse, viewed as learning opportunity

  • Perception of Need Persons experience of
    discrepancy between the pain of the present and
    the potential for future improvement
  • Belief that Change is Possible Positive outcome
    is achievable in reasonable time period
  • Sense of Self Efficacy Believes they can succeed
  • Makes Stated Intention to Change

  • Pre-contemplation educate, raise doubt re
    perception of risk, identify other areas of high
  • Contemplation Tip the Balance- evoke reasons to
    change and risk of not changing
  • Preparation Choose best strategies, anticipate
    difficulties, plan, rehearse
  • Action Frequent monitoring of progress and
    ongoing lessons
  • Relapse Help reframe as learning opportunity,
    not failure, plan
  • Describe a time in your life you attempted
    change-how difficult? Who helped? Outcome?

Principles and Practices 2Integrated Team
  • Typical Challenges
  • Developing effective relationships with staff of
    other partners, especially when they are located
  • Creating a project culture that encourages
    joint decision making
  • Effectively documenting services for overall
    reporting, informational and evaluation purposes
  • Seeing regular , consistent meetings as crucial,
    useful and a priority
  • Developing centralized systems and procedures for
    intake, assessment, r intervention, communication
    processes, follow-up, referral, contacts with
    outside community
  • Avoiding turf issues
  • Suggested Responses
  • Clarify for all staff and organizational
    partners, in writing, who is responsible for each
    role and component of the project
  • Sponsor a series of shadowing or job
    switching opportunities
  • Include discussion of partner and staff roles in
    regular staff meetings
  • Facilitate regular case meetings, at which all
    staff working with a specific participant are
    present and asked to share information as well as
    next steps
  • Create opportunities for staff to talk about
    successes and challenges, and for other staff to
    assist in problem-solving
  • Designate a team leader

  • John says that there is no use in trying to find
    a job, because all he will do is fail at it
    anyway. He used to be a good carpenter but that
    was many years ago. Years of living on the
    street has eroded those skills and reduced his
    stamina. He says he feels hopeless of ever
    finding anything better than dishwashing or
    carrying out garbage.
  • How would you help John develop an employment

Principles and Practices 3Helping John Create
Employment Goals
  • Typical Challenges
  • Many people have not thought about having
    vocational or employment goals, since their first
    goal on the streets has been survival
  • Many are focused on immediate gratification, such
    as earning a bit of money or paying off a debt
  • They may have had negative vocational or
    employment experiences because of the barriers
    they face
  • They have trouble thinking about small steps that
    will lead to achieving a vocational or employment
  • Some may not be currently motivated to pursue
    vocational or employment activities, and are
    content to maintain current status or activities
  • Some may need help to identify how current
    interests, activities or desired participation
    can be seen as vocationally-oriented
  • Suggested Responses
  • Create opportunities in which they can have a
    sense of immediate success or achievement
  • Focus on a persons perceived or inherent
    strengths, gifts, skills and interests
  • Work with them to acknowledge all achievements
    (including survival on the streets) and make them
    visible to them as sources of strengths and
    knowledge that may have a job application,
  • Focus on immediate goals first, and how these can
    lead to a larger goal.
  • Give timeframes to specific goals as a way of
    motivating participant and yourself as a staff
  • Make sure all goals are developed or agreed-to by
    the participant
  • Make sure goals of any type are clearly defined
    and fleshed out by the participant and staff so
    that they are real and true

Principles and Practices 6Implementing a
Standing Offer of Work (In-House Jobs)
  • Typical Challenges
  • Changing attitudes and expectations of all
  • Acquiring jobs with built-in flexibility and
    opportunities for growth and transition
  • Finding effective partners and employers-internal/
  • Resolving alcohol/substance abuse and mental
    health issues affecting work
  • Staff and new worker training
  • Providing supervision and support
  • Fulfilling employment services contract/performanc
    e requirements
  • Funding the effort
  • Fit with SE Evidence based practices
  • Suggested Responses
  • Assume employability
  • All staff supports peoples desire to work
  • Look internally as well as externally for
  • Provide direct, tangible workplace-based support
    to break down barriers
  • Avoid lengthy prerequisites rapid access to a
    low-impact job
  • Allow multiple work options-one job does not fit
  • Understand peoples needs, abilities and values
  • Communicate your work expectations
  • Celebrate all degrees of success
  • Weave in conversations and support for the next

LAMP Village527 S. Crocker, Los Angeles, CA
90013 (213) 488-0031
  • Drop-in Center/Crisis Shelter
  • Lamp Lodge-50 unit permanent housing
  • - Linen Services
  • - Public Laundromat
  • - Public Showers Toilets
  • 1/3 of staff are consumers
  • Employs 35 people per day

Principle - Connecting to MH/SA Treatment
  • Typical Challenges
  • People may not be ready to accept treatment
  • People are fearful of treatment
  • Their friends are not good influences and may
    disapprove of a persons decision to enter
  • Stigma
  • Side effects
  • Suggested Responses
  • Establish referral relationships so that the
    services are accessible to participants when
  • Help people understand the implications on goals
    they chose and commit to achieving
  • Enlist the support of peers to help people
    understand the positive effects of accepting
  • Be clear about the rules regarding substance
    abuse on site at HUD housing

Step-Back/Step-Out/Step-UpA Practical Strategy
for Keeping the Door Open for Employment
  • a) A strategy for helping people address their
    treatment issues and impact on work
  • b) A way of keeping people involved in employment
    services while they deal with their substance use
    and/or MH treatment issues
  • c) A plan for putting together a support plan
    emphasizing growth
  • WHEN At engagement, involvement, continuation
  • WHO Implemented by staff, peers
  • WHERE Shelters, employment programs, housing

Step Back
  • Offer alternatives to terminating program
    involvement for people when substance use
    interferes with their ability to get or keep
  • Focus on how substance use prevents someone from
    getting or keeping a job, not the behavior
  • Provides alternative step-down
    employment-related services that do not risk the
    safety of the person or others
  • Step downs still require people to be
    substance-free while they participate
  • Examples employment counseling, presentations by
    peers or staff, resume writing, low-impact, P/T,
    time-limited in-house work experience, shadowing,
    P/T volunteer work
  • Expected Outcomes Maintain connection, use
    stages of change strategy to change behaviors,
    show consequences (eg person may lose job but
    staff never go away)

Step Out
  • Some people may not be ready to deal with their
    treatment issues that affect their jobs and they
    may need to step out of the program.
  • Although you may have to get to the place of
    reinforcing rules of enrollment-try to maintain
    contact (through outreach staff, shelter staff,
    peers, friends, etc) and let them know that the
    door is open for them to try again.

Step Up
  • The job placement is only the first success
  • Dealing with treatment issues affecting work is
    an ongoing process owned by the individual
  • Advancement and stepping out of poverty is the
    goal and is negatively affected by job and
    housing loss due to treatment issues
  • Ongoing, follow-along support by an IST to
    support both treatment and work goals
  • Support needs to accommodate for success as well
    as address challenges
  • Involve peers as counselors or mentors showing
    how people can overcome fears of change and
    advancement and maintain balance
  • Expect relapses and have a plan in place that
    deals with them
  • Expected Outcomes Staff realize the job doesnt
    end at placement participants see the benefits
    of treatment and job retention and advancement
    they have access to wrap around supports 24/7

Day 1 SummaryBreaking the Readiness Model
  • Assume employability
  • All staff supports peoples desire to work
  • Avoiding lengthy prerequisites and rigid
  • Allow multiple options-one best practice does
    not fit all
  • Understand peoples needs, abilities and values
  • Understand what employers want
  • Understand how to make a good job fit
  • Celebrate all degrees of success

Day 2Learning Objectives
  • Learn about employment services practices being
    used throughout the country
  • Understand tools and strategies for helping
    people choose, get, keep and advance in jobs
  • Understand how to use partnerships to improve
    program delivery
  • Learn about critical staff competencies for
    providing employment services
  • Address challenges and strategies using scenarios
    and exercises

Customization of Employment Best Practices- A
Challenge for the Field
  • Why?
  • Replace staff-driven employment services with
    more person-centered approaches
  • How?
  • Modify existing practices like
  • TEP Each time-limited job is individually
    negotiated/the person AND the job can change
  • What Outcomes?
  • Improve outcomes-satisfaction, tenure, growth

Transitional Employment (TEP) (Est. 1964
Fountain House, NYC)
  • Primary vocational services of Clubhouses
  • Time-Limited Part-Time Competitive
  • Negotiate job slots set aside for rotating
  • Usually entry level jobs
  • Agency guarantees the job will be done
  • On and Off-Site Job Coaches, peer supports
  • Disadvantages
  • Time limitations
  • Agency is responsible for performing the job
  • Dependency issues

  • Continuous 24 hour treatment planning approach
  • Employment specialist is member of
    multi-disciplinary Team
  • Rapid placement, continuous follow-along and
  • Recognizes that work is integral to the community
    treatment process
  • Focus on work first on-the job learning,
    adaptation and accommodation
  • Clash between short-term funding and long-term
    support needs

Customized Employment (NCWD)
  • Individualizing the employment relationship
    between job seekers and employers to meet the
    needs of both.
  • Determine the strengths, requirements, and
    interests of a person with a complex life.
  • It is not a program, but rather a set of
    principles and strategies that result in
  • Builds on supported employment and results in
    individually designed services, supports, and
    jobs negotiated to fit the needs of a specific
    job seeker or employee.

Customized Employment (NCWD)
  • Customized Planning
  • Profiles, portfolios, etc to capture, organize,
    and represent the information that was collected
    during exploration
  • Negotiating
  • Negotiating job duties and employee expectations.
    Can include job carving, negotiating a job
    description, job creation, job sharing, etc.
  • Self-Employment
  • A recognized CE option

Career Mapping-A New Approach to Assessments and
Job Planning (Based on materials developed by
Sowers, McLean and Shelton Empowerment for Life
Project-Portland, OR)
  • Recognizes the complex impacts of homelessness
    and disability on employment
  • Seeks to bridge issues of trust
  • Uses interactive group or individual techniques
  • Results in pictographs (maps) that are the
    basis for referral to career services
  • Assumes the result is mainstream employment with
    support services planning

Key Elements of Mapping
  • LIFE HISTORY -draw correlations to past
    experiences. Identify patterns over their life
    span and recognize reoccurring themes, interests,
    and passions
  • STRENGTHS, GIFTS and CAPACITIES - Identify what
    they are able to do, what they enjoy doing, and
    what they have done in the past to develop a job
  • WHAT WORKS - Create a list of job characteristics
    that work well for them and those that do not
    work well for them
  • POSSIBLE RESOURCES - Community-based resources
    available to them, as well as resources within
    the One Stop system
  • POSSIBLE JOBS - List of possible jobs for
    themselves using strengths, gifts and capacities
    and what works as the only criteria
  • REFFERAL Work with staff to develop a plan to
    get the job they want

A Map in Progress
Works Doesnt Work Spirituality Fear of
dying Early mornings Pushy people Hands on
learning Night work Exercise daily Noisy
settings Right medications Wrong medications
of Effective Programs and Practices (NREPP)
  • Evidence-Based Programs
  • Conceptually sound and internally consistent
  • Program activities related to conceptualization
  • Reasonably well implemented and evaluated
  • Promising
  • Some positive outcomes
  • Effective
  • Consistently positive outcomes
  • Strongly implemented and evaluated
  • Model
  • Availability for dissemination
  • Technical assistance available from program

Why Use Evidence Based Approaches?
  • Evidence based practices yield better outcomes
  • Evidence based programs have fidelity measures
  • SAMHSA acknowledges that the evidence base is
    limited in some areas
  • SAMHSA supports promising practices where
    evidence of effectiveness is based on
  • Formal consensus among recognized experts
  • Evaluation studies not yet published

IPS/SE Fidelity (Bond 2003)
  • Fidelity is important because programs that
    faithfully implement evidence based practices
    have better outcomes.
  • Fidelity Scales assess the adequacy of
    implementing an evidence based practice

Supported Employment EBP (Drake, et al)
  • Basis for SAMHSA Toolkit on Supported Employment
  • Blending of assertive case management and
    supported employment
  • Has been used to replace continuing/day treatment
  • Work is considered both treatment and outcome
  • Employment specialist is member of tx. Team
  • Vocational assessment is continuous and obtained
    from multiple sources
  • Focus on work first - learning through doing
  • Services in the community on flexible schedule
  • Has established a fidelity scale with
    staff/customer ratios

Social Enterprises Meeting the Market with a
  • Businesses which affirmatively employ persons
    with disabilities and who have been homeless
    and/or other disadvantages
  • Achieve social change
  • More people get jobs
  • Achieve Economic Change
  • Build healthy business
  • communities

Social Enterprises
  • Characteristics
  • Agency-sponsored businesses employing people with
    disabilities, people who have been homeless
    and/or other disadvantages
  • Objectives
  • Exposure and experience, skills development
  • Add to the available jobs in the marketplace
  • Advantages
  • Agency owns the jobs
  • Business to business potential
  • Disadvantages
  • High risk-requires sound business planning
  • Can create numerous issues of roles and
    boundaries for staff and clients

St., San Francisco, CA 94103 (415) 544-0424
  • Training and employment
  • for persons with mental illness
  • other people with
  • disadvantages
  • Service Master Partnership
  • Transitional employment in
  • 4 agency-run businesses
  • Professional development seminars
  • Support services/Case management
  • Enrolls 200 persons/year. 50-70 persons employed
    at any one time

Supported Self Employment
  • Characteristics
  • Consumer owned and operated businesses
  • Objectives
  • Self-sufficiency through owning ones means of
  • Advantages
  • Consumer owns the job
  • Self-reliance, independence, role shift from
    consumer to entrepreneur
  • Disadvantages
  • High risk-requires sound business planning
  • Complications re benefits are different from
    other employment scenarios
  • The buck stops here

Homelessness and Choosing a Job
  • Need to address considerable concrete barriers,
    i.e., access to laundry, showers, clothing
  • Lack of fixed address for mail or telephone to
    receive and return messages
  • Personal humiliation about current homelessness
    and past record, such as criminal histories
  • Poor employment histories and track record
    regarding employment
  • Access to transportation
  • Focus on immediate needs vs. longer term goals
  • Impact of change
  • Managing housing stability/recovery and work
  • Unclear expectations/inadequate information
  • Physical limitations

Getting a Job What Level of support is
  • Work while choosing or job goal first?
  • Identify values
  • Identify strengths and gifts
  • Identify preferences type of work, location,
    hours of work, wage scale
  • Identify resources postings, ads, friends,
    family, staff
  • Why this job? Why now?
  • Sustained assistance regarding set-backs
  • Support services-on and off job

Principles and Practices 7Employer Marketing
  • Typical Challenges
  • Devalued group of people with stigma
  • Multiplicity of physical, psychological problems
    that could affect work
  • Lack of recent solid work history
  • Appearance and mannerisms
  • Few resources (e.g. transportation, child care,
  • Poor self-image and lack of confidence, fear
  • May not be a clear job match-negotiation may be
  • Employers understanding of the features/benefits
  • Employers fears of accident liability
  • Suggested Responses
  • Assess employer needs and concerns
  • Represent the job seeker
  • Develop and use marketing tools brochures,
    testimonies, videos, etc.
  • Develop sustained relationships with employers
    that allow for more non-traditional job matches
  • Consider sectoral approaches
  • Becoming familiar with the current labor market
    to make an informed match
  • Guide job seekers on disclosure of disability and
    options for requesting reasonable accommodations.
  • Provide information about work site
    accommodations to employers
  • Guide job seekers on ways to address a record of
  • Support successful job seeker interviews

Principles and Practices 8Job Development and
  • Typical Challenges
  • Force-fitting to meet program outcomes
  • Passive job development
  • Not following up on a regular basis with active
    and potential employers
  • Focusing on the disability rather than the
  • Starting with tax incentives
  • Promising two for one
  • Guaranteeing 100 productivity or attendance
  • Offering to do all the training and supervision
  • Failing to plan for the next step (advancement,
  • Suggested Responses
  • Be creative- you want the same thing
  • Offer examples to employers of ways part time,
    negotiated or carved jobs has helped an employer
    in the past
  • Review the assessment information on an ongoing
    basis and update as needed
  • Help the job seeker break down the job
    development process into attainable steps
  • Select, train and support mentors
  • Offer to provide disability sensitivity training
    to employers staff
  • Include benefits planning as an ongoing part of
    the process

Highlights Who Does What?
Legislative, regulatory framework for WIA
Appoint, convene SWIB, discretionary , priority
5Yr plan, policies, LWIB jurisdictions,
responsible for state performance
State WIB
Local plans, priority pops, administer 1 Stops,
contracts for priority pops
Core, intensive, training services, house VR
services, DPNs,
One Stop Services
  • Core services
  • - Available to any job seeker
  • - Self-service job search, resume development
  • - Use of One Stop facilities, job fairs, employer
    presentations, etc
  • Intensive services
  • For those not successful in Core services
  • Vocational counseling, remedial education and
    skills and support development, guided job
    search, enrollment into WIA funded training
    programs, etc
  • Training services
  • Enrollment in classes, specialized trades
    training, etc

Principles and Practices 5Connecting to
Mainstream Employment
  • Typical Challenges
  • Mismatch between customers readiness and the
    self-guided core services at a one stop
  • Participants feel uncomfortable in One-Stop
  • One Stop staff feel uncomfortable working with
    people who are chronically homeless
  • Different goals regarding employment placement
  • Different languages and expectations
  • No history of coordination
  • Suggested Responses
  • Have information of relevance to people who are
    homeless at the One Stop
  • Develop partnerships for targeted outreach
  • Cross-train staff
  • Use the resources of the DPN
  • Review services forms and documents to determine
    how they are consistent with each other, and
    where they contradict each other
  • Introduce people to One Stop services as a normal
    part of the employment process

Example 1 CTWorks-Bridgeport, CT
  • Operated by Career Resources, Inc.,
  • Partnerships with LWIB, Bridgeport Continuum of
    Care, the CT Division of Rehabilitation Services,
    the CT Department of Mental Health and Addiction
    Services and the Veterans Employment Service.
  • 50 corporate donors, the United Way, US
    Department of Education grant ,DOL Work Incentive
    Grant and Disability Program Navigator funding

CT Works!- Why?
  • Meets people who are homeless with services
    where they are at
  • Developed a Career Coach mobile One Stop with
    the technology on board to connect people who are
    homeless to core services
  • Important partner is HVRP to connect Vets to
    core, intensive, training services
  • Visionary Leadership!
  • Public/private funding mix

Example 2 SEARCH-Houston, TX
  • Active member of the local Continuum of Care
  • Permanent and transitional housing, daily lunch
    for 250, a food pantry, mobile outreach, day
    care, medical assistance and psychological
    evaluations, and a one-stop career center for the
  • Received JTPA and WIA Adult funding for
    employment services for homeless

SEARCH Works! Why?
  • Realized it could not go it alone
  • Offers on-site occupational skills training
    (computers, etc) for growth jobs
  • Understands it needs to braid/blend funding to
    provide support services and intensive counseling

Ending Chronic Homelessness Partnerships
  • HUD, ODEP, ETA, VETS funded x 5 years
  • 5 Cities LA, Boston, SF, Indianapolis, Portland,
  • 297 people housing jobs
  • Lead applicant is workforce development

Progress so far.. Through 9/30/05
  • Number served 357
  • full or part time competitive jobs 113
  • Employment rate ( placed in housing entering
    employment) 43
  • Innovations (one stop satellite career mapping
    strategy, mobile one-stop)

Accessing Mainstream Resources for Employment
  • Medicaid (
  • 1619(b)
  • Buy-In
  • Rehab Option
  • HUD (
  • Section 8
  • CDBG
  • ESG
  • ROSS/Hope VI
  • Tenant-Based Rental Assistance
  • USDOL (
  • WIA
  • SSA (
  • Ticket to Work
  • SSA Work Incentives
  • Dept. of Agriculture (
  • FSET
  • RSA/VR (http//
  • State VR
  • HHS (http//
  • JOLI

Job Search Planning
  • Assessment-skills/resources/supports
  • Person-centered planning-preferences/goals, job
  • Researching employer(s)
  • Complete/modify resume, cover letters,
  • Obtain transcripts, credentials, references
  • Resolve disclosure issue
  • Address criminal justice involvement
  • Identify hot buttons and plan response
  • Practice interviews and how to deal with
  • Develop a schedule and plan

Disclosure A Personal Choice
  • Disclosure of disability can occur
  • At the time of the job application (by the
    applicant or by their representative)
  • During the interview
  • After the job is accepted
  • After adjusting to the job, demonstrating
    competency and prior to the need for reasonable
  • When asking for an accommodation
  • Never
  • Sometimes it is optimal to discuss the disability
    in terms of behavior and resulting behaviors

Menu of Keep Services
  • Job Coaching Follow-Along
  • Educational, Professional, Peer, Natural Job
  • Professional, Peer, Natural Housing, Recovery
  • Benefits Management Advocacy
  • Growth and Career Planning

Principles and Practices 9Job Retention and
  • Typical Challenges
  • Having
  • New friendships/disengaging from problematic old
  • Managing new structure, scheduling and time
  • Pressures to share new funds or luxuries with
    less fortunate neighbors
  • New routines
  • New lifestyle
  • Co-worker, supervisor relationships
  • Threat of success
  • Suggested Responses

Tools and Activities Utilizing Natural
Workplace Supports
  • Job coach as training consultant, not trainer
  • Utilize typical employee orientation and training
    process and resources
  • Assist to understand workplace culture, cues,
  • Dont switchboard questions feedback
  • Help people develop skills to establish their own
    natural workplace supports
  • Explore possibility of training the employer to
    facilitate the best results for everyone

Understanding and Addressing Work-Related Triggers
  • Having
  • New friendships/disengaging from problematic old
  • Managing new structure, scheduling and time
  • Pressures to share new funds or luxuries with
    less fortunate neighbors
  • New routines
  • New lifestyle
  • Co-worker, supervisor relationships
  • Threat of success

Scenario Questions Choosing, Getting and
Keeping a Job
  • What are this persons strengths and assets?
  • What employment goal(s) do you think they might
  • What employment program option might they prefer
    and why?
  • What concrete barriers may arise or exist that
    need to be addressed? How would an integrated
    services team proceed with the participant?
  • Will this person choose to disclose their
    disability or not?
  • Describe how the plan for job search might look
  • What natural supports does this person have
  • What triggers will affect job retention?
  • What are some of the elements of the employment
    support plan?

For Systems/Programs For People
Building a Culture Supporting Employment Some
  • Employment is part of our Mission Statement
  • Targeted increases in rate of employment is an
    agency priority
  • Consumers are included in program decision-making
  • Skill building of participants is an integral
    part of all service delivery teaching the
    participants how to meet their own needs
  • We hire consumers as staff
  • We have ongoing staff training on employment
  • Consumers are clear on why they are participating
    in employment programs
  • Staff support consumer involvement, dignity,
    choice and community integration
  • Consumers, their families and staff express hope
    that employment is possible
  • All staff throughout the organization are
    interested in and committed to employment
    opportunities for participants
  • Formal vendors and outside partners are viewed as
    potential employers for participants

Developing Capacity-Examples
  • We have employment program written policies and
  • We have clear employment outcome measures
  • We have the goal of assisting participants in
    relevant ways with employment goals in the job
    descriptions of all staff
  • We have a dedicated budget for employment
  • We have a process for resource development and
    business planning
  • We have employment specialists on staff
  • We are risk-takers
  • We have a strong management team
  • We are culturally competent
  • We have experience with developing partnerships
  • We think of all partners and vendors as potential
    employers of our participants

  • We are aware of local hiring and economic
    development trends
  • We look for non-mental health funding sources as
    part of our employment funding mix
  • We have staff assigned to resource development
    and program growth
  • We build coalitions among families, mainstream
    resources and institutions, peers and
    professionals to address stigma
  • We are members of Chambers of Commerce
  • We initiate and participate in the development of
    access to new employment sectors for our
    participants, i.e. hotel industry, specific
    unions, etc.
  • We build upon the principles of the Americans
    with Disability Act, New Freedom Initiative,
    Olmstead Decision, TTW/WIA and local hiring
    goals/requirements for new program development
  • We help to make sure employment is on the agenda
    for State Policy Academies

Working with your VR Agency Challenges
  • Time-limited nature of VR services
  • Incentives for VR case closures
  • Demonstrate how VR, One Stop, agency staff and
    participant can build a partnership for success
  • Mutual suspicion misunderstanding
  • Staff training issues
  • Incentives for collaboration
  • Funding limitations

Working with your VR Agency Best Practices for
  • Make people with mental illness and co-occurring
    disorders a priority
  • Staff training
  • Define milestones for payment relevant to the
  • Role definition and clarity
  • Hire consumers as VR staff
  • Co-location of counselors
  • Non-traditional providers
  • Involve employers in these partnerships

Business Improvement Districts
  • Convergence of need
  • Resources for outreach, engagement
  • Job development
  • Anti-stigma
  • Opportunity for developing better understanding
    of community needs employers and participants

Staff competencies
  • Knowledge
  • Skills
  • Attitudes
  • Cultural sensitivity

Staff Competencies Knowledge
  • Job Market (current and projected)
  • Job features, credentials and skills (hard and
    soft) requirements
  • Entitlement systems and related work incentives
  • Strong understanding of vocational rehabilitation
    practices throughout all delivery of services
  • Mainstream community organizations, natural
    supports, self-help peer supports,
    non-traditional (eg. Faith-based) resources
  • Employer associations, Chambers, One-Stops, WIBs,
  • Other potential employers small businesses and
    community-based organizations
  • Agency purchasing procedures/services they are
  • Homeless services and coalitions
  • Asset development strategies-IDAs, ITAs, etc

Staff Competencies Skills
  • Active Listener
  • Good Communicator (verbal, written, and
  • Able to integrate vocational growth into all
    service delivery
  • Consistent follow-through
  • Networker and strong relationship-builder (Giant
  • Teacher
  • Negotiator

Staff Competencies Attitudes
  • Shared values
  • Flexible
  • Self-confident
  • Outgoing
  • Patient
  • Respectful and Tolerant
  • Well-trained and conscious about cultural
  • Hands-on
  • Tenacious
  • Inventive

Some More Important Questions..
  • How are you involving consumer leaders in
    employment program development?
  • What funding sources are you using to address
  • What partnerships are necessary to increase
  • What advocacy tools do you use to promote
  • What skills must staff know to provide/support
  • How do you approach employers to achieve greatest
    number of opportunities?
  • What do you need to do differently to increase

Resources on the Web
  • http//

Bakers Dozen To-Dos/Who Does?
  • Leadership for employment within the disability
    services systems
  • Unified vision re employment as a priority
    across service systems
  • Share best practices
  • Visible consumer leadership
  • Develop a toolkit for employment implementation
  • Work with employers and develop knowledge of
    employers throughout process
  • Statewide training initiative to improve staff
  • Develop individual outcome measures
  • Develop program accountability measures
  • Develop local partnerships-business, FCBOs,
    One-Stops, VR, employer and labor sectors, etc.
  • Help other systems understand employment and
  • Train housing staff on employment and recovery
  • Use State purchasing power to support employment

Picturing a Champion
  • Recognized leader
  • Big and small picture knowledge
  • Technical skills
  • Community organizer
  • Collaborator
  • Familiar with and committed to issue and
  • Responsive
  • Resources/resourceful
  • Risk taker
  • Passionate commitment
  • Representative

Providing Services
  • What are your challenges in providing effective,
    quality outcomes for job-seekers with psychiatric
    disabilities who are homeless?
  • What strategies are you using to achieve those
  • What resources do you have and use to achieve
    those outcomes?
  • What resources do you need to achieve those
  • What training opportunities would be especially
    important and useful?

Building Systems
  • Who are your local partners?
  • Describe the plan/steps for developing
    stakeholders for employment of people with
    psychiatric disabilities who are homeless
  • What does each stakeholder, including employers
    and employment sectors, bring to the table that
    helps meet those outcomes?
  • What challenges do you anticipate in developing
    partnerships and collaborations?
  • What training, technical assistance and support
    do you need to develop and sustain these

  • What are the tools and activities you need to
    utilize to develop and/or improve the
    organizational Culture that supports employment
    in your agency, government unit, community and
    employment sectors?
  • What resources and/or knowledge must you as a
    practitioner and your agency as a provider
    acquire to build your Capacity to implement
  • What Opportunities do you see to support and
    expand employment services, and how do you
    propose to address challenges that could impede
    your ability to take advantage of these
    opportunities? (e.g. funding, public policy,
    local hiring plans, employer tax incentives,
    Medicaid, DMH initiatives, initiatives by other
    sectors (faith-based, DOL, etc.)