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Conception,%20Pregnancy,%20and%20Childbirth

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Chapter 12. Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth. The Fertilization Process. Ovum released, drifts to fallopian tube. Oocyte viable ~ 12 ... Sonogram picture ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Conception,%20Pregnancy,%20and%20Childbirth


1
Chapter 12
  • Conception, Pregnancy, and Childbirth

2
The Fertilization Process
  • Ovum released, drifts to fallopian tube
  • Oocyte viable 12 - 24 hours after ovulation
  • Sperm viable 12 - 48 hours
  • Capacitation takes 6-8 hours
  • biochemical changes in sperm cell
  • Enzymes allow it to penetrate eggs outer
    membranes

3
Fertilization Process
  • Single sperm inside the oocyte cytoplasm
  • Oocyte swells
  • Sperm Ovum nuclei release chromosomes
  • Divide to form the diploid zygote containing 23
    pairs of chromosomes
  • Fertilization is now complete

4
Development of the Conceptus
  • Zygote undergoes cell divisions
  • Forms a blastocyst (100 cells) after 4-5 days
  • Blastocyst implants in uterine lining on 6th or
    7th day
  • Blastocyst becomes embryo after implantation in
    uterus
  • Embryo is called a fetus after 8th week

5
Pregnancy Detection
  • Test for human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  • Blood analysis
  • Home pregnancy tests
  • Early physical signs
  • Changes in cervix occur about 4 weeks after a
    missed period
  • Hegars sign
  • Labia change color, gaining purple hue

6
Changes During Pregnancy
  • Vary according to personality, feelings, and
    circumstances
  • Changes in relationships
  • Physical and emotional changes during each of the
    3 trimesters
  • First trimester may include nausea, vomiting,
    fatigue

7
Complications and Dangers to the Fetus
  • Teratogens
  • Substances that cause defects in embryonic and
    fetal development
  • Infectious diseases
  • German Measles (rubella)
  • Group B streptococcus

8
Complications and Dangers to the Fetus
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Can be transmitted from pregnant woman to fetus,
    newborn, or infant
  • Chlamydia
  • Gonorrhea
  • Hepatitis B
  • HIV
  • Syphilis
  • Genital herpes

9
Complications and Dangers to the Fetus
  • Pregnancy after age 35
  • Is more common as women wait to have children
  • Increased likelihood of chromosomal variation
  • Risk increases with increasing maternal age

10
Complications in Pregnancy
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • Premature births
  • Delayed labor

11
Diagnosing Abnormalities of the Fetus
  • Ultrasound
  • Amniocentesis
  • Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
  • Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) screening

12
Ultrasound
  • High frequency sound waves determine size and
    position of fetus
  • Sonogrampicture
  • Estimates fetal age, guides during amniocentesis,
    checks for physical birth defects, evaluates
    complications during pregnancy

13
Amniocentesis
  • Amniotic fluid is withdrawn with needle inserted
    through abdominal wall
  • Detects fetal abnormalities Downs syndrome,
    Turners syndrome, cystic fibrosis, spina bifida,
    sex and age
  • 0.5-2 chance of fetal death

14
Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)
  • Thin catheter inserted through abdomen or cervix
    into uterus to remove some chorionic villi
  • Detects fetal abnormalities
  • Performed 9-11 weeks

15
Alpha-fetoprotein Screening
  • Test run on mothers blood
  • After 16 weeks of pregnancy
  • Detects defects of spine, spinal cord, skull and
    brain

16
Pregnancy Loss
  • Early pregnancy loss
  • Miscarriage
  • Infant mortality
  • Coping with loss

17
Infertility
  • The inability to conceive after a year of
    unprotected intercourse or the inability to carry
    a child to term
  • Fertility issues are equally distributed among
    men and women
  • 1 of children in U.S. are the product of
    assisted fertility

18
Female Infertility
  • Physical causes
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, an infection of the
    fallopian tubes or uterus
  • Hormonal psychological causes
  • Hormone release may be atypical
  • Stress, anxiety, allergy
  • Environmental factors

19
Male Infertility
  • Low sperm count
  • Decrease of sperm motility
  • Misshapen sperm
  • Sperm duct blockage
  • Ejaculatory difficulties
  • Environmental factors
  • Fertility begins dwindling after age 27

20
Infertility Treatment
  • Selective timing of sexual activity
  • Man wears boxer underwear
  • Woman lies with her back elevated following
    internal ejaculation

21
Medical Intervention
  • Fertility medications
  • Surgery
  • Artificial insemination

22
Assisted Reproductive Technology
  • In vitro fertilization - IVF
  • Gamete intrafallopian transfer GIFT
  • Zygote intrafallopian transfer ZIFT
  • Surrogate motherhood
  • Cloning
  • Sex selection

23
Giving Birth Labor and Delivery
  • Relaxin released by the placenta
  • Braxton Hick contractions

24
Labor Stage 1
  • Effacement thinning of cervix
  • Dilation opening up of cervix
  • Mucus plug is expelled
  • Amniotic sac ruptures
  • Contractions are regular and progressive
  • Transition

25
Labor and Delivery
  • Stage 2
  • Begins when babys head moves into birth canal
  • Ends when baby is born
  • Vernix waxy substance which may cover baby
  • Stage 3
  • Afterbirth placenta is expelled

26
Following birth
  • Neonate
  • Apgar score
  • Lochia
  • Joy

27
Choices in Childbirth
  • Hospital birth
  • Cesarean section
  • Prepared childbirth
  • Episiotomy
  • Birthing rooms and centers
  • Home birth
  • Midwifery

28
Breast Feeding
  • Colostrum
  • Benefits
  • Bonding
  • Immune system of baby
  • HIV caution

29
Becoming a Parent
  • Postpartum period
  • Postpartum depression
  • Postpartum psychosis
  • Family Medical Leave Act
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