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Title: Learning Objectives and Classroom Assessment


1
Learning Objectives and Classroom Assessment
  • Jeff Froyd, Texas AM University

2
Workshop Presenter
  • Jeff Froyd, Director of Academic Development
  • Educational Achievement Division, College of
    Engineering, Texas AM University
  • Project Director, Foundation Coalition

3
Acknowledgement
  • Russ Pimmel, NSF Program Officer
  • Former Professor of Electrical Engineering at the
    University of Alabama
  • Assembled much of the material for similar
    workshops

4
Objectives Participants will gain experience in
  • Describing the rationale for preparing and using
    learning objectives in an individual course
  • Preparing specifications for high quality
    learning objectives
  • Writing learning objectives for a single course
  • Preparing specifications for assessment
    processes/tools
  • Generating alternative assessment processes/tools
    for a single course
  • Selecting assessment processes/tools for a single
    course

5
Agenda
  • Background for learning objectives
  • Specifications for learning objectives
  • Writing learning objectives
  • Background for classroom assessment
  • Specifications for assessment processes/tools
  • Background on alternatives for assessment
    processes/tools
  • Generating alternatives for assessment
    processes/tools
  • Selecting assessment processes/tools
  • Review workshop activities

6
Agenda
  • Background for learning objectives
  • Specifications for learning objectives
  • Requirements for specifications
  • Team exercise develop specifications for
    learning objectives
  • Workshop exercise improve specifications for
    learning objectives
  • Writing learning objectives
  • Individual exercise write objectives for a
    course or a portion of a course
  • Team exercise review individual objectives
  • Workshop exercise develop a list of suggestions
    for writing learning objectives
  • Individual exercises revise objectives Team
    exercise review individual objectives
  • Workshop exercise reflection

7
Agenda
  • Background for classroom assessment
  • Specifications for assessment processes/tools
  • Team exercise develop a set of specifications
    for assessment processes/tools
  • Workshop exercise improve sets of specifications
    for assessment processes/tools
  • Generating alternatives for assessment
    processes/tools
  • Team exercise select some learning objectives
    and generate alternative assessment
    processes/tools
  • Background on alternatives for assessment
    processes/tools
  • Selecting assessment processes/tools
  • Individual exercise select a set of learning
    objectives and generate alternative assessment
    processes/tools
  • Individual exercise select one or more
    assessment processes/tools that you would use in
    your course
  • Team exercise share and review choices of
    assessment processes/tools
  • Review workshop activities

8
Learning Objectives
  • Background for Learning Objectives

Session Objective At the end of the session,
participants will describe themselves as more
confident in their ability to hold productive
conversations with their colleagues regarding the
place and importance of learning objectives in
the teaching-learning process
9
Stakeholders for Learning Objectives
  • Who are the stakeholders in conversations about
    preparing and applying learning objectives?
  • Faculty
  • Students
  • Employers
  • Accreditation organizations

10
EC Program Outcomes
  • (a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics,
    science, and engineering
  • (b) an ability to design and conduct experiments,
    as well as to analyze and interpret data
  • (c) an ability to design a system, component, or
    process to meet desired needs
  • (d) an ability to function on multi-disciplinary
    teams
  • (e) an ability to identify, formulate, and solve
    engineering problems
  • (f) an understanding of professional and ethical
    responsibility
  • (g) an ability to communicate effectively
  • (h) the broad education necessary to understand
    the impact of engineering solutions in a global
    and societal context
  • (i) a recognition of the need for, and an ability
    to engage in life-long learning
  • (j) a knowledge of contemporary issues
  • (k) an ability to use the techniques, skills, and
    modern engineering tools necessary for
    engineering practice.

11
Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Learning
  • Knowledge defines, recalls, matches, reproduces
  • Comprehension explains, gives examples
  • Application discovering, assessing, computing
  • Analysis breaking down, organizing, inferring
  • Synthesis creating, putting together
  • Evaluation appraising, judging, selecting

Western Michigan University, 25 October 2002,
Kalamazoo, Michigan
12
Purpose of Learning Objectives
  • Communicate expectations for a course
  • Provide a context for what will be learned

http//ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/tlr/im
portance.html
13
Objectives and Students
  • Objectives help students
  • Clarify their personal goals
  • Provide framework for measuring their success.
  • Reduce their anxiety
  • Improve their studying effectiveness
  • Objectives help instructors
  • Guide preparation of classroom material
  • Make homework assignments
  • Aid in test design

Source - http//ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projec
ts/tlr/importance.html
14
Strategies For Workshop Teams
  • Be positive, supportive, and cooperative
  • Limit critical or negative comments
  • At least 5 positive comments for every negative
    comment
  • Be brief and concise in discussions
  • Avoid lengthy comments, stories, or arguments
  • Stay focused

15
Team Roles
  • Assign team roles follow through on
    responsibilities
  • Coordinator -- Coordinates discussion develops
    consensus
  • Recorder -- Writes down the ideas reports them
  • Gatekeeper -- Keeps the team on the subject
  • Timer -- Makes sure the team stays on schedule
  • With smaller teams combine gatekeeper timer

16
Workshop Team Roles
  • For first exercise
  • Coordinator Individual with largest class last
    semester
  • Recorder/Reporter Individual on left of
    coordinator
  • Gatekeeper/timer -- Individual on left of
    recorder
  • Timer -- Individual on left of gatekeeper
  • Roles rotate clockwise on subsequent exercise

17
Team Exercise
  • Form teams of four people
  • Time 5 minutes
  • Develop at least four (4) advantages and four (4)
    disadvantages of preparing learning objectives
    for a course.

18
Team Exercise
  • Advantages
  • Communication with students expectations and what
    they need to learn
  • Offers focus in preparing material to accomplish
    goals
  • Evaluation tool
  • Tie a course to program or curriculum
  • Clarifying goals to students seeks buy-in and
    self-assessment
  • ABET Assessment tool
  • Stating goals facilitates communicates with
    colleagues for better coordination
  • Written goals facilitates communications with
    employers and other external groups
  • Makes course easier to transfer among faculty
    members because much work is already done
  • Disadvantages
  • Could be too narrow or focused
  • Explicitly stating learning objectives takes
    (too?) much time
  • Busy work for faculty
  • Could turn into curriculum nightmare
  • Poorly written objectives dont help
  • Could be cumbersome, ambiguous
  • Could be more difficult to measure

19
Learning Objectives
  • Preparing Specifications for Learning Objectives
  • Session Objectives
  • At the end of the session, participants will
  • Write specifications for learning objectives
  • Describe themselves as more confident in their
    ability to describe quality learning objectives.

20
Form of Learning Objectives
  • Write objectives as student outcome statements
  • Objectives should answer the questions
  • "What must students do to prove that they have
    succeeded?"
  • "What should students be able to do as a
    consequence of instruction?"

Source - http//ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projec
ts/tlr/importance.html
21
Elements of an Objective
  • Objective must contain three basic elements
  • Verb describing an observable action
  • Conditions of this action
  • When given x you will be able to..."
  • Level of acceptable performance

Source - http//ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projec
ts/tlr/importance.html
22
Verbs for Objectives
  • Verbs for constructing concrete objectives
  • analyze compute classify collaborate
  • compare appreciate contrast define
  • demonstrate direct derive designate
  • discuss display evaluate know
  • identify infer integrate interpret
  • justify list understand organize
  • grasp report respond solicit
  • state synthesize name explain

Modified from http//www.brown.edu/Administration/
Sheridan_Center/pubs/syllabus.htmlcoura
23
Learning Objectives Verbs for Categories in
Blooms Taxonomy
  • Knowledge
  • Define, describe, list, reproduce, enumerate
  • Comprehension
  • Classify, explain, discuss, give example,
    summarize
  • Application
  • Determine, develop, compute, chart, utilize
  • Analysis
  • Correlate, diagram, distinguish, outline, infer
  • Evaluation
  • Compare contrast, critique, justify, conclude
  • Synthesis
  • Adapt, combine, compare, contrast, design,
    generate

24
Complex Versus Simple Objectives
  • One complex objective versus several simple ones?
  • High-level versus low-level objectives
  • Example
  • One complex objective (4 or 5 weeks of classes)
  • Given a verbal description of a digital module,
    develop an implementation using any of 7
    different logic devices
  • 15 to 20 simpler objectives (1 or 2 per class)
  • Given a verbal description, draw the truth
    table
  • Given a truth table, obtain a minimum-cost
    equation
  • Draw the the NAND-gate implementation for an
    equation

25
Comparison Of Complex Simple Objectives
  • Multiple simple objectives
  • More manageable chunks for students
  • Explicit objective(s) for each class
  • Simple (more manageable) homework problems and
    test questions
  • Single complex objective
  • Student's attention directed to the overall
    process
  • May lead to higher level learning
  • Students must deal with complexity
  • Students must subdivide problem on their own

26
Advantages Of Simple Objectives
  • Advantages of simple objectives are more
    important in
  • Large classes rather than small classes
  • Introductory courses rather than advanced courses

27
How To Deal With Understand In Objectives
  • How do you write objectives when you want
    students to understand a complex concept,
    system, or process
  • Identify specific tasks that indicate
    understanding
  • Specify objectives for each task
  • Similar comments apply to know, appreciate,
    value

28
How To Deal With Understand In Objectives --
Example
  • In our computer architecture course we want
    students to understand a sample architecture
    made up of several modules
  • What would students be able to do if they
    understood
  • Objectives
  • Students should be able to identify
  • All the modules and interconnecting signals
  • Modules involved in a given system-level
    operation
  • Output values for a given input values for each
    module
  • Sub-module changes given a system level change

29
Writing Objectives Piecemeal Approach
  • Writing low-level objectives for a whole course
    may be overwhelming
  • Use a piecemeal approach
  • Write your lectures and define the homework as
    usual
  • After each class -- write down what you expect
    the students to be able to do
  • These become a list of objectives
  • Give them to the students before each exam
  • Use them to write the exam
  • As semester progresses -- may become comfortable
    writing the objectives before you prepare your
    lecture

30
Evolving Objectives
  • In a 3-credit semester course
  • Russ Pimmel (UA, now NSF) started with over 100
    objectives
  • Four offerings later -- down to about 50
  • Eliminated peripheral stuff that was not
    central
  • Broadening, informational, perspective material

31
Objectives and Homework Assignments
  • Homework assignments should match objectives
  • Students need to practice and explore the skills,
    knowledge, and attitudes defined in objectives
  • Frequently require supplementary homework
    problems
  • In some of my courses
  • 1/3 of homework is from textbook
  • Rest are supplementary problems
  • With well defined objectives
  • Writing homework problems is straightforward
  • Same is true for exam questions

32
Students Use Of Objectives
  • Survey in 400-level required course
  • Did you find the objectives helpful?
  • Yes --- 52
  • No ---- 48
  • Did you read the objectives?
  • Frequently ------ 22
  • Occasionally -- 37
  • Never ------------- 41

33
Team Exercise -- Guidelines For Learning
Objectives
  • Task
  • Write 3 or 5 guidelines for good learning
    objectives
  • What are the common features?
  • What should objectives look like?
  • Think of guidelines as specifications
  • Methodology
  • Brain storm individually -- 2 minutes
  • Establish consensus as a team -- 5 minutes
  • Report team results -- 3 minutes
  • Revise guidelines as a team-- 2 minutes

34
Team Exercise
  • Must be testable and measurable
  • Achievable
  • Clearly and precisely articulated
  • Appropriate to course and audience
  • Relate to program objectives
  • Linked to course outcomes to allow for assessment
  • Simple, one sentence, common format
  • Simple better than complex
  • Should be specific and unambiguous
  • Relate to topic coverage

35
Learning Objectives
  • Preparing Learning Objectives
  • Session Objectives
  • At the end of the session, participants will
  • Write learning objectives for one or more courses
    that they teach
  • Describe themselves as more confident in their
    ability to describe quality learning objectives.

36
EC Program Outcomes
  • (a) an ability to apply knowledge of mathematics,
    science, and engineering
  • (b) an ability to design and conduct experiments,
    as well as to analyze and interpret data
  • (c) an ability to design a system, component, or
    process to meet desired needs
  • (d) an ability to function on multi-disciplinary
    teams
  • (e) an ability to identify, formulate, and solve
    engineering problems
  • (f) an understanding of professional and ethical
    responsibility
  • (g) an ability to communicate effectively
  • (h) the broad education necessary to understand
    the impact of engineering solutions in a global
    and societal context
  • (i) a recognition of the need for, and an ability
    to engage in life-long learning
  • (j) a knowledge of contemporary issues
  • (k) an ability to use the techniques, skills, and
    modern engineering tools necessary for
    engineering practice.

37
Blooms Taxonomy of Cognitive Learning
  • Knowledge defines, recalls, matches, reproduces
  • Comprehension explains, gives examples
  • Application discovering, assessing, computing
  • Analysis breaking down, organizing, inferring
  • Synthesis creating, putting together
  • Evaluation appraising, judging, selecting

Western Michigan University, 25 October 2002,
Kalamazoo, Michigan
38
Challenges in Engineering Education
  • Challenges
  • Challenge of lifelong learning
  • Challenge of problem solving
  • Challenge of engineering design
  • Challenge of transfer

39
LASSI SCALE ENGR111 (Mean) CVEN349 (Mean) Significance
Skill Component
Information Processing 60.68 60.29 0.930
Test Strategies 64.33 63.27 0.794
Selecting Main Ideas 55.18 59.29 0.342
Will Component
Anxiety 60.52 67.12 0.147
Attitude 42.47 34.56 0.080
Motivation 63.30 59.29 0.397
Self-regulation Component
Concentration 61.31 54.56 0.144
Self-testing 52.47 37.92 0.006
Study Aids 60.24 45.04 0.005
Time Management 55.23 47.65 0.134
40
Lifelong Learning at Penn State
Self-Directed Learning Readiness Survey (SDLRS),
Guglielmino Associates, http//www.guglielmino73
4.com/prod01.htm, March 2003. 27
Although the data suggest a slight upward upward
trend, the trend proved not to be statistically
significant based upon an analysis of variance
(ANOVA). Thus the cross-sectional study did not
find evidence of an increase in readiness for
self-directed learning, even for students in the
later semesters who are taking elective courses
and their capstone courses. Litzinger, T., Wise,
J., Lee, S., and Bjorklund, S. (2003) Assessing
Readiness for Self-directed Learning,
Proceedings, ASEE Annual Conference
41
Challenge of Problem Solving
  • Despite individual professors dedication and
    efforts to develop problem solving skill,
    general problem solving skill was not developed
    in the four years in our undergraduate program.
    Students graduated showing the same inability
    that they had when they started the program. Some
    could not create hypotheses some misread problem
    statements. During the four-year undergraduate
    engineering program studied, 1974-1978, the
    students had worked over 3000 homework problems,
    they had observed about 1000 sample solutions
    being worked on the board by either the teacher
    or by peers, and they had worked many open-ended
    problems. In other words, they showed no
    improvement in problem solving skills despite the
    best intentions of their instructors.

Woods, D. et al (1997) Developing Problem
Solving Skills The McMaster Problem Solving
Program, Journal of Engineering Education,
42
Challenge of Problem Solving
  • Ineffective approach 1. give the students
    open-ended problems to solve This, we now see,
    is ineffective because the students get little
    feedback about the process steps, they tend to
    reinforce bad habits, they do not know what
    processes they should be using and they resort to
    trying to collect sample solutions and match past
    memorized sample solutions to new problem
    situations.

43
Challenge of Problem Solving
  • Ineffective approach 2 Show them how you solve
    problems by working many problems on the board
    and handing out many sample solutions
  • This, we now see, is ineffective because teachers
    know too much. Teachers demonstrate "exercise
    solving". Teachers do not make mistakes they do
    not struggle to figure out what the problem
    really is. They work forwards not backwards from
    the goal. They do not demonstrate the "problem
    solving" process they demonstrate the "exercise
    solving" process. If they did demonstrate
    "problem solving" with all its mistakes and
    trials, the students would brand the teacher as
    incompetent. We know we tried!

44
Challenge of Problem Solving
  • Ineffective approach 3 Have students solve
    problems on the board
  • Different students use different approaches to
    solving problems what works for one won't work
    for others. When we used this method as a
    research tool, the students reported "we learned
    nothing to help us solve problems by watching
    Jim, Sue and Brad solve those problems!"

45
Challenge of Problem Solving
  • Through four research projects we identified why
    and how these and other teaching methods failed
    to develop process skills and which methods were
    successful in developing the skills
  • Woods, D.R., J.D. Wright, T.W. Hoffman, R.K.
    Swartman and I.D. Doig (1975) "Teaching Problem
    Solving Skills," Annals of Engineering Education,
    1, 1, 238-243.
  • Woods, D.R. et al. (1979) "Major Challenges to
    Teaching Problem Solving" Annals of Engineering
    Education, 70, No. 3 p. 277 to 284, 1979 and "56
    Challenges to Teaching Problem Solving" CHEM 13
    News no. 155 (1985).
  • Woods, D.R. (1993a) "Problem solving - where are
    we now?" J. College Science Teaching, 22,
    312-314.
  • Woods, D.R. (1993b) "Problem solving - what
    doesn't seem to work," J. College Science
    Teaching, 23, 57-58.
  • Woods, D.R. (1993c) "New Approaches for
    developing problem solving skills," J. College
    Science Teaching, 23, 157-158.

46
Challenge of Engineering Design
  • The literature is filled with positive comments
    from students, instructors, and industrial
    sponsors who have participated in capstone design
    courses. The vast majority of participants feel
    that the course benefited all involved.
  • The nature of capstone design courses, however,
    often leads to a purely subjective evaluation
    with little or no hard evidence of actual
    benefits. Born, for example, does not attempt to
    prove the value of senior level design courses.
    He simply states that he is convinced from his
    experiences that such courses are valuable. Other
    educators have similar feelings as to the
    relative costs and benefits of capstone design
    courses.

Dutson, A.J., Todd, R.H., Magleby, S.P.,
Sorensen, C.D., (1997) A Review of Literature on
Teaching Engineering Design Through
Project-Oriented Capstone Courses. Journal of
Engineering Education
47
Challenge of Transfer
  • Researches posed this problem to people.
  • "Suppose you are a doctor faced with a patient
    who has a malignant tumor in his stomach. It is
    impossible to operate on the patient, but unless
    the tumor is destroyed the patient will die.
    There is a kind of ray that can be used to
    destroy the tumor. If the rays reach the tumor
    all at once at a sufficiently high intensity, the
    tumor will be destroyed. Unfortunately, at this
    intensity the healthy tissue that the rays pass
    through on the way to the tumor will also be
    destroyed. At lower intensities the rays are
    harmless to healthy tissue, but they will not
    affect the tumor either. What type of procedure
    might be used to destroy the tumor with the rays,
    and at the same time avoid destroying the health
    tissue?"

48
Challenge of Transfer
  • Consider the following story
  • "A small country was ruled from a strong fortress
    by a dictator. The fortress was situated in the
    middle of the country, surrounded by farms and
    villages. Many roads led to the fortress through
    the countryside. A rebel general vowed to
    capture the fortress. The general knew that an
    attack by his entire army would capture the
    fortress. He gathered his army at the head of
    one of the roads, ready to launch a full-scale
    direct attack. However, the general then learned
    that the dictator had planted mines on each of
    the roads. The mines were set so that small
    bodies of men could pass over them safely, since
    the dictator need to move his troops and workers
    to and from the fortress. However, any large
    force would detonate the mines. Not only would
    this blow up the road, but it would also destroy
    many neighboring villages. It therefore seemed
    impossible to capture the fortress. However, the
    general devised a simple plan. He divided his
    army into small groups and dispatched each group
    to the head of a different road. When all was
    ready he gave the signal and each group marched
    down a different road. Each group continued down
    it road to the fortress at the same time. In
    this way, the general captured the fortress and
    overthrew the dictator."

49
Challenge of Transfer
  • After the subjects read and summarized this
    story, they were asked to solve the tumor problem
    under the guise of a separate experiment.
  • Given the clear analogy, you might think that
    performance would be near ceiling. Surprisingly,
    only 30 of the subjects offered a convergence
    solution.
  • Moreover, when these same subjects were given the
    suggestion that they should use the General
    story, 80 provided a convergence solution.
  • This finding demonstrates that half the subjects
    could apply the General story to the tumor
    problem when they were instructed to but did not
    do so on their own.

50
Focusing Activity (8 minutes)
  • INDIVIDUALLY use 3 minutes to write your
    description of learning, what it is, what it
    looks like, how you might recognize when it has
    occurred, etc.
  • AS A PAIR use 5 minutes to discuss descriptions
    with someone sitting next to you. If you have
    additional time, develop a consensus description
    of learning.

51
Focusing Activity
  • ??

52
Individual Exercise -- Writing Learning Objectives
  • Individually write a set of objectives for a
    topic representing a few classes
  • Something that you recently did in class
  • Follow your teams guidelines
  • Questions to consider about your objectives
  • Do they define student behavior?
  • Are they observable, measurable?
  • Can you write homework exam problems?
  • Are they consistent with the instructors intent?
  • Time 15 minutes

53
Team Exercise -- Reviewing Learning Objectives
  • Review each others objectives
  • Questions to consider in reviewing objectives
  • Do they follow your teams guidelines
  • Do they define student behavior?
  • Are they observable, measurable?
  • Can you write homework problems exam questions?
  • Are they consistent with the instructors intent?
  • 15 minutes

54
Individual Exercise -- Revising Your Learning
Objectives
  • Rewrite your learning objectives based on your
    teams review
  • Report on biggest improvement
  • 10 minutes

55
Biggest Improvement
  • Put quantifiable goals that students would
    achieve
  • Clarify my objectives
  • Classify learning objectives to go from basic to
    specific
  • Make a different level of objectives from whole
    course to chapter to each lecture
  • Make few higher level objective to organize
    multiple lower level objectives to support
  • Identify more complex goals and separate into
    simpler components for teaching communications
  • Improve clarity
  • Make more understandable to the student
  • Use proper verbiage to clarify

56
Minute Paper
  • Write a one-sentence answer to the following
    question
  • What is the muddiest point about learning
    objectives?
  • (What is the most confusing point?)

57
Muddiest Point
  • How to incorporate those that relate to attitude
    and enthusiasm for lifelong learning
  • Why do we spend time writing things that we do
    and we do best?
  • Answer to my question about the level and number
    of learning objectives that are appropriate for
    publication in my syllabus. Are there
    intermediate not published objectives?
  • How to relate a given objective to Blooms
    Taxonomy level, and how important is it to do so?
  • Ways of measuring each learning objective
  • How many objectives should be used level of
    detail then how do we practically measure them?
  • Being brief vs. Being precise and accurate
  • Being able to link objectives to larger program
    outcomes or goals
  • Organizing subject matter to achieve learning
    objectives

58
Team Exercise -- Reflection on Learning Objectives
  • Assume that you are a debate team
  • Write the single best pro and con arguments for
    the statement
  • Using learning objectives improves student
    leaning.

59
  • Classroom Assessment

60
Feedback on Learning Objectives
  • ??

61
Agenda
  • Background for classroom assessment
  • Specifications for assessment processes/tools
  • Team exercise develop a set of specifications
    for assessment processes/tools
  • Workshop exercise improve sets of specifications
    for assessment processes/tools
  • Generating alternatives for assessment
    processes/tools
  • Team exercises select some learning objectives
    and generate alternative assessment
    processes/tools
  • Background on alternatives for assessment
    processes/tools
  • Selecting assessment processes/tools
  • Individual exercise select a set of learning
    objectives and generate alternative assessment
    processes/tools
  • Individual exercise select one or more
    assessment processes/tools that you would use in
    your course
  • Team exercise share and review choices of
    assessment processes/tools
  • Review workshop activities

62
Classroom Assessment
  • Background for Classroom Assessment

Session Objective At the end of the session,
participants will describe themselves as more
confident in their ability to hold productive
conversations with their colleagues regarding the
place and importance of assessment instruments
and processes in the teaching-learning process
63
Pre-Assessment
  • Exercise
  • Classroom Assessment
  • Individual
  • Write a one-sentence answer to the following
    question
  • What can you do in the last few minutes of class
    to determine how well your class learned what you
    taught that day?

64
Classroom Assessment
  • At end of session, participants will be able to
  • Define several classroom assessment tools
  • Discuss the importance of using classroom tools
    in the teaching-learning process
  • Write assessment tools for their classes

65
Resources on the Web
  • www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
    uidebk/teachtip/assess-1.htm
  • www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
    uidebk/teachtip/assess-2.htm
  • www.siue.edu/deder/assess/catmain.html

66
Types Of Assessment
  • Assessment
  • Used in many contexts
  • Used for several different foci
  • Classroom
  • Teacher focus concerns your performance
  • Student focus concerns their individual
    performances
  • Program
  • Alumni (as a group) focus ABET Criterion 2
  • Graduates (as a group) focus ABET Criterion 3
  • Individual graduate focus Comprehensive exams

67
Types Of Assessment
  • Classroom, teacher focus
  • Question -- How effective was a lecture,
    assignment, lab?
  • Tools -- One-minute paper, student survey
  • Classroom, student focus
  • Question Did a specific student achieve the
    learning objectives?
  • Tools -- Exams, reports, presentation
  • Program, graduates (as a group) focus
  • Question -- How well did a group of students
    achieve a set of objectives (outcomes) in a
    program or course?
  • Tools -- Standardized tests, design project
    report analysis

68
Classroom Assessment
  • Two fundamental questions
  • How well are learners learning?
  • How effectively are teachers teaching?
  • Deals with better learning and more effective
    teaching
  • Provides feedback about effectiveness as teachers
  • How students learn
  • How they respond to particular teaching
    approaches.
  • Gives students a measure of their progress as
    learners

Modified from www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committe
es/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/assess-1.htm
69
Incorrect Assumptions About Teaching Learning
  • Instructors assume students learn what they teach
  • Tests, concept inventories, and term papers
    provide disappointing evidence to the contrary
  • Students have not learned as much or as well as
    expected
  • Gaps between what was taught and what was learned
  • Sometimes considerable gaps
  • Instructors notice gaps too late to remedy the
    problems
  • Classroom assessment can uncover gaps earlier

www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
uidebk/teachtip/assess-1.htm
70
Classroom Assessment Getting Started
  • Planning
  • Select one, and only one, of your classes
  • Choose a simple and quick technique
  • Implementing
  • Make sure the students understand the procedure
  • Analyze students responses as soon as possible
  • Responding -- Close the feedback loop
  • Tell students what you learned and what you will
    do about it - motivates students to become
    actively involved

www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
uidebk/teachtip/assess-1.htm
71
Classroom Assessment Five Suggestions
  • Dont use any technique that does not appeal to
    you
  • Don't make it into a self-inflicted chore or
    burden.
  • Try it yourself before you use it with students
  • Allow more time than you think you will need
  • To carry out the assessment
  • To respond to it
  • Make sure to "close the loop"
  • Let students know
  • What you learned from their feedback
  • How you and they can use that information to
    improve learning

www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
uidebk/teachtip/assess-1.htm
72
Team Exercise
  • Process
  • Brain storm individually -- 1 minutes
  • Establish consensus as a team -- 4 minutes
  • Task Write 2 to 4 guidelines for good classroom
    assessment tools (Think of guidelines as
    specifications)
  • What are the common features?
  • What should they look like?
  • Do all guidelines have to apply to all tools?

73
Team Exercise
  • Tool should be efficient use of time for
    instructor and class
  • Easy for students to use
  • Can be used across different classes and
    situations
  • Built into teaching methodology and doesnt look
    like an add-on
  • Tied to learning objectives or limited number of
    topics
  • Flexible, not dependent on particular technology
  • Done repeatedly throughout semester
  • Easy for faculty to administer and evaluate
  • Self-documenting, easy to show results to others
  • Clear and precise instructions

74
Team Exercise
  • Process
  • Brain storm individually -- 2 minutes
  • Generate different ideas as a team -- 3 minutes
  • Task Generate as many possible good classroom
    assessment tools that might satisfy your team
    guidelines
  • Generate different ideas

75
Team Exercise
  • Muddiest point
  • Quizzes on specific objectives
  • What is clear?/What is unclear?
  • What did you learn today?
  • Strengths/Improvements/Insights (SII)
  • Self or peer assessment
  • Who did you share X with today?
  • Weekly feedback on homework instruction what
    was clear? What was unclear?
  • Continuous Improvement What was beneficial?
    What would you change?

76
Team Exercise
  • Process
  • Brain storm individually -- 2 minutes
  • Generate different ideas as a team -- 3 minutes
  • Task Generate as many possible good classroom
    assessment tools where the student work product
    is primarily graphical and the tools might
    satisfy your team guidelines
  • Generate different ideas

77
Team Exercise
  • List topics with smiling/frowning faces
  • Flow charts/flow sheets
  • Process flow of your problem solving process
  • Road map to get from A to B
  • Bar graph of confidence related to specific
    objective
  • Free body diagram
  • Web of association to a particular term
  • Story board of set up or explanation of
    particular concept
  • Fit concept into network or tree of concepts
  • Draw a concept

78
Examples of Assessment Techniques
  • Background Knowledge Probe
  • Students respond to short-answers or
    multiple-choice questions
  • General information on their level of preparation
  • Minute Paper (most widely used)
  • Students write brief response to
  • "What was the most important thing you learned
    during this class?"
  • What important question remains unanswered?

www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
uidebk/teachtip/assess-2.htm
79
Examples of Assessment Techniques (Cont.)
  • Muddiest Point (simplest technique, remarkably
    efficient)
  • Students jot down a quick response to one
  • "What was the muddiest point in ....... ?
  • A lecture, a discussion, a homework assignment
  • One-Sentence Summary
  • Students answer the questions "Who does what to
    whom, when, where, how, and why?" (WDWWWWHW)
  • Synthesize answers into a simple, informative,
    grammatical sentence.

www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
uidebk/teachtip/assess-2.htm
80
Examples of Assessment Techniques (Cont.)
  • What's the Principle?
  • Students state the principle that best applies to
    a few problems

www.hcc.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/g
uidebk/teachtip/assess-2.htm
81
Concept Map
  • A concept map is a set of nodes that represent
    concepts connected by a labeled links that
    describe a link between concepts.

Concept A
Describe how concept A and concept B are related?
Concept B
82
Team Exercise Building a Concept Map
  • Start with a subset of the concepts on the
    following page and construct a concept map that
    shows the concepts you have selected and how they
    are related.
  • Exchange concept maps and share insights

83
Feedback Derivative Finite Element
Analysis Integral Linear Momentum Angular
Momentum Energy Interest Mass Ideal Gas
Law Ficks First Law Ficks Second Law Vectors
Dot Product Vectors Cross Product Ordinary
Differential Equations Kirchoffs Voltage
Law Second Law of Thermodynamics Kirchoffs
Current Law Modeling Problem-Solving Force Ohms
Law Resistance Complex Numbers Logarithmic
Function Electric Flux Decision
Theory Divergence Indirect Cost Capacitance Bendin
g Moment Feedback
First Law of Thermodynamics Entropy Heat Electric
Field Magnetic Field Partial Differential
Equations Determinants Return on
Investment Phasors Brainstorming Exponential
Function Conductivity Chemical Kinetics Specific
Heat Elasticity Malleability Plasticity Resiliency
Permittivity Current Electric Potential Curl Pres
entation Skills Democracy Profit Density Molecule
Phase Shear Rheology Frequency
Response Eigenvalue, Eigenvector
Sinusoidal Functions Work Displacement Velocity Ac
celeration Resistivity Leadership Hess
Law Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Electric
Potential Magnetic Flux Design Maxwells
Equations Power Ductility Spring
Constant Stress Strain Partial Derivative Permeabi
lity Charge Magnetic Potential Gradient Paragraph
Rate of Return Frequency Atom Root
Locus Torque Inductance Torsion Polymer Kinetic
Theory of Gases
84
Cowans Teaching Examples
  • Bridge design
  • Design and build two different bridges and grade
    on the lower performance design
  • Problem-solving script
  • Illustrate script for one type of problem, ask
    students to develop a script for another type of
    problem

Cowan, J. (1998) On Becoming an Innovative
University Teacher Reflection in Action.
Buckingham SRHE and Open University Press.
85
  • Some Personal Observations

86
Relating Student Performance On Exams To
Objectives
  • Write exam using objectives
  • Select objectives for exam questions from list
  • Many objectives -- test questions represent a
    sample
  • Exam question may involve more than one objective
  • Use some hard and some easy questions
  • Identify questions ( objectives) a high
    percentage missed
  • Review idea in class -- give additional work
  • Modify lecture, reading, or homework for future
  • Change the objective

87
Using Cooperative Learning In-class Exercises
  • Examine students work during the in-class
    exercise
  • If all have a good approach -- may be wasting
    time
  • If all are lost -- may need more explanation
  • If one-half to two-thirds have a good approach --
    level and pace are right
  • Collect and show a few solutions to in-class
    exercises
  • If all have correct approach -- may be wasting
    time
  • If all are wrong -- may need more explanation
  • If one or two are correct -- level and pace are
    right

88
One-Minute Papers
  • Common questions
  • What one thing should be changed about ____?
  • What one thing should not be changed about ____?
  • What do you think about ____?
  • What is the muddiest point about ____ ?
  • Ask about
  • Course or lecture
  • Text or chapter
  • Assignment or test
  • Teaching style or class activity

89
Some Colleagues Observations
90
Informal Assessment Techniques
  • General Guidelines
  • Keep them anonymous
  • Use then frequently better feedback
  • Close the loop
  • Let students know results of the process
  • David Cordes

91
Informal Assessment Techniques - Daily Activities
  • One-minute paper
  • At the end of the lecture, ask students for
  • The most important topic that we covered today
  • The one topic you are still confused about
  • Single sheet of paper, no names
  • Can read on the way back to the office
  • Look for common problems
  • Look for did they understand my focus?
  • David Cordes

92
ME 360 - Plus / Delta Assessment 1
  • On one side of sticky pad
  • Put a in upper left hand corner
  • What is something that worked well or made more
    sense in lab this week?
  • On other side of sticky pad
  • Put a D in upper left hand corner
  • What is something that could have been done
    better in lab this week?
  • Stick on the door on your way out
  • Joey Parker

93
ME 372 - 1st Day of Class
  • What are a valid set of units for a mass moment
    of inertia? (Dynamics concept)
  • What is the difference between a capacitor and a
    resistor? (Circuits concept)
  • What is the equation of the straight line that
    passes through the points X2, Y7 and X7, Y2?
    (Math concept)
  • Joey Parker

94
Team Exercise
  • Process
  • Brain storm individually -- 2 minutes
  • Establish consensus as a team -- 5 minutes
  • Report team results -- 3 minutes
  • Revise products as a team -- 2 minutes
  • Task Write 3 to 5 guidelines for good classroom
    assessment tools (Think of guidelines as
    specifications)
  • What are the common features?
  • What should they look like?
  • Do all guidelines have to apply to all tools?

95
Team Exercise
  • Simple, quick, easy to administer and evaluate
  • Provide immediate feedback to students they
    need to know youre using the results
  • Tied to a specific topic or objective
  • Gives usable, valuable information
  • Identification of strengths and areas of
    improvement
  • Give clear and precise instruction to the student
  • Using graphical and textual feedback
  • Result in action

96
Team Exercise
  • Process
  • Brain storm individually -- 2 minutes
  • Establish consensus as a team -- 5 minutes
  • Report team results -- 3 minutes
  • Revise products as a team -- 2 minutes
  • Task Generate as many possible good classroom
    assessment tools that might satisfy your team
    guidelines
  • Generate different ideas that you have generated
    or have seen

97
Team Exercise
  • Ask students to identify an application based on
    concept presented in class
  • Person A teaches Person B, and then they write
    what was hard to convey and what was hard to
    learn
  • Identify an objective for class and rate their
    comfort level with number or bar graph
  • Ask student to give example to transfer example
    in class to another context
  • Students examine 2-3 methods/opinions/processes
    for similar purposes, ask groups to analyze
    similarities and differences, solicit results,
    and then invent their own that combines
    methods/opinions/processes
  • Ask students to identify concept based on a
    diagram.
  • Ask students to write problem that could be
    solved by concept presented in class

98
Individual Exercise
  • Individually write a set of assessment tools for
    a class or a topic representing a few classes
  • Follow your guidelines
  • Consider the following questions about your tool
  • Can your students understand the task?
  • Can your students do the task quickly?
  • Can you analyze the results quickly?
  • Can you summarize and report the results easily?
  • Does it assess student learning?
  • 5 minutes

99
Team Exercise
  • Review each others objectives and assessment
    tools
  • Consider the following questions
  • Does the tool follow your guidelines?
  • Can your students understand the task?
  • Can your students do the task quickly?
  • Can you analyze the results quickly?
  • Can you summarize and report the results easily?
  • Does it assess student learning?
  • 15 minutes

100
Individual Exercise
  • Rewrite your assessment tools based on your
    teams review
  • Identify the major improvement
  • 5 minutes

101
Minute Paper
  • Write a one-sentence answer to the following
    question
  • What is the muddiest point about classroom
    assessment?

102
Individual Exercise
  • How can students be more involved in assessing
    each other, as well as the self-assessment we
    have largely concentrated on, and do this in
    reasonable time.
  • How often is a reasonable amount of assessment?
    How much is too much?
  • Going from creating an assessment tool to
    actually implementing the assessment.
  • Incorporation of feedback will not be every time
    easy and straight forward
  • Will students see the value of classroom
    assessment? Yes, with good approaches. Yes, with
    good feedback.
  • Being able to design a clear, concise assessment
    tool that is both beneficial to students and
    professor

103
Team Exercise
  • Assume that you are a debate team
  • Write the single best pro and con arguments for
    the statement
  • Using classroom assessment tools improves
    student learning.

104
Workshop Objectives Action Items
  • Recall objectives
  • At end of session, participants will be able to
    define, discuss, write
  • Learning objectives for their courses
  • Assessment tools for their classes
  • Workshop provided a structure for experience in
    writing
  • Learning objectives
  • Assessment tools
  • Your charge In one of your courses next
    semester use
  • Learning objectives
  • Classroom assessment tools

105
  • Questions?

106
  • Some Personal Observations
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