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Title: introduction to basins


1
BASINS Better Assessment Science Integrating
point and Non-point Sources Tools for Watershed
and Water Quality Assessment
GISHydro99 1999 ESRI User Conference
Andrew T. Battin U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency Office of Water
2
Mission of EPAs Office of Science and Technology
  • Mission Highlights
  • To provide technical assistance and support to
    the Agencys Effluent Guidelines and to the Water
    Quality Criteria and Standards Program
  • To develop guidance on specific water quality
    issues
  • Develop methods, models, procedures to support
    nationwide watershed studies

Problem Solving and Technical Tools
3
BASINS Development Team
  • EPA
  • Russell Kinerson
  • Andrew Battin
  • Bill Tate
  • Paul Cocca
  • Marjorie Wellman
  • Aqua Terra Consultants
  • Tetra Tech Inc.
  • USDA ARS Texas AM (Blacklands Research Center)
  • Mimi Dannel
  • Ed Partington
  • Hira Biswas
  • Bryan Goodwin
  • David Wells

4
Examples of Watershed Management Programs
Supported by EPA
  • Water quality assessment and analysis
  • Watershed management
  • Source water protection
  • TMDL program

Varying problems - similar approaches
5
Commonalities of Watershed Management Programs
  • Characterization understand the big picture.
    What is contained with the watershed? What are
    the activities, uses, sources, and resources?
  • Source identification what potential sources
    are within the watershed? Identify location and
    spatial distribution, potential magnitude of
    loading/stress, location/type of impacted
    resources.

1
2
6
Commonalities of Watershed Management Programs
  • Develop and evaluate management alternatives
    taking action requires an evaluation of the
    alternatives, consideration of the benefit/cost.
    Analysis considers what, where and how to
    control/manage pollutants/stressors.
  • Communicate watershed information to the public
    present, describe, teach, and summarize
    environmental information and actions for the
    public stakeholders.

3
4
7
The Clean Water Act and TMDLs
  • Goal of CWA
  • Ensure that the Nations waters protect aquatic
    life, wildlife and human health
  • Tools
  • TMDLs are one of many tools authorized by the CWA
    to implement applicable water quality standards
  • Primary CWA Tool
  • NPDES permits for point sources - Nonpoint
    sources are not subject to NPDES permits
  • NPDES Permits
  • Contain effluent limits on pollution discharged,
    including water quality-based effluent limits
    when necessary to achieve water quality standards

8
303(d) List of Waters
  • Each state shall assemble and evaluate all
    existing and readily available water quality data
    and information to develop the Section 303(d)
    list of waters.
  • Each state shall identify those water
    quality-limited segments requiring TMDLs.
  • Water quality-limited segment
  • Any segment where it is known that water quality
    does not meet applicable WQS, even after the
    application of effluent limits by the CWA.

9
303 (d) Summary of Key Points
  • List includes only those waters where
    technology-based limitations or other required
    actions are not expected to implement WQS.
  • List is based on existing and readily available
    data.
  • List is dynamic and changes over time to reflect
    new information, current practices, and new
    control activities.
  • Prioritization is not necessarily by waterbody,
    but can be prioritized by class (e.g., type of
    pollutant).

10
The TMDL Program
TMDL ? WLAi ? LAi MOS
? WLAi Sum of waste loads (point sources)
? LAi Sum of loads (non point sources)
MOS Margin Of Safety
11
Problem Statement 1Point Source
Criteria/standard
(Allowable Capacity)
C mg/l
Cb
Impaired reach
Miles
P1
12
Problem Statement 2 Non-point Source
13
The TMDL Program
  • Five key steps for TMDL development
  • Problem statement
  • Definition of endpoint
  • Source identification
  • Linkage between source and receiving water
  • AllocationAnalytical tools can be used to
    support each step of the TMDL process

14
Analytical Needs to Support Water Quality
Management Programs
  • Monitoring data
  • Represents condition of system
  • Provides the backbone for most analysis and
    modeling
  • Spatial/locational data
  • Point sources, highly erodible areas,
    construction areas...
  • Statistical analysis and mapping tools
  • Water quality trends, waterbody comparisons,
    proximity of impaired water quality to potential
    sources
  • Assessment and modeling tools
  • What are the relative contributions of the
    various pollution sources?
  • What will happen if we develop the watershed?
  • How can we evaluate planning and
    managementalternatives?

15
Analytical Needs (cont.)
  • Spatial analysis capabilities
  • Ability to relate causes and effects through
    mapping/overlays
  • Compilation, management, and facilitated access
    to historical data
  • Trend in land use changes, point source loadings,
    monitoring
  • Population growth - how much? Where? ...
  • Source characterization and quantification
  • Inventory of sources
  • Magnitude and significance of sources
  • Prediction of future conditions and implications
    of management
  • What is the best solution to meet objectives and
    regulatory requirements?

16
Watershed
Small Area Studies
Land Use Units
Rivers/Streams
Subwatersheds
Sub 1
Urb
Sub 2
Urban landuse with BMPs
Sub 3
Ag
Sub 4
Receiving Water
Rural landuses with BMPs
Sub 5
17
BASINS V2.0 System Overview
Nationally Available Data Base Cartographic Da
ta Environmental Background Data Environmental
Monitoring Data Point
Source/Loadings Data
  • Models
  • HSPF - NPSM
  • QUAL2E
  • TOXIROUTE

Assessment Tools Target Assess Data
Mining Watershed Reporting
Target
Assess
DM
Decision-Making Analysis Watershed
Management . TMDLs . Source Water
Protection . Stormwater
State and Local Data
18
Overview of BASINS Data Products
19
GIS DataData Categories
  • Base Cartographic Data
  • Environmental Data

20
Base Cartographic Data
  • Definition
  • Data that enhances the ability to interpret maps
    by providing a known frame of reference
  • Examples
  • EPA regional boundaries
  • Major roads
  • Populated place locations
  • State and county boundaries
  • Urbanized area boundaries

21
BASINS Environmental Data
  • Data capturing information on spatial and
    temporal changes in environmental conditions

GIS
Physical Data (Landscape Features)
Monitoring Data (Environmental Response)
Pollution Sources (Environmental Stressors)
22
BASINS Data ProductsEnvironmental Data
  • Pollution sources
  • Permitted dischargers (PCS)
  • Toxic Release Inventory sites (TRI)
  • Industrial Facility Dischargers (IFD)
  • Mineral Industry Locations
  • Superfund sites (NPL)
  • Land Use/ Land Cover
  • Population centers


GIS

Landscape


Sources
Monitoring
23
BASINS Data ProductsEnvironmental Data
  • Physical landscape features
  • USGS Watershed boundaries
  • RF1 and RF3 Stream networks
  • Land Use/ Land Cover
  • Elevation (DEM)
  • Dam locations
  • Soil characteristics


GIS

Landscape


Sources
Monitoring
24
BASINS Data ProductsEnvironmental Data
  • Environmental monitoring
  • Water Quality station summaries (STORET)
  • Bacteria station summaries (STORET)
  • Water Quality Observation Data
  • National Sediment Inventory (NSI)
  • USGS Stream flow (gaging stations)
  • Fish and Wildlife Advisories
  • Shellfish Contamination Inventory
  • Clean Water Needs Survey
  • Meteorological (477 station locations)


GIS

Landscape


Sources
Monitoring
25
Meteorological Data in BASINS
26
BASINS Assessment Tools
27
BASINS Project View
28
Types of Tools Included in BASINS(3 Categories
of Tools)
  • Spatial analysis and overlays (GIS capability)
  • Facilitate examination of multiple types of
    information
  • Access to full functionality of ArcView
  • BASINS custom suite of integrated tools
  • Targeting
  • Assessment
  • Data Mining
  • Watershed Reporting
  • BASINS utilities
  • Import new or local data sets (watersheds,
    landuse)
  • Re-classify landuse, DEM
  • Watershed Delineation

29
Custom Tools included with BASINS
  • Target Provides broad-based evaluation of
    watershed water quality and point source
    loadings.
  • Assess Watershed-based evaluation of specific
    water quality stations and/or dischargers and
    their proximity to waterbodies.
  • Data Mining Dynamic link of data elements using
    a combination of tables and maps. Allows for
    visual interpretation of geographic and
    historical data.
  • Watershed Reporting Automated summary report
    system. Allows users to select types of
    information to be included. Automated generation
    of associated graphics and tables.

Regional Level
Watershed Level
Station Level
30
Target
Overall summary of monitoring data
Select Target option from menu
Ranking of watershed
Distribution of monitoring data by CU
31
Assess
Distribution of monitoring stations by CU
Select Assess option from menu
Average condition for selected pollutant by CU
Station summaries for selected pollutant
32
Data Mining
Spatial distribution of monitoring stations
WQ stations
WQ parameter and code
WQ summaries
33
BASINS Custom Tool Watershed Report
  • Information available
  • Administrative and locational report
  • Point source discharge summary
  • Dam locations
  • State soil series data
  • Land use summary
  • Stream system inventory
  • Toxics (NSI, TRI)
  • STORET water quality monitoring

34
An Example of Watershed Report
35
BASINS Utility Tool Import
  • The import tool gives users the capability to add
    their own data into the BASINS system
  • Watershed boundaries (8-digit or smaller)
  • Landuse
  • Stream Networks
  • Elevation (DEM) Polygons
  • Water Quality Observation Data

36
BASINS Utility Tool Landuse Re-classification
  • Users can re-classify part of the landuse theme
    or the entire theme interactively
  • Users can re-classify their imported landuse data
  • Re-classification to various levels of detail
  • Anderson Level 1 to Level 2
  • Create more detailed levels
  • Weigh the potential significance of land use
    changes on water quality

37
BASINS Utility Tool Watershed Delineation
  • Allows users to interactively subdivide a USGS
    8-digit watershed into smaller sub-watersheds
    using mouse point-and-click inputs.
  • Sub-delineated watersheds and underlying data are
    then available for more detailed modeling.
  • It provides capability to modify the previous
    delineations.

38
An Example of Delineated Watersheds using DEM,
RF3, and RF1
39
Modeling Process
Need to plan ahead and follow a structured
modeling plan
40
Modeling Strategy
  • Need to define a suitable level of segmentation

41
Overview of Model Categories
  • Landscape models
  • Runoff of water and dissolved materials on and
    through the land surface
  • Erosion of sediment, and associated constituents,
    from the land surface
  • Receiving water models
  • Flow of water through streams, into lakes and
    estuaries
  • Transport, deposition, and transformation in
    receiving waters

42
BASINS Modeling System
  • NPSM (HSPF v11)
  • Integration of Point and Non-Point Source
    Modeling
  • Instream flow routing and water quality
  • Specialized agricultural chemical modeling
  • Pesticides
  • Nutrients
  • Other Chemicals
  • Metals
  • BOD/DO
  • Pathogens
  • Sediment
  • Air Deposition (under development)
  • Continuous hydrologic simulation - Hourly time
    step

43
How NPSM fits into BASINS
44
NPSM Interface - Data Editor
45
NPSM Landuse Editor
46
NPSM Pollutant Selection
47
RF3 Watershed Delineation
48
RF3 Watershed Delineation
49
Nonpoint Source Modeling with RF3 Network
50
Reach Visualization Tool
51
Reach Visualization Tool
52
Reach Cross Section Visualization
53
Hydraulic Function Table Graph
54
Interpretation of Modeling Results for Better
Decisions
  • Graphing Capabilities
  • Spatial and temporal representation of data
  • Analysis of magnitude and significance of sources
  • Model calibration (observed vs. modeled)
  • Statistical Functions
  • Graphical representation of geometric and
    arithmetic means
  • Statistics related to exceedances of a
    user-defined limit
  • Comparative analysis
  • Evaluation of various management alternatives
  • Developing Allocation Scenarios
  • Consensus building with stakeholders

55
Graphing CapabilitiesAn example of Calibration
User-defined x- and y- axis scales
NPSM output
USGS data

Selected plot
56
Statistical Functions Related to Threshold
Exceedances
Plot of geometric or arithmetic mean
Selected statistical function
Table of exceedance information
User-defined step length
and exceedance limit
57
Comparative AnalysisFor developing Allocation
Scenarios
Output from 1st simulation
Load reduction for selected landuse
Output from 2nd simulation

58
BASINS Models continued
  • QUAL2E
  • Low flow euthrophication modeling
  • Point source impact evaluation
  • BOD/DO, nutrients, bacteria
  • Steady State/Dynamic water quality modeling
  • Spatial representation of chemical concentrations
    in the stream

59
QUAL2E Output
60
Future Directions - System
  • Redesign of System
  • Lifecycle Development - System, Data, Models,
    etc.
  • DBMS
  • Formalized Database Management Scheme -
    maintainable, updateable, and reusable
  • Default Data - physiographic and other hydrologic
    data
  • Management of all spatial and non-spatial data
  • Away from flat files, towards RDBMS and in some
    instances ODBMS

61
Future Directions - Tools
  • Pursuit of a client/server architecture
  • Partitioning of labor
  • Component-based approach on the client
  • Development of discrete tools that can be
    extended
  • Modular and maintainable software construction
  • Emphasis on Better Data Management and Reuse
  • Build capacity to address long term needs
  • Minimize effects of employee turnover and
    learning curve
  • Move modeling investigations towards a
    production environment

62
Future Directions - New Models
  • Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)
  • Modified Version of Generalized Watershed Loading
    Function (GWLF) Model
  • Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) Model

63
Future Directions Standardized Data Interchange
Spatial Data Preprocessing
GIS Tools
  • Watershed Delineation
  • Reach Network
  • Soils Extraction
  • Land Cover Extraction
  • Other (physical aspect, slope)
  • Meteorologic

64
Future DirectionsStandardized Output Processing
  • Time series analysis
  • Source significance
  • Investigate alternatives
  • Comparative analysis

65
SWAT Main Interface
66
Primary Watershed and Reach Delineation Tool
Specify DEM Source
Superimpose RF-x Layer
Threshold to control drainage density
Modify sub-watershed outlets
Derive spatial attributes required for modeling!
67
Results from Sample Watershed Delineation
68
Sample Land Cover
69
Sample STATSGO Soil Polygons
70
Interface to SWAT model populated automatically
71
Add Point Sources Reservoirs
72
Define Landuse and Soil Characteristics
73
GWLF
  • Based on the original model by Haith, D., Mandel,
    R., and Wu, R. (Cornell, 1992).
  • Represents an intermediate step to continuous
    simulation watershed models like HSPF and SWAT.
  • Being modified to simulate loadings of bacteria,
    in addition to flow, sediment, and nutrients.

74
GWLF Tool Features
  • Model being rewritten in Java (Javabeans).
  • Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) to
    manage all data.
  • Postprocessor to visualize model outputs in
    several different presentation styles.
  • Model GUI will allow user to enter project
    related information.
  • Automated report generation tool (inputs,
    results, scenarios, comparative results and
    discussion points).

75
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76
EFDC Toolkit Basic Goals
  • Create a suite of tools to facilitate
    multi-dimensional hydrodynamic water quality
    modeling analyses.
  • Minimize labor intensive activities.
  • Reinforce good modeling practice.
  • Provide a robust data management scheme to
    maximize the reuse and sharing of data.
  • Facilitate team approach to modeling
    investigations.

77
EFDC Toolkit Features
  • Open client/server architecture.
  • GIS neutral.
  • Targeted to MS WindowsR and NTR .
  • Component-based architecture (Java Swing).
  • GUI for grid generator and interface to EFDC.
  • Post-processor for visualizing model output.
  • RDBMS to manage all aspects of model input data -
    eventually to be migrated to open ODBMS.
  • Model-to-Model linkages (HSPF -gt EFDC).

78
EFDC Toolkit
  • Three principal components
  • GUI interface to EFDC grid generator to setup
    physical domain
  • GUI interface to EFDC model
  • Visualization tool

79
EFDC Toolkit
80
Data Shoreline Import facility
81
Grid Specification
82
Generated Cartesian Grid Scheme
83
Imported Bathymetric Data and Editing
84
Processed Bathymetric Data
85
Final Grid Scheme Exported to Text File
86
Conclusion
  • We need to promote better tool organization and
    reusability, component interchange, and
    standardized data exchange formats.
  • Strive for open client/server, component-based
    architectures.
  • RDBMS to manage all aspects of model input data -
    eventually to be migrated to open ODBMS.
  • Model-to-Model linkages (HSPF -gt EFDC).
  • Move modeling towards a more industrialized
    process while maintaining quality of analyses.

87
www.epa.gov/ost/BASINS
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